Ron C. Cooke, Randy M. Miller and Don Alger

Chemistry Department, California State University-Chico
Chico, CA 95929-0210

February 1991

Alternative Internet E-mail addresses:


        Chapter                                                 Page

        I       INTRODUCTION                                    2
        II      Introducing students to database searching      3
        III     Pros and Cons of course segment approach        3
                Pros                                            3
                Cons                                            4
        IV      Getting started                                 5
                Computer workstations                           5
        V       The Database vendor                             5
        VI      Special notes                                   5
        VII     Reference material                              6
        VIII    Weekly procedures and lessons                   6
                Week 1                                          7
                Week 2                                          7
                How to interpret lessons                        7
                Lesson 1                                        7
                Week 3 (Lesson 2)                               9
                Week 4 (Lesson 3)                               11
                Week 5 (Lesson 4)                               13
                Week 6                                          15
                Lesson 5                                        16
                Week 7 (Lesson 6)                               17
                Week 8 (Lesson 7)                               19
                Week 9                                          22
                Lesson 8                                        23
                Week 10                                         28
        IX      Online Searching basics                         28
                Information                                     28
                Begin                                           28
                Select                                          28
                Truncation                                      28
                Or                                              29
                And                                             29
                Not                                             29
                Logical Operator Order                          29
                Free-Text Searching                             29
                Type                                            30
                Format Specifications                           30
                Search Limitations                              30
                Field Suffix Codes                              30
                Prefix Codes                                    30
                Comment Lines                                   31
                Saving Search Strategy                          31
                Expand                                          32
                Related Terms                                   32
                Expand Additional Indexes                       33
                Searching Multiple Files                        33
                Map                                             34
        X       MISCELLANEOUS                                   35
                Dialog Database Descriptions                    35
                Dialog Logon/Logoff                             37
                Catalog Plus Logon                              38
                Catalog Plus Remote Access Guide                38
                Ring System Searching on Dialog                 40
                GLOSSARY                                        44
                INDEX                                           45


This program was supported by an Instructional Development Lottery Grant
from the California State University (CSU).

Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure and reactions of
matter. In chemistry as in all disciplines, scientific and otherwise,
the results of new studies must be effectively communicated. In an
effort to improve the training of university students towards this end,
writing proficiency requirements are present in most undergraduate
majors programs. Recently at California State University at Chico, this
requirement has been extended to every course in every major.

Writing assignments include the communication of creative, original
work. An important component of these assignments is a review of related
literature published in books, journal articles, patents, etc..
Conducting reviews of relevant literature can be carried out at various
levels of sophistication. The options include manual searching of
printed material, computer online searching of a single source and
online searching of multiple sources. Manual searching is the basic
building block of literature review technique and should be a part of
every student's experience. In chemistry and related disciplines, these
searches are usually limited to one abstracting source such as
Chemical Abstracts. In general, this type of search approach is
utilized by students for course work or research projects. Their
immediate need of producing a report can usually be satisfied but the
student may miss much of the available information. This situation can
be tremendously improved by searching a single database online, however
the variety of information accessed and the extent of review presented
is still limited.

A more thorough review would be expected to include a wide variety of
references which might be indexed in completely different databases.
Manually searching a variety of indexes is impractical. However,
computer-based searching through a commercial online database
provider opens up access to over 300 databases, including Chemical
Abstracts. Databases range from Ageline to Zoological Record Online. A
list of chemically related databases can be found on page 43 of this
manual. Many variations with an interactive search strategy can lead to
a more complete understanding of the subject matter than a minimum
effort manual or online search of a single abstracting service.
In this age of complex interactions between different disciplines,
interactive database searching may stimulate creative thoughts and
certainly will enable more complete presentation of scientific work.

The intent of this instructional manual is to enable students to conduct
computer-based interactive searching through multiple databases.

