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All Sessions to be held in the Lilly Library Lounge on Monday afternoons from 4 to 5:30 p.m., unless otherwise noted below.
We chronicle the use of acknowledgments in twentieth century scholarship by analyzing and classifying more than 4,500 specimens. Data are gathered from two leading and persistent journals, one representing the social sciences, the other the humanities: Psychological Review and Mind, respectively. Our results, which build upon earlier work (see below for selected examples), show that the intensity of acknowledgment varies by discipline, reflecting differences in prevailing socio-cognitive structures and work practices. We conclude that the acknowledgment has gradually established itself as a constitutive element of academic writing, one that provides a revealing insight into the nature and extent of trusted assessorship and sub-authorship collaboration. Complementary data in the form of co-authorship rates underscore the importance of collaboration and the increasing division of labor in contemporary research and scholarship. We are currently conducting a similar 100-year analysis of the hard sciences, using the Journal of the American Chemical Society as our test site.
Cronin, B. The scholar's courtesy: the role of acknowledgements in the primary communication process. London: Taylor Graham, 1995.
Cronin, B. Hyperauthorship: a postmodern perversion or evidence of a structural shift in scholarly communication practices? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(7), 2002, 558-569.
Cronin, B. and Shaw, D. Identity-creators and image-makers: using citation analysis and thick description to put authors in their place. Scientometrics, 54(1), 2002, 31-49.
Cronin, B., Snyder, H.W., Rosenbaum, H., Martinson, A., Callahan, E. Invoked on the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(14), 1998, 1319-1328.
Cronin, B., McKenzie, G., Rubio, L. and Weaver-Wozniak, S. Accounting for influence: acknowledgements in contemporary sociology. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 44(7), 1993, 406-412.
BLAISE CRONIN is Dean and Rudy Professor of Information Science at Indiana University. He has published extensively on scholarly communication, citation analysis, evaluative bibliometrics, cybermetrics, and collaboration in science. He is Editor of The Annual Review of Information Science & Technology.
Debora Shaw is Associate Professor and Associate Dean at the Indiana University of Library and Information Science. Her recent research has focused on citation practices on the Web and in print.
One striking and strangely unremarked feature of the emergence of printed literature is the distinctive making and marketing of children's books as objects that exceed printed matter. Eighteenth-century publishers such as John Newbery and Mary Cooper not only followed John Locke's recommendation that children's books include illustrations to please and help child readers, but also designed their books to fit the smaller hands of children. Aiming to make books like toys, they produced books with fold-outs, windows, and harlequinades. Newbery initiated the practice of product tie-ins by selling his "Pretty Little Pocket Book" with a top and thimble. Publishers also made and sold literary games, such as board games of Pilgrim's Progress and card decks of Aesop's Fables. From the very start of children's print culture, children's books epitomized the materiality of imaginative enterprises.
At the same time, printed literature for adults increasingly distanced itself from materiality as illustration became a marker of juvenile or trivial literature. We might say that the power of literary metamorphoses in adult literature proceeded in tandem with the production of extra- literary metamorphoses in children's books. To explore this phenomenon of modern Western culture, this paper will examine the welding of childhood to materiality that eighteenth-century literary practices promoted. I will focus on both the material characteristics of children's books and what might be called the narratives of materiality that underlie and figure in children's books: claims of didactic or empirical truth, references to actual persons and events, direct addresses to the child reader. Children's print culture thus heralds the representational scope of print even as it exemplifies the transformation of print into yet other modes.
GILLIAN BROWN is Professor of English at the University of Utah, having taught previously at Rutgers, and for individual terms at the University of California at Berkeley and at Irvine. She is author of DOMESTIC INDIVIDUALISM: IMAGINING SELF IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA (University of California Press, 1990) and THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED: THE LOCKEAN LEGACY IN EARLY AMERICAN CULTURE (Harvard, 2001). She is presently engaged in writing a book on the Rise of Children's Literature.
