Cardiovascular Embryology
Early Heart and Primitive Heart Tube Folding Early Heart and Primitive Heart Tube Folding
Animation of the fusion of two endocardial tubes into a single primitive heart tube. Detailed descriptions of the movement of the bulbis cordis, primitive ventricle, primitive atrium, and sinus venosus. (approx. 2 minutes)
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Overview of Heart Tube Folding and Early Heartbeat Overview of Heart Tube Folding and Early Heartbeat
Brief summary of heart tube folding events, and demonstration of first heartbeats in the early heart. (approx. 20 seconds)
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Interatrial Septum Development Interatrial Septum Development
Detailed description of the formation of the interatrial septum, including formation of septum primum, septum secundum, and foramen ovale. (approx. 8 minutes)
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Division of the Atrioventricular Canal Division of the Atrioventricular Canal
Two animations describing how superior and inferior endocardial cushions divide the atrioventricular canal into left and right atrioventricular openings. The first animation depicts the anterior view of the heart. (approx. 3.5 minutes) The second animation shows a lateral view, seen from left side. (approx. 3 minutes)
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Development of Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk, and Interventricular Septum Development of Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk, and Interventricular Septum
Animation first illustrates development of muscular ventricular septum, then shows how the truncus arteriosus is subdivided into an aorta and pulmonary trunk and illustrates the development of the membranous part of the ventricular septum. (approx. 6 minutes)
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Fetal vs. Postnatal Circulation Fetal vs. Postnatal Circulation
Animation that compares fetal circulatory pattern with the postnatal circulatory pattern. Embryologic origin of postnatal circulatory structures is shown.
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Pericardium Development Pericardium Development
Animation that illustrates the development of the pericardium from two pleuropericardial folds. Also shows phrenic nerve placement.
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Aortic Arch Vessels Aortic Arch Vessels
Animation and description of the development of the aortic arch vessels, aortic sac, and descending aorta. Individual vessel development is illustrated.
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