The process of interactive searching is multifaceted, involving practice
on the use of a computer, modem, software and telecommunications
networks. More importantly, it helps to teach organization, logic and
in-depth understanding of the subject and a competent, efficient use of
the library. The introduction and development of these skills in the
university setting could be accomplished in several ways. Many
departments have specific courses which introduce students to the
literature of their discipline. Our experience has been that students
tend to take these courses late in their program of study, therefore
missing out on the advantages of the searching techniques. If these
literature courses were required during a student's sophomore year or
early in their junior year, then introduction to the interactive
searching techniques could be utilized for several years before
graduation. A different approach would be to have a course segment
available to instructors. This course segment would introduce students
to the techniques in a more or less self-paced presentation. The
instructional segment could then be used in any course that the
instructor deemed appropriate, even a course specifically aimed at the
literature of a discipline.

We have favored the latter approach because of its general
applicability. This manual presents a course segment developed during a
pilot program in the Chemistry Department at CSU Chico.


As the course segment was being developed many benefits of
implementing instruction in this way were discovered. Also, several
frustrations were encountered. These are illustrated below.


1. The quality and thoroughness of student reports improve as the
students develop the tools necessary to perform their own interactive
search. The integration of searching skills with a student's current
interests (research papers, senior seminar, literature courses, advanced
courses, undergraduate and graduate research) provides incentive for
more enthusiastic and effective learning.

2. Organization and logic skills of students increase as they learn
about preparedness. They quickly discover that the online database is
not magical. The computer does not know what their project is or what
information they need. They learn to think logically to prepare a
strategy offline and then perform the search online. The search should
be evaluated, amended and the process repeated until the results are
satisfactory. This process is enhanced as the students make judicious
use of the limited online time available.

3. The dynamic nature of scientific work is illustrated. The students
are exposed to the enormous amount of literature available and learn how
difficult (and important) it is for a researcher to stay current in a
given discipline. An example is a student who was enrolled in an
independent research project. He conducted a search (similar to lesson
5) as background to his research project. He was very disappointed to
find that his project had already been done. He immediately read the
relevant papers and was back the next day with an idea. After reading
about the synthesis that had been done he had a modification in mind
that would make the process more efficient. He couldn't wait to get to

4. More library services are utilized as students easily find many
relevant literature references. Online searching provides modern journal
references, but the students still have to find and evaluate the
articles and write reports based on them. Older references are not found
online and have to be found by traditional search techniques and/or
references from modern articles. After an online database search the
students know what literature is relevant. A subsequent online search
indicates what journals and books are immediately available in our
library. For those references which are unavailable locally, additional
searches can be performed to identify institutions where the references
are available. For instance, our students have utilized TELNET to
access the University of California Online catalog (MELVYL) to find
if articles unavailable at Chico can be found at U.C. Davis.

5. The course segment is easy to implement. With a multi-database
vendor the only requirement to implement such a program is a
telecommunications workstation consisting of a computer, printer,
modem, telecommunications software, phone line, database account and
password. Because the material is more or less self-taught, instructors
from a variety of courses can ask their students to learn these
techniques. The specific lessons can be tailored to a particular course.

6. The computer-based nature of the course segment enhances computer
literacy. An expectation for college students, particularly in the
sciences, should be computer literacy. Our program helps to acquaint
students with basic computer operation, telecommunications software, use
of a modem, logon/logoff to databases and networks, electronic mail and
an introduction to networking.

7. The searching lessons can be adapted to other disciplines. Many of
the lessons developed are adaptable to all disciplines with just a
slight change in wording. Almost any subject will have an online
information bank to access.


1. The instructor must be reasonably comfortable with computers and

2. The actual abstract from Chemical Abstracts is not available
through multi-database vendors other than STN the database
vendor for CAS Online. An abstract is a wonderful device for initial
evaluation of an article and it is an annoyance not to have it online.
This problem is not insurmountable because the abstract number is given
as a result of a search on a multi-database system and it can be looked
up in the hardbound edition of Chemical Abstracts. Details on the
conflict between Dialog, a multi-database vendor, and Chemical
Abstracts Service that leads to this condition are available: Chem.
and Eng. News 68(25):4; 68(27):5 (1990)

3. Lack of availability of some journals. This is dependent on the
periodical and book holdings of the library and the specific budgetary
priorities of a given campus. See special notes on page 5 for
suggestions on obtaining journal articles.
4. Security considerations. Online database time is relatively
expensive and the potential for theft exists. See the special notes on
page 5 for suggestions regarding database security.