"Authorship" matters. The figure for the process of culture-making that emerged as dominant in early nineteenth-century European literary discourse has cast a long forward shadow. Today, perhaps more than ever before, it has practical implications for the way in which benefits and burdens are distributed in the real world and in this presentation I shall focus on the concept's geopolitical implications. In the post-colonial era "authorship" operates as one of the chief conceptual mechanisms by which the nations of the industrial North maintain economic and cultural hegemony over information flows, and by which the claims of the peoples of the South are marginalized or denied. Specifically, I'd like to alert listeners to the inequitable way in which the law operates to allocate "intellectual property" rights, demonstrate the connection between this form of distributional injustice and the "authorship" construct, and explore alternative ways of thinking and talking about cultural production that could provide the foundation of a different legal order.
Last month the case of *Eldred v. Ashcroft* was brought before the Supreme Court to challenge the constitutionality of the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998. The eleventh such extension in only forty years, the "Sonny Bono Act" increased authors' exclusive rights by 20 years to life plus 70 years post mortem, further eroding public access to information. In the seminar we shall examine the extended Parliamentary debate in which the engine of this trend, the romanticized conception of creative production at the center of the copyright law, achieved its present efficacy.
MARTHA WOODMANSEE is author of THE AUTHOR, ART, AND THE MARKET: REREADING THE HISTORY OF AESTHETICS (Columbia University Press, 1994) and Co-Editor, with Peter Jaszi and Mark Osteen respectively, of two extremely influential volumes, THE CONSTRUCTION OF AUTHORSHIP: TEXTUAL APPROPRIATION IN LAW AND LITERATURE (Duke University Press, 1994; this a reprint of Vol. 10, No.2 of the _Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal_ ) and THE NEW ECONOMIC CRITICISM: STUDIES AT THE INTERSECTION OF LITERATURE AND ECONOMICS (Routledge, 1999). She has published widely on Aesthetics, German and English Romantic Literature, and the History and Conception of Authorship, and has been long-time Executive Director of the Society for Critical Exchange. The material for both her lecture and seminar session arises from research conducted with the aid of a Guggenheim Fellowship this past year.
Once a month, from the spring of 1823 through the winter of 1824, a group of writers, book aficionados, and others "addicted to curiosity" (this is the name they gave to their gatherings) assembled in Edo (as Tokyo was then called) to show off the rarities they had collected. The record of these meetings, published in 1832, is a jumble of old documents, rubbings of inscriptions and seals, antique maps, samples of calligraphy and painting, descriptions of interesting birds, tools, rocks, weapons, and costumes. Although anything that could be considered curious, whether ancient or modern, foreign or domestic, was grist for the mill, materials that had a connection to the nation's past--for instance, a roof tile from a now defunct temple or a sword that might have belonged to a famous warrior--seem to have been especially valued.
Miscellanies such as this one (called, appropriately, Tanki manroku, or Random Record of the Society of Those Addicted to Curiosity) were a fairly common product of the publishing industry in the late Tokugawa period. Unlike the encyclopedias of the seventeenth century (which were among the mainstays of the early growth of the book trade in Japan), these collections made little attempt to be systematic or comprehensive. For the most part, the curious nature of the objects and anecdotes recollected seems to have been regarded as sufficient recommendation. Sometimes, as the preface to one collection suggests, they pretended to instruct readers about the wider world. Another collection, intriguingly, offered itself as a way to cope with the information explosion of recent times, which, as "books pile up without number," had made it impossible for individuals to keep pace. Writers, the compiler of this collection suggested, might use the work as a crib to add detail and substance to their books.
Edo's huge (over one million at the beginning of the nineteenth century) and increasingly literate population created opportunities to which booksellers and authors responded. This paper will look at the information explosion of late Tokugawa Japan and the effects it had on the consumption of history. The curiosity on display in the miscellanies became the model for a new way readers might relate to the past. Writing for a popular audience, concerned to find ways to excite their readers' curiosity, authors offered new ways to experience the past. History, hitherto conceived primarily as a mirror for princes, became instead an source of interest: something one might unexpectedly unearth in old objects or encounter in strange tales.
