Unit 15 Global Hip-Hop 

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INTRODUCTION

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9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17

18 19 20
 
 
 
 

ARTISTS

BULLETIN BOARD

COURSE INFO

GLOSSARY

IMAGES

LINKS

PERSPECTIVES

SONGS

TIMELINE

URAP

RAP MUSIC HOME



ANY PROBLEMS?

"When the groups in Holland started rapping, most guys were copying the 
American rappers. Nowdays they rap in their own language and about Dutch 
things.  They use samples from European classical and folk music. Thatís
how we developed our own hip-hop style, Nederhop" Def P
UNIT 15 OBJECTIVE: How has hip-hop culture and music influenced new
forms of youth expression throughout the world? How do we discuss
notions of cross-cultural artistic (re)production?
LECTURE TOPICS:
HIP-HOP CULTURE AND POPULAR MUSIC AROUND THE WORLD
Hip-hop messages and sounds 
Border-crossings and blendings of cultural products
PROCESSES OF MUSICAL PRODUCTION
Imitation
Reinterpretation
Transformation
Recycling 
SAMPLES FROM AROUND THE WORLD
Key Terms
imitation
recycling process
reinterpretation
transformation
   
HIP-HOP CULTURE AND POPULAR MUSIC AROUND THE WORLD
Hip-hop messages and sounds
African-American popular music of the post World War II era has been 
a major influence on the international musical landscape. This 
influence has escalated to unparalleled heights with the emergence 
of hip-hip. Since 1990, hip-hop has become the national anthem of 
youth throughout the world. James Bernard, writer for The New York 
Times noted in 1992 that: 
rap's emphasis on rhythm makes it easy to export. It is catchy,
visceral, danceable. Where pop songs offer solutions from an increasingly
perplexing world, rap engages it. Its beats are up front and impolite,
not content to be mere background music. Rap embraces chaos as art: complex
drumbeats stagger and stutter, punctuated by dissonant samples using everything
from James Brown to obscure jazz to television commercials, the mix held
together by a steady stream of intricate wordplay. ...For the young, rap's
immediacy provides a bunker against feeling overwhelmed or lost in a world
undergoing rapid change.
Throughout the world hip-hop is heard in concert halls, clubs, radio stations,
television music stations, Hollywood soundtracks, and television shows.
Hip-hop's associated image, symbols, fashions, and paraphernalia grace
the covers of popular magazines and are central to advertising campaigns
as well as other popular culture spaces in American and throughout the
world.
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Border-crossings and blendings of cultural products
The border crossings and blendings of cultural products produce both
new interpretations of tradition and the creation of new musical styles. 

This process of cross-fertilization has been codified in various 
disciplines as "diffusion, "creolization," "syncretism" or 
"hybridization," "transculturalism," "transnationalism", 
"globalization" and has been applied to musical productions.

The process of globalization has been described as the movement of music 
through various stages where components of the original form are 
negotiated and revised in ways that reflect the values and traditions of
the appropriating culture.

Processes of Musical Production

  
 
Imitation
"At first, a band may try and imitate exactly the music that
comes from abroad." (James Lull)

Sociologist James Lull describes the process of musical production
in global spaces when it moves through various stages to become a
new creation.

Imitation denotes the intent to reproduce foreign models. It involves 
constructing the foreign model based on a perception 
about the music. Given cultural, aesthetic, musical, and language 
differences, the final product often reflects the sensibilities, cultural 
values, and musical perspectives of the appropriating culture.
Gospel
Richard Smallwood "Jesus You're the Center of My Joy" (1993)
Dutch Mass Combined Choir "Jesus You're the Center of My Joy" (2001)
Hip Hop
Funky Fresh Force "We Are"(1986) Clip 1 Clip 2
Funky Fresh Force "Amsterdam" (1988) 
Public Enemy "Contract On The World Love Jam" (1990) 
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Reinterpretation

"But in a short period of time the tendency is to incorporate the
new material into their own cultural experience rather than try to
create something culturally unfamiliar." (James Lull)

Reinterpretation is the process of localizing foreign musical
styles by introducing and intertwining new resources, cultural 
values, and familiar musical elements with those from foreign 
sources. The resulting style is distinguished from the original 
version by varying degrees of cultural fusion (Maultsby) that 
James Lull labels "hybridization".

However, in the U.S., hybridization rarely occurs. The final product 
does not go beyond reinterpretation.