This manual contains instructions and the actual lessons developed
during a pilot program in the Department of Chemistry at CSU Chico. The
program was used in conjunction with three upper division chemistry
classes-Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Basic Instrumental Analysis, and
Toxicology. Lessons were tailored to these classes.

The segment formally consists of 8 lessons; each require approximately
10 minutes offline preparation and 10 minutes online searching. A
particular lesson may require more or less time. Additional lessons may
be developed or assigned by the specific instructor. Following our
format, students schedule 15 minute blocks of time for database access.

All of the lessons have "chemistry" as the common theme, but can be
adapted to other disciplines with just slight changes in wording. The
exceptions to this are lessons 4,5 and 7 which are strictly chemical in
nature. Lesson 2 deals with online access to the Meriam Library at CSU
Chico. This lesson will be most useful to other CSU campuses which have
the "Catalog Plus" online card catalog.

Computer workstations used

1. Computer: IBM compatible, XT(or higher) or Macintosh SE
2. Printer: dot matrix is sufficient 
3. 1200-2400 baud modem 
4. Telecommunications software: Procomm, Red Ryder or similar
5. Phone line
6. Database account and password: available through the database vendor.
The number of workstations needed depends on the number of students
served. This manual illustrates a series of short lessons that maximize
development of searching technique but minimize time on the database.
Our short lesson method allowed one workstation to serve 12-20 students.


Online database searching in the sciences has many common features. The
user must first organize for the search by collecting keywords, authors,
and other information which may be discipline specific. For example,
chemistry uses registry numbers and molecular weights. The user must
have a working knowledge of Boolean Logic (discussed later) and then
must physically connect with the database provider. Once online the user
must be able to interact with the database by knowing the command
language. This manual illustrates and instructs in the use of DIALOG
and its commands. There are other providers with similar capabilities
and command languages. We chose DIALOG because of the many (300+)
databases available and the special rates of the Classroom Instructional
Program (CIP). This manual could be adapted for use with another vendor.


1. The lack of some journals at a library can be overcome several ways.
Our students utilized inter-library loan which can be amazingly swift
but usually is quite slow. A second solution involves using a service of
the database vendor called DIALORDER. The document providers found in

the DIALOG Yellow Sheets can provide any document. DIALORDER is quite
expensive and beyond our current budget.

2. Expensive database time is secured because access to the database is
password protected. However, it is inconvenient to require the
instructor to do the logons. It is more natural to have each student
logon and logoff from a given online session. We protect our system by
programming the password into macro keys within the telecommunications
software (this is very easy to do). We give each student a protocol for
logging on and off to DIALOG (see page 37 of this manual) which sends
the necessary commands to the database provider. The password is never
seen on the screen. Students can only access the database during their
scheduled session.

This is a simple approach to security. A person familiar with the
telecommunications software can easily enter a command to see the makeup
of the macro keys! We keep this possibility to a minimum by maintaining
the software with encoded password on a floppy disk not on the hard
disk. The floppy is removed from the laboratory after every session and
kept in a secure place. The password can be changed if there is any
breach in security.


The students mainly use the handout material we provide. In addition the
following reference material is available:

1) Searching DIALOG: The Complete Guide - The basic reference manual for
using the DIALOG system. Detailed explanations on how to access DIALOG
and on each of the commands and features are included. It also includes
a set of Bluesheet searching guides for each database and a set of
Yellowsheets detailing the prices and policies of DIALORDER document
delivery suppliers.

2) Searching DIALOG: The Tutorial Guide - This is a self-paced
instructional manual with examples, summaries and hands-on exercises.

3) Database Documentation Chapters - A separate documentation chapter is
available for most databases. Each chapter is about 40 pages long and
includes sample searches, searchable fields and a list of available
search aids. We have Analytical Abstracts, CA Search, Chemname, Heilbron
and Biosis Previews.

4) CA Headings Lists - Includes the list of controlled vocabulary headings
for: 1) General subject index headings of the 9th, 10th, and 11th
Collective Index periods and 2) Plant and Animal headings for the 9th,
10th, and 11th Collective Index periods.