THOMAS KEIRSTEAD has been Associate Professor of East Asian Languages and Cultures and of History at Indiana University, Bloomington since 2001, having taught previously at McGill University and the State University of New York at Buffalo. He is author of THE GEOGRAPHY OF POWER IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN (Princeton, 1992) and is engaged in writing another book-length study, INVENTING MEDIEVAL JAPAN.
In accordance with the United States Constitution's reference to "authors," the 1976 Copyright Act provides that initial ownership of copyright belongs to a work's author. The concept of an author as an individual reflects, to some scholars, a romantic view of the nature of authorship. Increasingly, however, works of art, music, and literature result from the collaboration of two of more individuals, who under appropriate circumstances are considered by the law as joint authors and co-owners of the work. My talk will examine the meaning of "joint authorship"--specifically, how the current Copyright Act determines when two or more authors will share ownership rights in a collaborative work. Much recent scholarship has concentrated on the historical development of the "author" and the question of whether authors should have the right--natural or otherwise--to control their works. Others have examined the scope of rights afforded to an author. Instead of entering these debates, I will approach the question: who is a joint author under the law of copyright? I will center my talk on several examples from the case law, which will demonstrate how joint authorship is disfavored in the law. I conclude that the narrow interpretation of joint authorship manifested in this case law results more from a preference for judicial economy, and economic efficiency, than from an ideological adherence to the romantic notion of individualized creation.
MARSHALL LEAFFER is Distinguished Scholar in Intellectual Property Law and University Fellow in Indiana University's School of Law, having held that position since 1997. Before that he worked as an attorney in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office and the Copyright Office in Washington, D. C. and then was Anderson-Fornoff Professor of Law and Vaules at the Univer- sity of Toledo School of Law. He is author and/or editor of eight books, most notably, UNDERSTANDING COPYRIGHT LAW, now in its third edition.
In the century unfolding between 1753, when Parliament passed the British Museum Act, and 1850, when Parliament passed its first Public Libraries Act, old books came to be conceptualized in new ways as Britons' common property --as the stuff of public heritage. English Literature itself came to seem a "national library" in the wake of the judicial decision of 1774 that finally abolished claims to perpetual copyright and effectively instituted the idea of the "public domain." The avalanche of reprint series, anthologies, "specimens" of the "elder poets," and critical source studies that were produced after the House of Lords decided that English Literature "belonged to the British People" both created the canon as we know it and also made it possible to understand that select set of texts from the past as a source of social cohesion for the present. In ways that could never quite defuse the widening social divisions afflicting British society, reading too was reconceived in this period and celebrated for how it enabled the nation, in probating its shared cultural inheritance, to reaffirm its solidarity.
But the era that develops these notions of literature and reading also portrays the private library as a scene of conspicuous consumption and financial speculation, in dangerously close proximity to the era's auction rooms. The gentleman's library was supposed to be a scaled-down version of the National Library. But the same how-to books (the so-called "library companions") that help to create the period's cult of the approved authors and which translate the ideas of the monumental library to the private residence also encourage their readers to understand the book-collection as an "interior"--a space of secret, idiosyncratic, and perhaps perverse privacy and exclusive possession.
This paper looks, in particular, at how these contradictions are embedded in the period's representations of the rare book--and the gentleman who, in booksellers' auction rooms, pursued it, and who was known, in the satires and also the true confessions and case-histories of the Romantic period, as "the bibliomaniac." Bibliomaniacs' acquisitiveness, and possessive, perverse ways of responding to the new cultural arrangements promoting the love of literature, can provide us with a particularly vivid image of how literary culture managed the tensions between the ideals of a shared public heritage and the realities of private ownership.
DEIDRE LYNCH is Associate Professor of English at Indiana, having been here since the fall of 2001 and before that at SUNY-Buffalo. She is author of THE ECONOMY OF CHARACTER: NOVELS, MARKET CULTURE, AND THE BUSINESS OF INNER MEANING (U. of Chicago Press, 1998), which won the Modern Language Association Prize for a first book. She is also editor/co-editor of two volumes of essays (JANEITES: AUSTEN'S DISCIPLES AND DEVOTEES [Princeton, 2000] and CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE NOVEL [Duke U. Press, 1996]) and is presently at work on a second book, AT HOME IN ENGLISH: "LOVING" LITERATURE, IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER.
