Modern historiography which introduced critical scientific methodology began in Hungary with the birth and development of the Positivist School in the second half of the 19th century. By the beginning of the 20th century the hold of positivism on Hungarian historiography began to decline and several competing schools of history emerged. These included the traditionally oriented Economic History School or Kulturgeschichte School; as well as the avant garde Organic Sociological School, which drew its inspiration from the ideas of Darwin, Spencer and Marx, and the idealist Geistesgeschichte Schook, based largely on the philosophy of W. Dilthey. After WWI it was Dilthey-inspired new approach which became the most significant trend in Hungarian historical studies. Its influence, however, was tempered by the continued presence of several traditional, and a number of new schools of history. The most significant of these rival schools was the Ethnohistory School, which emphasized the role of the people (Volk) as opposed to the state. After WWII historical materialism displaced all other ideological and philosophical orientations. Up to the 1960s only Marxist interpretations of history were tolerated. Due to the more liberal climate of the late Kádár era in the 1970s and 1980s, however, Hungarian historiography raised its scholarly level again. The present situation is characterized by a variety of approaches and methods. The aim of this course is to present a comprehensive view of the above mentioned schools of history. Class work will be based on the monographs, essays and other writings of several outstanding Hungarian historians including Henrik Marczali, Gyula Szekfű, Elmér Mályusz, István Szabó, István Mód, Erik Molnár and others. As most of the texts to be read are available only in Hungarian, a good Hungarian knowledge is required.
Days and Time: Monday and Wednesday, 2:30-3:45.