Reinterpretation of Rhythm and Blues as "pop" cover versions 
in the 1950s:
The Moonglows "Sincerely" (1955)
The McGuire Sisters "Sincerely" (1955)
 
Globally, reinterpretion is only one stage in the production process
as illustrated in Osdorp Posse "Murderer" (1992), modeled after 
Ice Cube's gangsta style.
Transformation
When innovations redefine and change the character of the original 
style it becomes transformed.

Transformation involves replacing foreign resources and
materials with those distinctive to the appropriating culture that
introduce new elements reflective of their cultural values and 
aesthetic preferences. In essence, transformation results in a 
new, indigenized  style.
American pop transformed into soul 
Carol King "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman"  
Aretha Franklin "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman"  
Indigeniazation

Indigeznized forms claim to represent local identities and realities.
The content, aesthetics and cultural values of these indigenized forms
are illustrated in the many international styles of rock, pop, and 
hip-hop. (Portia Maultsby)
  
Global Indigenization
 
Meaning and identity assigned to Dutch hip hop (Nederhop)  
Osdorp Posse "De Zin Van Rap" (The Meaning of Rap)  
Osdorp Posse "Briljant, Hard en geslepen" ("Brilliant,  hard/loud and Sly")
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Sometimes the emergent style travels back into the originating 
culture. When this happens, the production process returns to the 
imitative component and may repeat the cycle as illustrated in the
emergence of various rock styles.


When the Beatles, the Animals, Cream, and the Rolling Stones
introduced "rock" in America beginning in 1964, they actually 
reintroduced black American blues, rhythm and blues/rock'n'roll in 
a transformed form. 

Early imitations of rock-blues fusion first resulted in caricature.
A British-flavored, unintentional reinterpretation marked by a 
distinctive sound and beat gradually gained form..
Ike and Tina Turner "5 Long Years"
Eric Clapton "5 Long Years"
In America musicians added their own innovations to British rock
to produce transformed styles known as psychedelic, acid, hard and
progressive rock. Jimi Hendrix and others recycled these styles
back to England, where British musicians imitated and
reinterpreted them as blended styles known as punk and heavy
metal.  
 
American rock musicians also created their own brand of punk and
heavy metal from the early rock styles.
  
The British versions traveled throughout Europe and 
provided models for other musicians who created their own 
international rock styles. 
Recycling 
The British parody of blues and rhythm and blues/rock 'n' 
roll brought forth 1960s British Rock:
(Beatles, Animals, Cream, Rolling Stones, Who)


The reinterpretation of British Rock by American rock 
musicians evolved into Psychedelic, Acid, Hard and Progressive Rock:
(Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead, Quicksilver, Jimi Hendrix)

The reinterpretation of American and British Psychedelic, Acid & 
Hard Rock evolved into 1970s British Heavy Metal & //Punk:
(Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Black Sabbath // Sex Pistols and Clash)

1970s American Heavy Metal &// Punk:
(Procal Harem, Kiss// Velvet Underground, Iggy Pop, Stooges, 
Patti Smith, Television, Ramones, Talking Heads, and Blondie)
The construction of hip-hop in cross-cultural and global 
spaces reflects the experiences, cultural values, musical 
perspectives, and worldviews of those local cultures.  
Therefore, hip-hop takes on a different character, meaning, and identity
in new cultural and public spaces.  
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SAMPLES FROM AROUND THE WORLD
China

Cui Jian "Slacker"
Cui Jian "The Nineties"

Germany

Die Fantastischen Vier "Vier Gewinnt" (1992)

Great Britain

MSI & Asylum "Takez Time" (1996)
MSI & Asylum "Whaz Da Reason" (1996)
Gunshot "Ghetto Heartbeat" (1997)
London Posse "How's Life in London" (2001)

Senegal

Baba Fryo "Pose Hip Hop" Clip 1 Clip 2
Sunu Flavor "Djenqou"
Sunu Flavor "Thiek"

France

MC Solar "Obsolete" (1994) "Superstar" (1994) "Devotion" (1994)

Ireland

Scary Éire "Lost for Words" (1991)

Italy
Articolo 31 "Legge del Taglione (An Eye for an Eye)"  (1993)

South Africa
Prophets of Da City "Understand Where I'm Coming From"  (1993)

Korea

Various Artists from Korea 1999 "Mission Impossible" (1999)
Various Artists from Korea 1999 "Rap" (1999)
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Last updated 8 June 2001 © Trustees Indiana University