In a workshop similar to an exercise conducted in Medical Schools around the country and world, members of the Lilly Library staff will put before Christopher de Hamel medieval manuscripts in the Lilly Collection (both whole books and fragments) that he has never seen before and has no prior knowledge of. Dr. de Hamel will then demonstrate what he looks for and how he goes about identifying the nature, identity, and provenance of a given manuscript. This exercise will offer a rare chance to see a world-renowned expert in medieval manuscripts either face total humiliation or triumph over the unknown and justify a warranted reputation.
CHRISTOPHER DE HAMEL worked for 25 years in the Western Manuscripts Department at Sotheby's, London, rising to Head of that Department. Since September 2000 he has been Donnelley Fellow Librarian at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which college library holds the collection of Matthew Parker (Elizabeth I's Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 to 1575). Dr. De Hamel is the author of a goodly number of Guides to Medieval Manu- scripts and several books, most notably A HISTORY OF ILLUMINATED MANU- SCRIPTS (Phaidon, 1994; paperback, 1997), GLOSSED BOOKS OF THE BIBLE AND THE ORIGINS OF THE PARIS BOOKTRADE (1994), and THE BOOK: A HISTORY OF THE BIBLE (Phaidon, 2001). His History of the Book Seminar Session will be followed by a Medieval Studies Lecture, WHAT IS A BOOK OF HOURS, HOW WAS IT MADE, AND HOW DO WE KNOW?, on Tuesday, March 25.
This talk offers an overview of the history of music publishing in the 16th century and of its impact on the patronage, composition, and consumption of music. The development, around 1500, of methods that made printing music easy and inexpensive altered radically the patterns of production and consumption of both individual compositions and entire genres. The dramatic expansion of the market for musical prints ranging from devotional books to collections of erotic madrigals and chansons attests not only to the popularity of music as a form of entertainment but also to the rapid spread of musical literacy outside courts and cathedrals.
Within fifty years of Ottaviano Petrucci's first book of music, published in Venice in 1501, a number of specialized printing firms were issuing hundreds of volumes for distribution throughout Europe. When known, prices and press runs make it clear that performing music from notation was not a skill limited to professionals and highly educated courtiers but was within the reach of even relatively modest households. The various layouts of the books themselves--from the sets of partbooks sold for polyphonic vocal music to the "table" layout of English airs and the score format of the early 17th century monodies--bear clues to the ways music was performed.
MASSIMO OSSI is Associate Professor of Musicology in our School of Music, having come to Indiana in that Fall of 2001 from the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester where he taught for a dozen years. He is general editor of the series MUSIC AT THE COURTS OF ITALY and on the Editorial Board for the COLLECTED WORKS OF LUCA MARENZIO. His book, DIVINING THE ORACLE: ASPECTS OF MONTEVERDI'S SECONDA PRATTICA, is to appear later this year from the University of Chicago Press. He is presently Acting Chair of the Musicology Department.
The literary history of American sentimentalism has focussed especially on the sentimental novels of the Early American Republic: those tear-jerkers that seemed to preach morality and that imagined the inclusion of social groups excluded from the political constituency of the Constitution. Using the extraordinary career of Philadelphia bookseller Robert Bell, "Provedore to the Sentimentalists", this paper will examine an earlier urban print culture of sensibility in terms of genre and the changing contours and possibilities of readership.
SARAH KNOTT is an Assistant Professor of History, having begun her appointment at Indiana in the fall of 2001 and having earned a D.Phil at the University of Oxford in 1999. In between those two dates she was a Junior Research Fellow at Wolfson College, Oxford and a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of London. She has co-edited a volume of essays, WOMEN, GENDER AND ENLIGHTENMENT (Palgrave, forthcoming 2004) and is engaged in writing a book-length study entitled A CULTURAL HISTORY OF SENSIBILITY IN REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA.
Sponsored by the Institute for Advanced Study and supported in part by a grant from the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation.