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|A Reconstruction of the Earliest Songish Text||Timothy Montler||405|
|A Widespread Marking Reversal in Languages of the Southeastern United States||Cecil H. Brown||439|
|A Deep Breath and a Second Wind: The Substrate Hypothesis Reassessed||John H. McWhorter||461|
|Yodeling of the Indiana Swiss Amish||Chad L. Thompson||495|
|The Proverb as a Mitigating and Politeness Strategy in Akan Discourse||Samuel Gyasi Obeng||521|
|Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (Vladimir E. Orel and Olga V. Stolbova)||Joseph H. Greenberg||550|
|Syntactic Iconicity and Linguistic Freezes: The Human Dimension (Marge E. Landsberg, editor)||Linda Schwartz||557|
|The Dialogic Emergence of Culture (Dennis Tedlock and Bruce Mannheim, editors)||Regna Darnell||560|
|Constructing Panic: The Discourse of Agoraphobia (Lisa Capps and Elinor Ochs)||A. Jamie Saris||563|
|Coherence in Psychotic Discourse (Branca Telles Ribeiro)||Charlotte Linde||567|
|'Talking Proper': The Rise of Accent as Social Symbol (Lynda Mugglestone)||Rosina Lippi-Green||569|
|Sociolinguistic Perspectives: Papers on Language in Society, 1959-1994 (Charles A. Ferguson. Thom Huebner, editor)||Allen D. Grimshaw||571|
|Language Contact in the American Deaf Community (Ceil Lucas and Clayton Valli)||Christine Monikowski||575|
|Western Abenaki Dictionary. Volume 1: Abenaki-English; Volume 2: English-Abenaki (Gordon M. Day)||Anthony P. Grant||576|
|Delaware-English/English-Delaware Dictionary (John O'Meara)||David J. Costa||578|
|Lengua Maká: Estudio descriptivo (Ana Gerzenstein)||Lucía A. Golluscio||581|
|The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies (Albert J. Schütz)||Jack H. Ward||586|
|Language, Religion, and Ethnic Assertiveness: The Growth of Sinhalese Nationalism in Sri Lanka (K. N. O. Dharmadasa)||Arjun Guneratne||588|
|Modality, Mood, and Aspect in Spoken Arabic, with Special Reference to Egypt and the Levant (T. F. Mitchell and S. A. El-Hassan)||John C. Eisele||591|
|Die Shinassha-Sprache: Materialien zum Boro (Marcello Lamberti)||Catherine Griefenow-Mewis||593|
|Materialien zum Yemsa (Marcello Lamberti)||Catherine Griefenow-Mewis||596|
|The Mystery of Culture Contacts, Historical Reconstruction, and Text Analysis: An Emic Approach (Kenneth Pike, Gary F. Simons, Carol V. McKinney, and Donald A. Burquest. Kurt R. Jankowsky, editor)||David K. Beine||598|
Abstract. This paper presents a reconstruction of what is probably the earliest recorded text in any Straits Salishan language. The text, a traditional tale told by Thomas James of Songhees, near Victoria, British Columbia, was recorded and first published in 1907 by Charles Hill-Tout. Modern researchers have routinely dismissed Hill-Tout's linguistic work on Northern Straits as unusable. This paper shows that Hill-Tout's transcription is better than it first appears and that, given our current understanding of the phonology and grammar of Northern Straits and other Salishan languages, useful versions of his work can be reconstructed.
Abstract. Across the southeastern United States, native American languages have linguistically accommodated the European-introduced peach by referring to it through the use of respective terms for the native plum. This has taken the form of marking reversals in which native words originally designating plum have shifted in reference to peach, with modified (overtly marked) 'peach' terms used to denote plum (e.g., 'little peach' = plum). Marking reversals were motivated throughout the region by a radical change in the relative cultural importance of the two referents, wherein the introduced peach surpassed the native plum in salience. The broad distribution of this nomenclatural feature is probably attributable both to diffusion and to independent development. Other widespread features involving words for introduced items are noted including a marking reversal in which the introduced pig and the native opossum are nomenclaturally linked. These lexical traits suggest the southeastern United States to be a post-contact linguistic area.
Abstract. Substrate transfer in creoles is often attributed to slaves brought to a colony at the time that the creole emerged as a distinct variety. This approach neglects genetic relationships between various creoles, thus often making a substrate analysis invalid without reference to progenitors of the creole in question. This paper demonstrates this fact via Saramaccan, showing that it inherited its fundamental structure from pre-existent Sranan, which in turn is likely to have emerged on the Ghanaian coast. Developmental accounts of Saramaccan are thus incomplete when they refer only to creators of Saramaccan itself, and West African influence on Saramaccan must be seen as partly inherited from structures that were properly transferred into Sranan. Also, an explicit method for identifying transfer in creoles is proposed.
Abstract. The Old Order Amish of Adams County, Indiana, and to a lesser extent, of Allen County, maintain the practice of yodeling. Yodeling, along with the continued use of an Alemannic German dialect, make the Swiss Amish unique in the Amish world. The practice of yodeling persists because it serves several important functions in the community: it is an accepted form of entertainment in a society that shuns commercial entertainment; it serves as a symbol of separation from the English-speaking world, as well as from the non-Swiss Amish communities; and it serves as a integral part of certain types of social interaction. The yodels themselves can be alyrical (without accompanying song), postlyrical (following lines or verses), or contralyrical (simultaneous with yodeling). The lyrics to yodel songs are typically either in Bernese Swiss or English, but some of the Swiss lyrics have Standard or Pennsylvania German elements.
Abstract. Among the Akan of Ghana, the proverb is highly valued as a mode of communication. Pragmatically, it may be used in the management of "face." Specifically, it may act as a mitigator that minimizes the offensive intent of an upcoming "difficult" utterance, it may show a speaker's humility or his acknowledgment of the addressee's sensibility by providing a common ground that does not impale the sensibility of any of the conversational participants; or it may show deference or solidarity. Structurally, it may function as a predifficult, a preclosing, or a closing.
Last updated: 29 Sep 1996
Copyright © 1996 Anthropological Linguistics.