5) Naming and Indexing of Chemical Substances for Chemical Abstracts
reprint of Appendix 4 of the 1987 Index Guide.

1-3) Available from DIALOG Information Services, Inc., 3460 Hillview
Avenue, Palo Alto, CA  94304, Telephone 800-3DIALOG

4-5) Available from Chemical Abstracts Service, P.O. Box 3012,
Columbus, OH 43210, Telephone 614-447-3600


This chapter introduces the short lesson method we developed which
enabled our students to search multiple databases via Dialog. The
lessons and subsequent assignments shown on the following pages were
given to our students.

Students were always given a lesson one week prior to their searching
laboratory. This procedure coupled with the limited online time
available established good habits-they came prepared to work.

Week 1
An introduction/overview should be given. This should include a
lecture and an online demonstration of a predetermined database search.
A printed copy of the demonstration search should be given to each
student because it is so easy to miss details on the screen of a
computer monitor.

A handout on the basics of online searching should also be distributed
at this time. This handout should contain general information to be used
as a reference while preparing search strategies offline. The handout
used in our project can be found on page 28 of this manual (Chapter IX).

Lesson 1 should be handed out at this time. The procedure for the
student searching laboratory needs to be discussed in detail. The
details of the laboratory will vary depending on the physical layout,
number of workstations (computer/modem/phone line/password) and
availability of instructors. In our case, with one workstation, the
students signed up in advance for blocks of time (15 minute blocks); the
searching laboratory was always supervised so additional help and
instruction was available. We required that the lesson be read in
advance and online strategy be planned in advance or the student could
not attempt the lesson. After the students finished their search they
left the laboratory with a hard copy of their session to be handed in to
their instructor.

Week 2
Lesson 1 is done by the students in the supervised laboratory. At
this time the students are shown how to access the database vendor via
computer and modem and how to choose a particular database (File) with
the BEGIN command. This lesson uses File 399 which is Chemical Abstracts
Search. The lesson also illustrates how to SELECT a keyword, Limit the
number of references received ("Hits") and PRINT the results. The data
collected online is "echoed" to a dot matrix printer for the student and
also stored as a text file for future instructor reference.

At this time the students receive Lesson 2 which will be performed in
the same fashion the following week.

The next section in this manual is entitled "How to interpret lessons" and
should be read thoroughly before proceeding to Lessons 1-8. 


Lessons 1-7 follow a similar format. They start with a title followed by
an introductory paragraph. Next comes an annotated sample online search
followed by assignments for the students. Annotations are to the right
of the search and set off by asterisks. All lessons trace the
assignments of 12 students through a semester. Lesson 8 has a different
format that is explained within the lesson.

LESSON 1: Simple Search with Limitations

Two concepts can be linked with the AND operator. As can be seen in the
sample search below this type of linkage can give a very large number of
hits. Often you will append suffix codes to limit the search.
? B 399                          **We BEGIN File 399**  

File 399: CA SEARCH 1967-1989
Set     Items   Description
---     ------  -------------
?S BENZENE                        **We SELECT Benzene**
      S1  156175  BENZENE         **There are 156175 hits in Set 1**
?S S1/FF               **Limits words to full term i.e. not bromobenzene**
      S2   49706  S1/FF           **Note the large reduction in hits **
      S3  101160  TOXICITY
?S S2 AND S3                      **The two concepts are linked with AND**
           49706  S2
          101160  S3
      S4     540  S2 AND S3       **Too many hits to evaluate **
?S S4/ENG                         **/ENG limits to the English Language**
      S5     324  S4/ENG          **Notice the reduction**
?S S5/TI                       **Either search term must be in the TITLE**
      S6     245  S5/TI         
?S S6/1989:1990              **Limits to the Publication Years 1989-1990**
             245  S6
          274167  PY=1989 : PY=1990
      S7      18  S6/1989:1990    **There are only 18 recent articles**
?T S7/TI/ALL NOHEADER     **We TYPE All Titles of Set 7 with no  headings**

