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Vol. 32, nos. 1-2
(Spring and Summer 1990)


Contents

Articles

The Origin of "Mother-in-Law Vocabulary" in Two Australian Languages R. M. W. Dixon 1
Uses of the Defocusing Pronominal Prefixes in Caddo Wallace Chafe 57
Compounding and Lexical Affixation in Spokane Barry F. Carlson 69
Pidginization in Gulf Arabic: A First Report J. R. Smart 83
The Relative Markedness of Click Sounds: Evidence from Language Change, Acquisition, and Avoidance Robert K. Herbert 120
Toponymy of the Bigar Region in the Romanian Banat Zdenek Salzmann 139
Bulgarian Turkish: The Linguistic Effects of Recent Nationality Policy Catherine Rudin and Ali Eminov 149
Color Terms in Mecca: A Sociolinguistic Perspective Nasir M. Al-Jehani 164

Book Reviews

Power in Performance: The Creation of Textual Authority in Wewaya Ritual Speech (Joel C. Kuipers) Kenneth M. George 175
Amazonian Linguistics: Studies in Lowland South American Languages (Doris L. Payne, ed.) Laurence Krute 176
Language Change in South American Indian Languages (Mary Ritchie Key, ed.) Denny Moore 178
The Genesis of Language: A Different Judgment of Evidence (Marge E. Landsberg, ed.) M. Lionel Bender 179
On Language: Selected Writings of Joseph H. Greenberg (Keith Denning and Suzanne Kemmer, eds.) William Bright 183
Languages in Contact and Contrast: Essays in Contact Linguistics (Vladimir Ivir and Damir Kalogjera, eds.) William Bright 184
Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (Brent Berlin and Paul Kay) William Bright 184
Reduplication in South Asian Languages: An Areal, Typological and Historical Study (Anvita Abbi) William Bright 185

Abstracts

The Origin of "Mother-in-Law Vocabulary"
in Two Australian Languages

R. M. W. Dixon
Australian National University

Abstract. Each dialect of the contiguous Australian languages Dyirbal and Yidiny had a special avoidance vocabulary, that must be used in the presence of a class of taboo relatives (e.g., mothers-in-law). The paper investigates the origin of this "mother-in-law vocabulary." Some lexemes have been borrowed from the everyday language style or from the avoidance style of a neighboring dialect or language, others have been created by application of productive grammatical processes within the given dialect, a further set has been manufactured from terms in the corresponding everyday style in that dialect by phonological deformation.

Uses of the Defocusing Pronominal Prefixes in Caddo

Wallace Chafe
University of California, Santa Barbara

Abstract. This paper describes various uses of defocusing prefixes in Caddo, a Caddoan language spoken today in Oklahoma. The general function of these prefixes is to deflect attention from referents that may be irrelevant, unknown, or defocused for another reason. In looking at the different uses occurring in Caddo, some of which are characteristic of analogous prefixes in other languages, we gain insight into the many ways in which this option can be exploited.

Compounding and Lexical Affixation in Spokane

Barry F. Carlson
University of Victoria

Abstract. This paper summarizes compounding and lexical affixation in Spokane Salish before presenting evidence showing that regular patterns of compounding created lexical affixes.

Pidginization in Gulf Arabic: A First Report

J. R. Smart
University of Exeter

Abstract. This paper is the first description of a pidginized form of Arabic used in the states of the Arab Gulf. The description is based on printed material that appeared in certain Gulf newspapers, mainly during the year 1986, and supplemented by personal observations made between 1966 and 1987. These are the only published examples of the form that I am aware of.

The Relative Markedness of Click Sounds:
Evidence from Language Change, Acquisition, and Avoidance

Robert K. Herbert
University of the Witwatersand
and
State University of New York at Binghamton

Abstract. The so-called click sounds, frequently listed as an areal feature of southern African languages, are most often treated as an undifferentiated class of sounds. This paper takes up the question of relative markedness within the class of click sounds, and focuses on place of articulation. The data are drawn from the behavior of clicks as observed in cross-language distribution, textual frequency, change, acquisition, and consonant substitution. The Southern Bantu languages provide the primary data for analysis, but a brief comparison is made between click loss in Southern Bantu and Khoe languages.

Toponymy of the Bigar Region in the Romanian Banat

Zdenek Salzmann
Northern Arizona University

Abstract. The village of Bigar in the southern Romanian Banat was settled during the 1820s by Czech-speaking peasants from Bohemia. The regional toponymy they use can be assigned to four languages--Czech, Serbian, Romanian, and German. Czech is employed especially for microtoponymy. Over 150 toponyms are classified or analyzed according to the geographic feature they refer to, their origin, linguistic structure, and motivation.

Bulgarian Turkish: The Linguistic Effects of Recent Nationality Policy

Catherine Rudin and Ali Eminov
Wayne State College

Abstract. Changing policies toward ethnic minorities in Bulgaria have led to dramatic changes in the sociolinguistic status of Turkish and Bulgarian in ethnically Turkish areas of the country. The major trends over the last several generations have been a shift toward more frequent and fluent use of Bulgarian by more members of the community and the emergence of significant lexical and grammatical interference from Bulgarian in the native Turkish dialect. However, the most recent policy shifts have led to increased Turkish nationalism and perhaps to a resurgence of literacy in Turkish.

Color Terms in Mecca: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Nasir M. al-Jehani
Umm al-Qura University

Abstract. The present study focuses on the variability in color labeling by Meccan speakers of Arabic from different social backgrounds, a subject only marginally considered in the existing literature. Color labeling was found to strongly correlate with the sex, ethnic background, and age of speakers.

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