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Vol. 36, no. 1 (Spring 1994)


Contents

Articles

Horatio Hale and the Great U.S. Exploring Expedition Michael Mackert 1
Implications of Plural Reduplication, Infixation, and Subtraction for Muskogean Subgrouping Jack Martin 27
English Loanwords in the Native Languages of the Chukotka Peninsula Willem J. de Reuse 56
The Languages of the Amish of Allen County, Indiana: Multilingualism and Convergence Chad Thompson 69

Book Reviews

Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (Johanna Nichols) Jeffrey Heath 92
Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death (Nancy C. Dorian) Carl S. Blyth 96
Social Motivations for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa (Carol Myers-Scotton) Joshua A. Fishman 99
English in Africa (Josef Schmied) Ian Hancock 100
An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Janet Holmes) Felice Coles 102
Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages (Nancy Bonvillain) Sherri Condon 105
Kohkominawak Otacimowiniwawa: Our Grandmothers' Lives as Told in Their Own Words (Edited and translated by Freda Ahenakew and H. C. Wolfart) Regna Darnell 107
The Semantics of Time: Aspectual Categorization in Koyukon Athabaskan (Melissa Axelrod) Sally Midgette 108
Topics in Northern Pomo Grammar (Mary Catherine O Connor) Marianne Mithun 110
Kawaiisu: A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts (Maurice L. Zigmond, Curtis G. Booth, and Pamela Munro. Pamela Munro, ed.) John E. McLaughlin 111
An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl (Frances Karttunen) Karen Dakin 113
Dictionary of St. Lucian Creole. Part 1: Kwéyol-English. Part 2: English-Kwéyol (Jones Mondesir, compiler, L. D. Carrington, ed.) Ama Mazama (M.-J. Cérol) 118
Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought, and Selfless Behavior (Philip Lieberman) Kevin D. Hunt 120

Abstracts

Horatio Hale and the Great U.S. Exploring Expedition

Michael Mackert
Arizona State University West

Abstract.  Horatio Hale's research during the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-42 was guided by the work of John Pickering and Peter Duponceau. Pickering secured philology a place in the expedition and recommended Hale as philologist, while Duponceau wrote Hale's official instructions. The organization of Hale's expedition report and his grammars, together with his phonetic alphabet and treatment of transitions, further reflect his association with Pickering and Duponceau. However, there are differences between Hale's volume and the work of Pickering and Duponceau. For instance, Hale privileged grammatical similarities for establishing genetic relations between languages. Excerpts from letters concerning the expedition are included.

Implications of Plural Reduplication, Infixation, and Subtraction for Muskogean Subgrouping

Jack Martin
College of William and Mary

Abstract.  Developments associated with three pluralizing infixes and with subtractive pluralization in the Muskogean languages of the southeastern United States are examined for evidence of subgrouping within the family. Plural developments lend further support to Swanton's Southern and Munro's Southwestern subgroups.

English Loanwords in the Native Languages of the Chukotka Peninsula

Willem J. de Reuse
University of Arizona

Abstract.  In the nineteenth century English-speaking crews of whaling ships contributed about forty words to the native languages (three Eskimo languages and Chukchi) of the Chukotka Peninsula coast in Russia. These words shed light on the trading relationships involved and on the national origins of the ships' crews. The direction of borrowing was generally from English into Chukchi via Eskimo, or via a trade jargon. In the Siberian Yupik of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, some early loanwords have undergone phonological denativization due to the increased availability of an English model, while on the Chukotka coast English loanwords remain fully integrated into the phonology of Eskimo.

The Languages of the Amish of Allen County, Indiana: Multilingualism and Convergence

Chad Thompson
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne

Abstract. This paper considers language use among the Old Order Amish of Allen County, Indiana, all of whom speak a dialect of German. Their dialect comprises a variety of Low Alemannic, or Alsatian, rather than High Alemannic or Swiss, as has been previously claimed. In addition, English and Pennsylvania German are also significant languages within their community, and some members also know Bernese Swiss and Standard German. As a result, speakers display a high degree of phonological variation. This variation, together with lexical borrowing, suggests that there has been convergence among the languages involved.

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