  Prevention of benzene-induced myelotoxicity by nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs
  Studies on the mechanism of benzene toxicity
  Differences in the pathways for metabolism of benzene in rats and mice
simulated by a physiological model
  Mechanisms of free radical chemistry and biochemistry of benzene
  QSAR investigation of benzene toxicity to fathead minnow using
molecular connectivity
  Peroxidase-dependent metabolism of benzene's phenolic metabolites and
its potential role in benzene toxicity and carcinogenicity
  Metabolism and toxicity of trans,trans-muconaldehyde, an open-ring
microsomal metabolite of benzene
  The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on
tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites
  Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen:  results of the
long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology
  Prevention of benzene-induced myelotoxicity and prostaglandin
synthesis in bone marrow of mice by inhibitors of prostaglandin H
  Modulation of benzene toxicity by polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, an
interferon inducer
  Macrophage regulation of myelopoiesis is altered by exposure to the
benzene metabolite hydroquinone (Erratum to document cited in
  Structure-activity relationship studies on the toxicity of benzene
derivatives:  III.  Predictions and extension to new substituents
  Macrophage regulation of myelopoiesis is altered by exposure to the
benzene metabolite hydroquinone
  Cytotoxic effects on benzene on mouse germ cells determined by flow
  Inhibitory effect of benzene metabolites on nuclear DNA synthesis in
bone marrow cells
  The role of GSH depletion and toxicity in hydroquinone-induced
development of enzyme-altered foci
  The prevention of benzene-induced genotoxicity in mice by indomethacin

ASSIGNMENT 1 Search the following terms in a similar fashion:
Name                    Term 1            Term 2
Brady, Sandra           Iodine           Spectroscopy 
Burgess-Henry, Jana     Iodine        Photoelectron and Spectroscopy
Schlais, Scott          Iodine           Recombination
Warren, Hope            Iodine           Rotation
Wood, Michael           Iodine           Resonance
Ehorn, William          Nitrate          Determination
Fox, Michael            Nitrate          Toxicity
Hansen, Janet           Uranium          Toxicity
Harrison, Katherine     Caffeine         Chromatography
Howard, Sean            Caffeine       Reverse Phase and Chromatography
Laurie, Greg            Laser            Solid State
Smith, Ray              Laser            Diode


1. Search the terms listed above. Type the titles (maximum of 10)
with the NOHEADER command.

Week 3 
The pattern established earlier is followed for subsequent lessons.
Certain lessons may require additional time and activities for the

Lesson 2 begins with a sample search that is very similar to the search
in Lesson 1 and introduces the use of database fields. The  final result
of this search is a bibliographic citation of a periodical and is listed
as Energy Convers. 1968 Volume 8 Number 3 Pages 113-15. The students are
then asked a very important question "Do we have this journal?". If a
title is obtained from an online search seems important it is necessary
to know if our library carries this journal and has the requisite
volume. Lesson 2 requires the student to locate online (via the Meriam
Library's "Catalog Plus") a call number and library holdings of an
assigned periodical. The full titles of the periodicals are not known to
the students and this lesson introduces truncation to retrieve
variations in word endings. The student is also required to describe how
this process is done using traditional library techniques and to
identify the full name of a given abbreviated periodical using the
hardbound Chemical Abstract Service Source Index. These assignments
(both online and offline) are designed to familiarize the student with
the library and to prepare them with the inevitable use of inter-library

Note: The online card catalog format is different than that of Dialog.
The following lesson will illustrate these differences.

LESSON 2: Journal Location at Meriam Library via Catalog Plus

Consider the following search in File 399:

? B 399
File 399: CA SEARCH 1967-1989
Set     Items   Description
---     ------  -------------
? S FUEL CELLS                  **We SELECT the phrase "fuel cells"**
S1      8375    FUEL CELLS      **There are 8375 hits in Set 1**
? S CS=NASA                     **CS= finds the "corporate source"**
S2      10732   CS=NASA         **Set 2 has 10732 hits**
? S S1 AND S2                   **We link the two concepts with AND**
        8375    FUEL CELLS
        10732   CS=NASA
S3          41  S1 AND S2
? T S3/6/1                      **We TYPE the first article in format 6**

