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Vol. 32, nos. 3-4
(Fall and Winter 1990)


Contents

Articles

A European Loanword of Early Date in Eastern North America Allan R. Taylor 187
Negation and Mood in Mixtec: Evidence from Chalcatongo Monica Macaulay 211
VC Reduplication in Salish Jan P. van Eijk 228
"Where There Are Muskrats": The Semantic Structure of Coeur d'Alene Place Names Gary B. Palmer 263
The Sociohistory of Clicks in Southern Bantu Robert K. Herbert 295
Somali Color Term Evolution: Grammatical and Semantic Evidence Luisa Maffi 316
The Linguistic Reflex of Social Change: Caste and Kinship Terms among People of Indian Descent in Natal, South Africa Rajend Mesthrie 335

Notes and Research Reports

Errata in Teeter's The Wiyot Language Karl V. Teeter 354
A Comment on Design Features Charles F. Hockett 361

Book Reviews

Nahuas and Spaniards: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology (James Lockhart) Louise M. Burkhart 364
Language Obsolescence, Shift, and Death in Several Native American Communities (Allan R. Taylor, ed.) Lyle Campbell 366
Verbal Art in San Blas: Kuna Culture through Its Discourse (Joel Sherzer) John R. Bowen 369
The Empty Place: Poetry, Space, and Being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea (James F. Weiner) Andrew Strathern 370
Language Style and Social Space: Stylistic Choice in Suriname Javanese (Clare Wolfowitz) Susanna Cumming 372
Disentangling: Conflict Discourse in Pacific Societies (Karen Ann Watson-Gegeo and Geoffrey M. White, eds.) Kate Riley 375
Sprung from Some Common Source: Investigations into the Prehistory of Languages (Sydney M. Lamb and E. Douglas Mitchell, eds.) Donald A. Ringe, Jr. 376
Linguistic Purism (George Thomas) Zdenek Salzmann 380
Sociolinguistics: A Sociological Critique (Glyn Williams) Felice Coles 381
The International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (William Bright, ed.) Karen Ann Watson-Gegeo 386
Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (R. Allen Gardner, Beatrix T. Gardner, and Thomas E. Van Cantfort, eds.) Kevin D. Hunt 388

Publications Received 390

Abstracts

A European Loanword of Early Date in Eastern North America

Allan R. Taylor
University of Colorado

Abstract. Truly naturalized loanwords from European languages are somewhat rare in most of the languages of North America. Possibly the most successful example is a European term for the domestic pig. Introduced from Europe, that animal was prominent in colonial life and was eventually hunted and bred by the Indians. It appears that loans all derive from a minimum of two loaning events from two different continental European languages, Dutch and French. The probable loci of loaning are the Delaware and Upper Mississippi valleys.

Negation and Mood in Mixtec: Evidence from Chalcatongo

Monica Macaulay
Purdue University

Abstract. Many dialects of Mixtec are described as having two negative prefixes; in Chalcatongo Mixtec these prefixes are ma- and tu-. Most descriptions claim that one is used with potential aspect, and the other with other aspects. These dialects also have a third prefix, na-, usually called a hortatory. This paper shows that, at least in Chalcatongo Mixtec, ma- and na- are actually deontic mood-marking prefixes (distinguished by polarity), while tu is a general negator with different morphosyntactic characteristics. I survey other dialects, finding a wide range of data, and conclude that in some cases a fresh look at these elements is called for.

VC Reduplication in Salish

Jan P. van Eijk
Saskatchewan Indian Federated College

Abstract. A large number of Salish languages employ VC reduplication, a type of reduplication that repeats the second or a later consonant in a word and, when it occurs, the vowel preceding that consonant. As previous studies (Carlson and Thompson 1982; Kinkade 1982) have shown, VC reduplication generally expresses that the protagonist of the reduplicated form is not in control of the situation described by the reduplicated form. The present study summarizes Carlson and Thompson's and Kinkade s findings and extrapolates them to languages not discussed by those authors. It shows that the 'out-of-control' analysis is correct also for many of the languages not mentioned by Carlson, Thompson, and Kinkade. It is also shown that in many languages VC reduplication has a continuative-telic aspectual function that meshes with the 'out-of-control' function.

"Where There Are Muskrats": The Semantic Structure of Coeur d'Alene Place Names

Gary B. Palmer
University of Nevada

Abstract. The place names of Coeur d'Alene, an Interior Salish language, reveal the semantics of space when analyzed in terms of cognitive grammar. The common prefix hen- 'in' has radial semantic extensions that play a role in word formation. Semantic structures in Coeur d'Alene place names parallel those reported in locative systems of several languages in North and Central America.

The Sociohistory of Clicks in Southern Bantu

Robert K. Herbert
University of the Witwatersand
and
State University of New York, Binghamton

Abstract. The historical incorporation of click sounds into the phonologies of Southern Bantu languages is examined, with critical discussion of the nature of Khoisan-Bantu interaction. In this context, the sociolinguistic avoidance practice of Nguni women known as hlonipha is discussed, with emphasis on its phonological aspects. The peculiar result of the Khoisan-Bantu language contact can be understood only in this context: a sociolinguistic taboo is ultimately responsible for extensive restructuring of the Bantu phonologies.

Somali Color Term Evolution: Grammatical and Semantic Evidence

Luisa Maffi
University of California, Berkeley

Abstract. This paper attempts a reconstruction of the development of Somali basic color terminology, drawing on both synchronic (morphologic) and diachronic (semantic derivational) data. The findings bear on Berlin and Kay's theory of the evolution of color classification systems. Some specific and general issues raised by Somali in this connection are discussed, as well as the importance of the use of internal linguistic evidence to support experimental data in this domain. The concluding remarks address the interaction of the universal perceptual bases of color categorization and cultural and historical factors that may affect color lexicons.

The Linguistic Reflex of Social Change: Caste and Kinship Terms among People of Indian Descent in Natal, South Africa

Rajend Mesthrie
University of Cape Town

Abstract. This paper examines the lexicographical reflexes of social change among South Africans of Indian descent, with respect to caste and kinship in the province of Natal. The first part of the paper shows the attrition of lexis pertaining to caste and the adaptation of the remaining terms to an arguably noncaste structure in South African Bhojpuri. The second part concerns the carryover of some kinship terminology from the ancestral Indian languages (e.g., Bhojpuri, Tamil) to South African Indian English.

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