- Central Eurasian Studies >> Courses >> Course List
- History of Mongolic Writing System
- Catalog Number CEUS-U 520
- György Kara
- The origins, functions, and classifications of writing systems.
- Their relation to religion, ethnic identity, and political power.
Written vs. spoken language.
- Graphemes and allographs. Free and bound graphemes. Diacritics.
- Allography: positional, historical, territorial, social, professional,
- Graphical style (calligraphy, cursive, shorthand, ornamental forms).
- Parallel usage of more than one systems (digraphy. multigraphy).
- Transliteration and transcription.
- The pre-thirteenth-century writing systems used for Mongolic languages.
- The Tabgach bitekchin. The lost writing system of the Northern
- The two Siniform scripts of the Kitan: the linear and the composite;
their epigraphical monuments; their complex structure: ideograms,
syllabograms, phonograms; the state of decipherment.
- The Sogdian-Uygur alphabet applied to Middle Mongolian. Influence of
Uygur orthography. Graphematics. The nom-un kele, the language of the
Buddhist scriptures. Middle Mongolian and New Mongolian developments.
- Emperor Kubilai’s "Square Script" or ‘Phags-pa script: an Indo-Tibetan
‘alphasyllabic’ system with Brahmi and Uygur elements, its free and bound
graphemes, transliteration and transcription.. Its monuments in Mongolian,
Chinese, Turkic and Tibetan.
- Ayushi’s Galik script: the Uygur alphabet extended in order to represent
Indian and Tibetan sounds. New graphemes. The trigraph waw+yod+aleph.
- Zaya Pandita’s Oirat or "Clear Script." Most ambiguities of the Uygur
script eliminated. Positional allography partially eliminated, Diphthongs
and long vowels.
- A new "book language" and its chancellory version. The Galik of the
- J ânavajra’s alphabets: the Soyombo Script and the Horizontal Square
- Agvan Dorzhiev’s Buriat alphabet without positional allography.
- Mongolian in Tibetan script.
- Mongolian and Daur in Manchu script.
- Mongolian texts in Arabic, Chinese, and Korean script. Mogholi in Arabic
- Mongolian glossaries in Arabic, Chinese, Korean, and Armenian script.
- Kalmyk, Buriat, Khalkha and Daur in Cyrillic and in Latin alphabets.
- Daur, Monguor and Santa (Dongxiang) in Pinyin Romanization.
Recommended literature: Ts. Shagdarsüren, Mongolchuudiin üseg bichigiin
towchoon (Ulaanbaatar, 2001); W. Bright & P. T. Daniels, eds., The
World’s Writing Systems (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996); J.
Bosson, "Scripts and Literacy in the Mongol World" in P. Berger & T. Tse
Bartholomew, eds., Mongolia. The Legacy of Chinggis Khan (The Asian Art
Museum of San Francisco, 1995), pp. 88-95; D. Kara, Knigi mongol’skikh
kochevnikov (Moscow: Nauka, 1972); G. Kara, The Books of the Mongolian
Nomads (Bloomington, IN: IU, 2005); N. Poppe, Introduction to Altaic
Linguistics (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965), etc.