I. Introduction: Endocrine Glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood; controlled by the Hypothalamus.
A. Pituitary = Hypophysis:
1. Adenohypophysis =
Growth hormone (GH) - regulates mitosis & growth of body cells
b. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) -
c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - controls activity of adrenal cortex
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) -
Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Stimulates release of male & female sex hormones
f. Prolactin (PRL) –
Melanocyte releasing hormone (MSH)
2. Neurohypophysis = Posterior Lobe = Posterior Pituitary:
Oxytocin – i. causes uterine contractions during
labor and milk release during suckling.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, Vasopressin) -
B. Thyroid: bilobed, just below larynx.
Thyroid Hormone (TH) - it increases cellular activity in skeletal,
2. Calcitonin - is released in response to increased blood calcium levels.
C. Parathyroids: 4 masses on back of thyroid. They release parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to low calcium levels.
D. Pancreas: Hormones are secreted from Pancreatic Islets
Beta Cells: secrete Insulin in response to high levels of glucose.
Alpha Cells: secrete Glucagon in response to low levels of glucose.
E. Adrenal gland: atop kidneys; 2 areas: Cortex and Medulla
1. Cortex - secretes steroids = Corticosteroids (in response to ACTH); 3 types
Gonadocorticoids – produces sex hormones (normally very little of Estrogen,
Progesterone, and Testosterone)
Medulla - secretes Epinephrine (adrenaline) & Norepinephrine
Testes - testosterone
Ovaries - estrogen & progesterone
G. Thymus: bilobed;
located at tracheal bifurcation. The thymus secretes Thymosin,
Which of the following hormones is
responsible for sodium and potassium balance?
c. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
e. Thyroid hormone (TH)