Skip navigation and jump directly to page content
Indiana University Bloomington
Choose site to be searched
Type search terms

748

Research Topics

Aging, Health and Well Being of United States Master Swimmers

It is widely supposed that individuals who maintain an active lifestyle live longer and live better. Most studies to date have focused upon the consequences of physical inactivity on health and well-being, whereas few studies have specifically targeted those who might be considered the most active. In theory, participants who engage in organized physical training might display favorable aging outcomes as compared to those of the population at large. More...

Swimming Energy Expenditure and Training Load Measurement

Current methods utilized to estimate energy expended while swimming include the following: physical activity log, doubly labeled water, measurement of oxygen consumption while swimming, and published regression equations. Each of these methods has limitations, advantages and disadvantages. More importantly, there are there are no available methods to economically, unobtrusively and accurately measure swimming energy expenditure in a free living situation. More...

Competitive Swim Starts

Reports from high school and collegiate sports suggest that in competitive swimming, most catastrophic injuries occur when swimmers are performing competitive racing starts (Mueller & Cantu, 2007). As swimming participation in this country continues to remain at high levels (286,147 USA Swimming registered athletes; USA Swimming, 2009) and new facilities are built, there is an obvious need to review all aspects of safety within the sport so as to ensure that rules and regulations are based upon sound safety practices. Since the racing start appears to be the aspect of the sport that is the most inherently risky, it is critical that we carefully examine the variables pertaining to the racing start as a means of identifying the level of risk they represent. More...

Drag, Power, and Speed in Swimming

The study of swimming has long centered upon the two fundamental determinants of swimming speed: the resistive forces experienced by the swimmer and the propulsive forces that the swimmer can generate. While much research has attempted to identify the factors that affect these two variables, the limitations of measurement have prevented conclusive statements about propulsive and resistive forces in swimming. Difficulties in measurement stem from three main sources. More...

Chocolate Milk as a Post-Exercise Recovery Aid

Sport nutritionists recommend that endurance athletes performing two workouts a day ingest carbohydrates immediately following the first training session to rapidly replenish muscle glycogen. To meet this need, many nutritional products have been marketed as carbohydrate replacement drinks (CR) or fluid replacement drinks (FR) containing less carbohydrate. Since chocolate milk has a similar carbohydrate content to that of many CR, it may be an effective means of recovery from exhausting exercise. We examined the efficacy of chocolate milk (CM) as a recovery aid following exhausting exercise. More...

Shaving, Sensory Input, and Motor Performance

The technique of shaving arms, legs, torso, and sometimes head prior to a championship swim event has continued for more than half a century and is considered a normal practice for age group, high school, collegiate, and professional swimmers alike. Since the 1956 Olympic Games, in which the dominant Australian swim team is thought to have been the first to shave their body hair prior to swimming competition, the unique technique of shaving down began its spread across the competitive swimming world. More…

Historical Progression of Elite Swim Performance

The interpretation of performance trends using compiled results of athletic competitions dates back to the end of the 19th century, presumably coincident with the start of the modern Olympic Games. Today, because of the easy and nearly instantaneous access to competition results, there is a renewed interest in understanding the nature and prevalence of outstanding performances, particularly as they relate to Olympic and World records. For example, a real-time comparison of an athlete’s performance to the world record performance is commonly used to capture spectators’ interest. Further, new analytic techniques to evaluate the success of training regimes for individual athletes, team performances, and even national sport agendas are becoming commonplace. More...

Age-group Categorization in Competitive Swimming

Matching youth sports participants in order to make competition fair and safe is an important goal of sports federations. “Fairness” has been administered by classifying the competitors into groups based on chronological age (CA), a general indicator of developmental status. USA Swimming has adopted four unisex age-groups for championships. Each group is composed of plural CA categories: the ages of 10 years and under, 11-12 years, 13-14 years, and 15 years and over, but there seems to be no rationale behind this age-grouping. More...