[X] Anthropological
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Vol. 34, nos. 1-4 (1992)


Contents

Florence M. Voegelin Memorial Volume

Editors' Introduction 1
Remembering Flo Dorothea V. Kaschube 9
For Flo Eric P. Hamp 15

Language in Culture

You Can't Get There From Here: Southern Paiute Testimony as Intercultural Communication Pamela Bunte and Robert Franklin 19
Helen Sekaquaptewa's "Coyote and the Birds": Rhetorical Analysis of a Hopi Coyote Story Dell Hymes 45
How Long Ago We Got Lost: A Warm Springs Sahaptin Narrative Virgina Hymes and Hazel Suppah 73
Kinship Terminology in Upper Chehalis in a Historical Framework M. Dale Kinkade 84
Arizona Tewa Public Announcements: Form, Function, and Linguistic Ideology Paul V. Kroskrity 104
Okanagan-Colville Kinship Terms Anthony Mattina and Clara Jack 117
The Role of Metaphor in Kiliwa Kinship and Religion Mauricio J. Mixco 138
Hypocoristic Names in Hausa Paul Newman and Mustapha Ahmad 159

Language History and Classification

A Possible Macro-Chibchan Etymon Colette Craig and Kenneth Hale 173
Tooth and Claw Carleton T. Hodge 202
Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: A Classification Douglas R. Parks and Raymond J. DeMallie 233

Language Description

Stress Variation of the Construct Phrase in Arabic: A Spectrographic Analysis Salman H. Al-Ani 256
Taps and Spirants in Numic Languages James L. Armagost and John E. McLaughlin 277
Hualapai Verbs of Being, Doing, and Saying: Transitivity and Auxiliaries Jorigine Bender and Akira Y. Yamamoto 293
Direction in the Algonquian Verb: A Correction Charles F. Hockett 311
Case, Switch Reference, and the Hopi Relative Clause LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne 316
The Hidatsa "Approximative": Morphology, Phonology, Semantics -- and an Approximate Look at Ablaut A. Wesley Jones 324
Hopi Number Herbert Landar 338
Hierarchic Ambiguity and Classification Oswald Werner 350

Abstracts

You Can't Get There from Here: Souther Paiute Testimony as Intercultural Communication

Pamela Bunte
California State University, Long Beach

Robert Franklin
California State University, Dominquez Hills

Abstract. From 1984 to 1990, as part of a federal land claims case, San Juan Paiute elders and attorneys representing the San Juan Paiute Tribe, the Hopi Tribe, and the Navajo Tribe took part in a series of depositions and finally a trial in federal district court. This article examines deposition and trial testimony in order to understand the cultural, linguistic, and communicative style dimensions of the problems that arose during this intercultural communicative experience.

Helen Sekaquaptewa's "Coyote and the Birds": Rhetorical Analysis of a Hopi Coyote Story

Dell Hymes
University of Virginia

Abstract. This paper shows that one facet of a Hopi narrative may involve relations among verses and stanzas. The quotative is a principal marker of such relations. The spoken lines of the narrative in question vary greatly in length and makeup, and the same is true of a Zuni telling of a related story. Perhaps there is a Southwest region of which this is true, in contrast to much of native North America. In such a case the contours of performance cannot all be represented together. Vocal and grammatical marking of relations must be shown separately. The latter show a formal coherence that reflects a deep- seated competence.

How Long Ago We Got Lost: A Warm Springs Sahaptin Narrative

Virginia Hymes and Hazel Suppah
University of Virginia and Warm Springs, Oregon

Abstract. Verse analysis of a personal experience narrative in Warm Springs Sahaptin shows rhetorical patterns like those in a myth narrative of the same narrator published in an earlier article. The patterns are cultural and their implementation is individual, reflecting the narrator's role as mother and grandmother in the content, her preference for elegant understatement in the style.

Kinship Terminology in Upper Chehalis in a Historical Framework

M. Dale Kinkade
University of British Columbia

Abstract. The Upper Chehalis kinship system has an unusual pattern of terminology for siblings, distinguishing elder from younger, male from female, and inclusive from exclusive. The last applies only to elder siblings, and sex is not distinguished for inclusive siblings; the result is a five-term system. Other parts of the system are less unusual (aside from one or two decedence terms). Some of the meanings of these terms are not well identified; comparative data from other Salishan languages help provide a fuller understanding of the use of this terminology and suggest a source for the complex sibling terms.

Arizona Tewa Public Announcements: Form, Function, and Linguistic Ideology

Paul V. Kroskrity
University of California, Los Angeles

Abstract. The Arizona Tewa genre of public announcements (tún khé) provides an interesting example of a culturally important and diverse speech resource. Like other specialized forms of noncasual speech (Voegelin 1960), the genre possesses distinctive formal properties and is used under culturally prescribed circumstances to perform a wide range of social functions. Three examples from the genre provide illustrations of local canons of structure and use, as well as new evidence for the operation of a linguistic ideology (Silverstein 1985, 1979) that tacitly adopts kiva speech (te'e hi:li) as a model for more secular and mundane acts of speaking (Kroskrity 1992).

Okanagan-Colville Kinship Terms

Anthony Mattina
University of Montana and En'owkin Centre, Penticton, British Columbia

Clara Jack
Okanagan Curriculum Project, Penticton, British Columbia

Abstract. We discuss the appellatives, or the address terms, of Okanagan-Colville (Ok-Cv), an interior Salish language continuum of southern British Columbia and north-central Washington State. Because the majority of Ok-Cv address terms are also kin reference terms, we describe briefly the Ok-Cv kinship system. We also discuss the grammatical properties and the various allomorphs of the terms, calling particular attention to hypocoristic and baby talk forms, and to kin terms used to address unrelated individuals, phenomena that must reflect certain facts of Ok-Cv social organization.

The Role of Metaphor in Kiliwa Kinship and Religion

Mauricio J. Mixco
University of Utah

Abstract. In his ethnographic reconstruction of the culture of the Kiliwa, a Yuman-speaking tribe of Baja California (Mexico), Meigs (1939) mentions the name of a wooden idol known as ñipumjós in approximate Spanish orthography. However, Meigs offers no etymology, grammatical analysis, or translation of this name and only provides a meager description of its role in Kiliwa aboriginal funerary rites. This paper attempts to shed light on both the linguistic and cultural role of this ritual object as well as the metaphors it embodies.

Hypocoristic Names in Hausa

Paul Newman and Mustapha Ahmad
Indiana University

Abstract. This paper describes hypocoristic forms of personal names in Hausa. There are seven different hypocoristic types, some of which can be combined with one another. Six types employ segmental suffixes and one type is formed by partial reduplication. Some of the types display an overall tonal melody; others simply add a tonally fixed affix to a basic name with its inherent tone. The hypocoristic types differ both in their affective/emotive connotations and in who uses them.

A Possible Macro-Chibchan Etymon

Colette Craig
University of Oregon

Kenneth Hale
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Abstract. The Misumalpan languages of Nicaragua and Honduras, comprising Miskitu and Sumu, together with the extinct Matagalpa-Cacaopera, form a well-defined family that is not closely related to any other in the Americas. Its suggested affiliation is with Macro-Chibchan, a reasonable proposal given its geographic proximity to the Nicaraguan Chibchan language, Rama, and to other Chibchan languages of Central America. But this putative relationship is not easy to demonstrate. Comparative work in the lexical domain is unrewarding for the most part. If the relationship can be demonstrated at all, evidence for it is most likely to come from details of morphosyntax. In this paper, a single element is compared, i.e., the verbal suffix -i, of similar shape and function, appearing in the Misumalpan languages, in Rama, and in Ika, a Chibchan language of Colombia. The study is offered as an initial step in the process of harvesting morphology and syntax for possible evidence in support of the putative Macro-Chibchan affiliation of the Misumalpan languages.

Tooth and Claw

Carleton T. Hodge
Indiana University

Abstract. Examination of the spellings of Egyptian ?-b-h 'tooth' shows that the reading should be ?-3-b-h. This is analyzed as prothetic alif, the root 3-b and the suffix h. The base from which this is derived is reconstructed as **l-b 'pierce'. Consideration of the ablaut variants of this base, historically r-b, l-m, r-m, etc., shows two lines of semantic development: that which pierces and act of piercing . Examples of derivatives are given both in Egyptian and in related languages of the Lislakh phylum, illustrating both semantic and formal developments.

Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: A Classification

Douglas R. Parks and Raymond J. DeMallie
Indiana University

Abstract. The Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney peoples -- members of the Siouan language family -- form a dialect continuum extending over a vast area of the northern Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Since the exact number of and interrelationships among the dialects and subdialects comprising this continuum have been indeterminate, a dialect survey of all the Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney communities was undertaken. Summarized here are the major findings of that survey, organized around five of the most common misunderstandings persistent in the historical and contemporary literature: the inadequacy of the d-n-l classification; the fallacy of the "Nakota Sioux" and the relationships of Yankton to Yanktonai, Yanktonai to Assiniboine, and Assiniboine to Stoney.