71008943    CA: 71(2)8943w      **Format 6 gives title and citation**
Effect of oxygen-supply impurities
on the performance of a
hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell
AUTHOR(S): Jones, Jesse Claude;
Cox, Jim E.
LOCATION:NASA-MSC, Houston, Tex.        **Notice the Corporate Source**
JOURNAL: Energy Convers.  DATE: 1968    **Do we have this journal??**
VOLUME: 8 NUMBER: 3  PAGES: 113-15

**To find out the answer to this question you LOGOFF from DIALOG and
LOGON to the Meriam Library Online Catalog (Catalog Plus). In the
following example some student familiarity with the Online Catalog is
assumed. For additional information see "Catalog Plus Remote Access
Guide" and "Catalog Plus" (See pages 37-38 of this report)**

1. LOGON to Catalog Plus (see Library LOGON Instructions)
2. Choose Search Category 4 which is "All Categories"
3. Use T= (Title), $ (Truncation), FOR=SER (Format = Serials)
   and Boolean Logic
4. Search by Keyword
5. When prompted about truncation possibilities, use A (All)
   unless you are sure!

SEARCH TERM(S):  T=ENERGY AND T=CONVERS$ AND FOR=SER                          

CONVERSAR(0)            CONVERSATION(3)         CONVERSATIONAL(10)      
CONVERSE(20)            CONVERSING(0)           CONVERSION(5)

The Words Listed Above Match Your Search Term(s).  Select
the Term(s) You Wish to Include, Then Press RETURN.

PRESS YOUR CHOICE: A to Select All Words.      **We select A to include 
NEXT Word.         S to Select a Word.             all choices**
PREVious Word.     E to Eliminate a Word.

SEARCH TERMS                             REFERENCES FOUND

Press Line Number for Brief References.
                  BRIEF REFERENCES
REFERENCES FOUND:    4                 Page  1 of 1
NO.     TITLE                                  DATE FORMAT 
 1.   Advanced energy conversion               1961  SERI 
 2.   Energy conversion                        1968  SERI 
 3.   Intersociety Energ  Proceedings          1966  SERI 
 4.   IEEE transactions on energy conversion   1986  SERI 
Press Line Number to Select Your Choice:

CALL NO.:       TK2896 A48 (Periodicals)
TITLE:          Energy conversion.        **Yes, we have the journal!!**
PUB INFO:       v. 8-   Aug. 1968-
CHICO HAS:      v.8-14,1968-75.

ASSIGNMENT 2 Search Journal 1 names in a similar fashion:

Name                      Journal 1              Journal 2

Brady, Sandra             Adv. Alicy. Chem.     Alger Sci. Phys.
Burgess-Henry, Jana       Adv. Clin. Chem.      Aliment. Anim.
Schlais, Scott      Adv. Hetero. Chem.Allergol. Immunopathol. Suppl.
Warren, Hope              Chem. Commun.         Allg. Text. Z.
Wood, Michael             Chem. Depend. Anal.   Chim. Acta
Ehorn, William            Chem. Geol.           Analecta Vet.

Fox, Michael              Aust. J. Chem.    Analg. Anaesth. Perinatol.
Hansen, Janet             J. Chem. Phys.  Anal. Khim. Ekstra. Protsessy
Harrison, Katherine       Clin. Chem.           Anal. Microbiol.
Howard, Sean              Chem. Week            An. Ars Med.
Laurie, Greg           Coord. Chem. Rev.   An. Asoc. Quim. Argent.
Smith, Ray               Chem. Formu.      An. Asoc. Quim. Farm. Urug.

1. What is the call number of your assigned journal? (Journal 1) 
2. What volumes of the assigned journal does our library have? (Journal 1)
3. How can this process be done manually (off line) in the library? Be
specific, include names and locations.
4. Suppose you need to get ajournal article via inter-library loan.
The ILL form requires a complete journal name. You only know the
abbreviation from a  Chem. Abstract bibliographic citation.
There is a book in the library that will help you. What is its name
and where is it located? What is the complete name of your Journal 2 ?

