S302, Kewley-Port 11/18/07

Homework 13
Spectrograms and Consonants


1. Consonant articulations change the formant frequencies of the vocal tract, creating formant transistions.

a) How are the formant transitions for stops such as in /ba/ or /da/ related to articulation?  

b)What kind of consonant is characterized almost entirely by its formant transitions?

c) Why are formant transitions found both before and after consonants?

2. spectrogram

a. The stop /t/ occurs in the spectrogram. Clearly mark on the spectrogram (1) the stop closure (2) the /t/ burst (3) the F2 formant tranisition (is it what you expected for /t/?)

b) A diphthong occurs on the spectrogram. Clearly mark where the diphthong occurs and draw lines to show the associated formant transistions for F1 and F2. What diphthong do you think this is ?_____________________ Explain why.

c) A nasal occurs on the spectrogram. Clearly mark where the nasal occurs on the spectrogram. Mark the big F2 formant transition before the nasal on the spectrogram. What place of articulation would be associated with this transition? ______________________

3. Formant transitions can specify place of articulation for initial stop consonants. Draw a cartoon spectrograms for the F1 and F2 in the space below that you would expect for the syllables /bae/ and /dae/. Write down the patterns of formant transitions you used to draw these spectrograms.

a) Define VOT.

 b) Explain the VOT differences between /b/ versus /p/ .