Stress Variation of the Construct Phrase in Arabic:
A Spectrographic Analysis

Salman H. Al-Ani
Indiana University

Abstract. The stress patterns of Arabic and their variations have been investigated through a well-designed experiment utilizing native speakers from different regions of the Arab World. The three suprasegmental features loudness, pitch, and time seem, collectively, to play a role in determining the stressed syllable. The syllable types, distribution, and environment of the construct phrase (Idafah) seem to play important roles in the placement of stress. The tentative results of this study conclude that there is more uniformity among the speakers in stress placement than originally thought. The first word of the construct phrase is favored over the second in receiving primary stress. The two words in this phrase seem to strike a balance within their own syllabic structure. The long syllable within each word is favored to receive primary stress, while the linking syllable of these words is, surprisingly, much more prominent than expected.

Taps and Spirants in Numic Languages

James L. Armagost
Kansas State University

John E. McLaughlin
Utah State University

Abstract. The alveolar taps found in Numic languages seem to pattern with spirants, and virtually every scholar working on these languages appears to have assumed that they result from the same process that is responsible for the spirants. We find no phonological justification for such an assumption. Our analysis of Central Numic taps argues that they are due to a distinct rule that bleeds spirantization. When we extend our analysis to Western and Southern Numic, we are forced to conclude that in no Numic language have the taps ever belonged to a series of spirants.

Hualapai Verbs of Being, Doing, and Saying: Transitivity and Auxiliaries

Jorigine Bender and Akira Y. Yamamoto
Peach Springs, Arizona, and University of Kansas

Abstract. Hualapai, an Upland Yuman language, has a set of four auxiliary verbs, each of which is generally considered to be correlated with the semantic categories of the main verb. The auxiliary -yu appears with stative-intransitive verbs, -wi with active-transitive verbs, i with verbs of vocalization, and -yi with cognitive verbs. Some verbs, however, may occur with an unexpected auxiliary. The auxiliary alternation is best explained by the speaker's attitude toward the event described by the expression, particularly toward the role of the arguments involved in the given expression.

Direction in the Algonquian Verb: A Correction

Charles F. Hockett
Cornell University and Rice University

Abstract. This paper corrects a long-standing error in H. C. Wolfart's interpretation of a feature of Algonquian grammar.

Case, Switch Reference, and the Hopi Relative Clause

LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne
University of Nevada

Abstract. There is an apparent constraint on the formation of relative clauses in Hopi that is reflected in the circumstance that subjects can only be relativized if the head of the relative clause is itself a subject in the matrix. If this constraint were true in the language it would be unique among languages of the world. Therefore, it is more likely that it is a by-product of more general principles of grammar. It is argued here that the apparent constraint is in fact an instance of the well-known phenomenon of case conflict, and as such falls under the purview of the Case Filter.

The Hidatsa "Approximative": Morphology, Phonology, Semantics -- and an Approximate Look at Ablaut

A. Wesley Jones
University of Mary

Abstract. Hidatsa, a Siouan language spoken on the Fort Berthold reservation in central North Dakota, has five morphemes with approximative force. This paper documents their semantics and distribution in synchronic Hidatsa; suggests cognates in Crow, Mandan, and Lakhota; and relates the Hidatsa forms to the history of ablaut in Siouan. There is reason to believe that Siouan ablaut was once semantically, rather than morphologically, triggered.

Hopi Number

Herbert Landar
California State University, Los Angeles

Abstract. Hopi and Navajo number categories are compared, partly to illustrate difficulties in studying communicative efficiency cross-culturally. In the process, Carl and Florence Voegelin are praised for their Hopi linguistic contributions, marked by quality, conciseness, and comprehensiveness. Comparison of number categories is presented informally and, in an exploratory beginning, with some Boolean feature specifications.

Hierarchic Ambiguity and Classification

Oswald Werner
Northwestern University

Abstract. While lexical and structural ambiguity have received considerable attention in the linguistic literature, hierarchic ambiguity has received almost none. I define hierarchic ambiguity as the situation in which the same term designates both genus and species (often across several levels of folk taxonomies). I attempt to remedy this situation by illustrating hierarchic ambiguity with English and Navajo examples. I also show that in the uses of language hierarchic ambiguity is all pervasive: in language learning, in folk classification, in the use of generic terms of species, and in the case of verbal action plans (scripts). Finally, I draw conclusions about the significance of this type of ambiguity for the semanticist and especially the ethnographer.

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