N.B. The answers to 3 and 4 can be gotten from a
reference librarian. When in doubt in the library, ASK!

Week 4
Lesson 3 is particularly important. While online, students are often at
a loss for words (particularly important keywords). The EXPAND  command
can often help them find the correct word or phrase. They are also
introduced to the concept of literature search by key author. They
investigate the online ability to expand a term to indicate Related
Terms. These related terms can be further expanded until the desired
term is revealed.

LESSON 3: Viewing Database Indexes via the EXPAND Command

Any portion of the basic index or the additional indexes can be viewed
with the EXPAND command. The result is an alphabetical listing of terms.
These terms can be selected from the display rather than keyed in.
EXPAND is useful to provide the searcher with suggestions for alternate
forms of the search term.

EXAMPLE 1: What has John O. Edwards published?

? E AU=EDWARDS, JOHN O.          **The Author Field (AU=) is expanded**

Ref     Items   Index-term
E1      1       AU=EDWARDS, JOHN M.
E3      54      *AU=EDWARDS, JOHN O. **E3 is always the term you keyed in**
E6      2       AU=EDWARDS, JOHN P.
E7      24      AU=EDWARDS, JOHN R.
E9      9       AU=EDWARDS, JOHN S.
E11     1       AU=EDWARDS, JOHN W.

?S E3                       **The third term is selected and converted into
        S4      54      AU="EDWARDS, JOHN O."   a set (S4) which can be
                                                logically linked
                                                or printed out**

EXAMPLE 2: What is another term for enthalpy? Can we be more specific?

?E ENTHALPY                           **We EXPAND the word enthalpy**

Ref   Items   RT  Index-term
E1        2             ENTHALPOMETRIC
E2        1             ENTHALPRES
E3    15742    5        *ENTHALPY  **Enthalpy has 5 Related Terms (RT)**
E4        0    1        ENTHALPY-ENTROPY CURVE
E5        1             ENTHALPY-EXERGY DIAGRAM
E6        1             ENTHALPY,APPARENT MOLAR
E7        1             ENTHALPY,APPARENT  **All of these are subcategories
E8        1             ENTHALPY,BALANCE         and are included in the 
E9        2             ENTHALPY,CONFIGURATIONAL general term enthalpy**
E10      1              ENTHALPY,CONFORMATIONAL
E11      0      1       ENTHALPY,ENTROPY RELATIO
?E E3                                  **We EXPAND the Ref of interest**

Ref   Items Type  RT  Index-term
R1    15742        5    *ENTHALPY       **The 5 Related terms are listed**
R2     5274   R         HEAT OF ADSORPTION
R3     4844   R    7    HEAT OF DISSOCIATION   **The related terms can 
R4     3426   R    4    HEAT OF REACTION            have related terms**
R5        8   R         ISENTROPIC EXPONENTS
R6        0   N         ENTHALPY FUNCTION 

?E R4                                  **These can be further EXPANDED**
Ref   Items Type  RT  Index-term
R1     3426       4     *HEAT OF REACTION
R2       38  R          HEAT OF CHLORINATION
R3    11663  R    2     HEAT OF FORMATION
R4      404  R          HEAT OF HYDROLYSIS
R5      376  R    1     HEAT OF OXIDATION 

EXAMPLE 3: Is NASA a suitable abbreviation to search?

?E CS=NASA                      **We expand the Corporate Source Field**
Ref     Items   Index-Term
E1      17      CS=NARZEDZIOWEGO
E2      70      CS=NAS
E3      10732   CS=NASA         **Yes, NASA is a good search term**
E4      1       CS=NASAKA
E5      1       CS=NASAKI
E6      1       CS=NASAL

?S E3 AND FUEL(W) CELL? **Note selection and linkage in the same line**
        10732   CS=NASA
        89839   FUEL
        517600  CELL?
 S1     41      CS=NASA AND FUEL(W) CELL?

