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|Toward ProtoNa-Dene||John Enrico||229|
|Urban Youth Languages in Africa||Roland Kiessling and Maarten Mous||303|
|Ken Hale: An Appreciation||R. M. W. Dixon||342|
|Profiles of Rafinesque (Charles Boewe, editor)||Regna Darnell||346|
|Papers of the Thirty-Fourth Algonquian Conference (H. C. Wolfart, editor)||Andrew Cowell||347|
|America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 18601900 (Ruth Spack)||Mark van de Logt||350|
|The Dhivehi Language: A Descriptive and Historical Grammar of Maldivian and Its Dialects (Sonja Fritz)||Bruce D. Cain||352|
Abstract. The relationship of Haida to Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit is reevaluated, drawing on improved Haida data that have become available in recent decades. Tentative cognates are identified, and proposals are made as to sound changes, as well as changes in morphology and syntax, which may have taken place in the prehistory of Haida and differentiated it from the rest of Na-Dene. The problem of loans between Haida and its neighbors, especially Tlingit, is discussed, and likely loanwords listed.
Abstract. Youths in several urban centers on the African continent are continuously creating their own languages in order to set themselves apart from the older generation. These languages also serve to bridge ethnic differences. Cases have been reported for Abidjan, Nairobi, Johannesburg, Kinshasa-Brazzaville, and Yaounde. We show that these urban youth languages have much in common, both in function and in the linguistic strategies that their speakers use. The strategies found are typical for conscious language manipulation in general. Languages that arise through lexical manipulation can be divided into four types according to their function and use. Urban youth languages fall into the category of what Halliday terms antilanguages, but differ from other instances of language manipulation such as argot, taboo, jargon, slang, secret languages, and in-law respect languages. The difference lies not only in their different functions, but also, and related to these, in a preference for the use of certain types of conscious manipulation above others. The primary function of these urban youth languages is to create a powerful icon of identity. The identity in question is established through the reversal of norms, and develops from an underdog type of identity to one aimed at reforming society.
Last updated: 01 Jun 2005
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