||Unit 15 Global Hip-Hop|
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"When the groups in Holland started rapping, most guys were copying the American rappers. Nowdays they rap in their own language and about Dutch things. They use samples from European classical and folk music. Thatís how we developed our own hip-hop style, Nederhop" Def P
UNIT 15 OBJECTIVE: How has hip-hop culture and music influenced new forms of youth expression throughout the world? How do we discuss notions of cross-cultural artistic (re)production?
African-American popular music of the post World War II era has been a major influence on the international musical landscape. This influence has escalated to unparalleled heights with the emergence of hip-hip. Since 1990, hip-hop has become the national anthem of youth throughout the world. James Bernard, writer for The New York Times noted in 1992 that:
rap's emphasis on rhythm makes it easy to export. It is catchy, visceral, danceable. Where pop songs offer solutions from an increasingly perplexing world, rap engages it. Its beats are up front and impolite, not content to be mere background music. Rap embraces chaos as art: complex drumbeats stagger and stutter, punctuated by dissonant samples using everything from James Brown to obscure jazz to television commercials, the mix held together by a steady stream of intricate wordplay. ...For the young, rap's immediacy provides a bunker against feeling overwhelmed or lost in a world undergoing rapid change.
Throughout the world hip-hop is heard in concert halls, clubs, radio stations, television music stations, Hollywood soundtracks, and television shows. Hip-hop's associated image, symbols, fashions, and paraphernalia grace the covers of popular magazines and are central to advertising campaigns as well as other popular culture spaces in American and throughout the world.
The border crossings and blendings of cultural products produce both new interpretations of tradition and the creation of new musical styles. This process of cross-fertilization has been codified in various disciplines as "diffusion, "creolization," "syncretism" or "hybridization," "transculturalism," "transnationalism", "globalization" and has been applied to musical productions. The process of globalization has been described as the movement of music through various stages where components of the original form are negotiated and revised in ways that reflect the values and traditions of the appropriating culture. Processes of Musical Production
"At first, a band may try and imitate exactly the music that comes from abroad." (James Lull) Sociologist James Lull describes the process of musical production in global spaces when it moves through various stages to become a new creation. Imitation denotes the intent to reproduce foreign models. It involves constructing the foreign model based on a perception about the music. Given cultural, aesthetic, musical, and language differences, the final product often reflects the sensibilities, cultural values, and musical perspectives of the appropriating culture.
Gospel Richard Smallwood "Jesus You're the Center of My Joy" (1993) Dutch Mass Combined Choir "Jesus You're the Center of My Joy" (2001)Hip Hop Funky Fresh Force "We Are"(1986) Clip 1 Clip 2 Funky Fresh Force "Amsterdam" (1988) Public Enemy "Contract On The World Love Jam" (1990)
Reinterpretation "But in a short period of time the tendency is to incorporate the new material into their own cultural experience rather than try to create something culturally unfamiliar." (James Lull) Reinterpretation is the process of localizing foreign musical styles by introducing and intertwining new resources, cultural values, and familiar musical elements with those from foreign sources. The resulting style is distinguished from the original version by varying degrees of cultural fusion (Maultsby) that James Lull labels "hybridization". However, in the U.S., hybridization rarely occurs. The final product does not go beyond reinterpretation.
Reinterpretation of Rhythm and Blues as "pop" cover versions in the 1950s: The Moonglows "Sincerely" (1955) The McGuire Sisters "Sincerely" (1955)
Globally, reinterpretion is only one stage in the production process as illustrated in Osdorp Posse "Murderer" (1992), modeled after Ice Cube's gangsta style.
When innovations redefine and change the character of the original style it becomes transformed. Transformation involves replacing foreign resources and materials with those distinctive to the appropriating culture that introduce new elements reflective of their cultural values and aesthetic preferences. In essence, transformation results in a new, indigenized style.
American pop transformed into soul
Carol King "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" Aretha Franklin "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman"
Indigeniazation Indigeznized forms claim to represent local identities and realities. The content, aesthetics and cultural values of these indigenized forms are illustrated in the many international styles of rock, pop, and hip-hop. (Portia Maultsby)
Meaning and identity assigned to Dutch hip hop (Nederhop) Osdorp Posse "De Zin Van Rap" (The Meaning of Rap) Osdorp Posse "Briljant, Hard en geslepen" ("Brilliant, hard/loud and Sly")
Sometimes the emergent style travels back into the originating culture. When this happens, the production process returns to the imitative component and may repeat the cycle as illustrated in the emergence of various rock styles. When the Beatles, the Animals, Cream, and the Rolling Stones introduced "rock" in America beginning in 1964, they actually reintroduced black American blues, rhythm and blues/rock'n'roll in a transformed form. Early imitations of rock-blues fusion first resulted in caricature. A British-flavored, unintentional reinterpretation marked by a distinctive sound and beat gradually gained form..
Ike and Tina Turner "5 Long Years" Eric Clapton "5 Long Years"
In America musicians added their own innovations to British rock to produce transformed styles known as psychedelic, acid, hard and progressive rock. Jimi Hendrix and others recycled these styles back to England, where British musicians imitated and reinterpreted them as blended styles known as punk and heavy metal. American rock musicians also created their own brand of punk and heavy metal from the early rock styles. The British versions traveled throughout Europe and provided models for other musicians who created their own international rock styles.
The British parody of blues and rhythm and blues/rock 'n' roll brought forth 1960s British Rock: (Beatles, Animals, Cream, Rolling Stones, Who) The reinterpretation of British Rock by American rock musicians evolved into Psychedelic, Acid, Hard and Progressive Rock: (Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead, Quicksilver, Jimi Hendrix) The reinterpretation of American and British Psychedelic, Acid & Hard Rock evolved into 1970s British Heavy Metal & //Punk: (Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Black Sabbath // Sex Pistols and Clash) 1970s American Heavy Metal &// Punk: (Procal Harem, Kiss// Velvet Underground, Iggy Pop, Stooges, Patti Smith, Television, Ramones, Talking Heads, and Blondie)
The construction of hip-hop in cross-cultural and global spaces reflects the experiences, cultural values, musical perspectives, and worldviews of those local cultures. Therefore, hip-hop takes on a different character, meaning, and identity in new cultural and public spaces.
China Cui Jian "Slacker" Cui Jian "The Nineties" Germany Die Fantastischen Vier "Vier Gewinnt" (1992) Great Britain MSI & Asylum "Takez Time" (1996) MSI & Asylum "Whaz Da Reason" (1996) Gunshot "Ghetto Heartbeat" (1997) London Posse "How's Life in London" (2001) Senegal Baba Fryo "Pose Hip Hop" Clip 1 Clip 2 Sunu Flavor "Djenqou" Sunu Flavor "Thiek" France MC Solar "Obsolete" (1994) "Superstar" (1994) "Devotion" (1994) Ireland Scary Éire "Lost for Words" (1991) Italy Articolo 31 "Legge del Taglione (An Eye for an Eye)" (1993) South Africa Prophets of Da City "Understand Where I'm Coming From" (1993) Korea Various Artists from Korea 1999 "Mission Impossible" (1999) Various Artists from Korea 1999 "Rap" (1999)
|Last updated 8 June 2001||© Trustees Indiana University|