? T S3/6/1                      **We TYPE the first article in Format 6**
71008943    CA: 71(2)8943w    JOURNAL
  Effect of oxygen-supply impurities on the
performance of a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell
  AUTHOR(S): Jones, Jesse Claude; Cox, Jim E.
  LOCATION: Lab. Oper., NASA-MSC, Houston, Tex.
  JOURNAL: Energy Convers.  DATE: 1968
 VOLUME: 8  NUMBER: 3  PAGES: 113-15

ASSIGNMENT 3 Expand the following terms in a similar fashion:

Name                      Term 1            AU=
Brady, Sandra            Adiabatic          Harris, C.B.
Burgess-Henry, Jana      Thermochemistry    Zewail, Ahmed H.
Schlais, Scott           Paramagnetic       Barbara, Paul F.
Warren, Hope             Cryoscopic         Herzberg, G.
Wood, Michael            Dynamics           Eigen, M.
Ehorn, William           Electrochemical    Weaver, Michael J.
Fox, Michael             Spectrometry       Strobel, Howard A.
Hansen, Janet            Potentiometry      Wi.htmlan, R. Mark
Harrison, Katherine      Conductivity       Sawyer, Donald T.
Howard, Sean             Photoluminescence  Fawcett, W.R.
Laurie, Greg             Scintillation      Griffiths, Peter R.
Smith, Ray               Absorption         Cram, Donald

Search Details:

1. For AU=, select all entries that seem correct then type a few
(maximum 10) titles. From these titles select one and type it in
Format 5 (Full Format).

2. Expand the other term in the Basic Index. Examine a few related terms.

Week 5
This lesson introduces the students to other databases than CA Search
(file 399). They will discover the nonbibliographic databases such as
Heilbron and Chemname and the phenomenal amount of information they
contain. The concept of Registry Number Search is introduced. They learn
that the MAP command stores registry numbers for subsequent use in other

LESSON 4: Registry Numbers, Heilbron (File 303),
Chemname (File 301), MAP RN TEMP

Chemical nomenclature can be very complicated. There are trivial names,
IUPAC names, CA names, Trade Names and other names. Registry Numbers
were created to avoid some of the problems associated with multiple
chemical names. There is a different Registry Number for each unique
chemical compound and RN= is a searchable field in CA Search (File 399).
Registry Numbers are unique random number combinations that cannot be
deduced from chemical structure and must be looked up.

EXAMPLE 1: What is the Registry Number of bromine?

Registry Numbers can be obtained from the Merck Index. In the 11th
Edition a listing begins on page REG-1. The number for bromine is
7726-95-6. Registry Numbers can also be found in some commercial
chemical catalogs (Aldrich, Kodak, K & K Labs, P & B, Spectrum

EXAMPLE 2: Registry Numbers Online

Several nonbibliographic databases have Registry Number indexes. These
include Kirk-Othmer Online (File 302), Heilbron (File 303), Merck Index
Online (File 304) and Chemname (301). Chemname is the database of choice
for nonbibliographic data including Registry Number, Molecular Formula,
Ring System Data, and nomenclature. The others listed above have more
detailed information and can be very valuable but they have fewer
citations. A Chemname (301) search is shown below. A  Heilbron (303)
search for the chemical described by the trade name Xylocaine is shown
after the Chemname search.

?B 301                                    **We BEGIN Chemname**
File 301:CHEMNAME       
?S CARBROMAL                              **We SELECT Carbromal**
   S2    1      CARBROMAL                                                    
?T S2/5/1                                 **We TYPE in Format 5**
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER: 77-65-6          **The Registry Number is given**
    HP=Butanamide (9CI), SB=N-(aminocarbonyl)-2-bromo-2-ethyl-
    HP=Urea (8CI), SB=(2-bromo-2-ethylbutyryl)-
SYNONYMS: .alpha.-Ethyl-.alpha.-bromobutyrylurea;
(.alpha.-Bromo-.alpha.-ethylbutyryl)urea; Adalin;
Bromacetocarbamide; Bromadal; Bromdiethylacetylurea;
Bromodiethylacetylcarbamide; Diacid; Dormiturin; Hoggar; Karbromal
; Kartryl; Nenesin; Nyctal; Parkosed; Pelidorm; Planadalin; Tildin
; Uradal; 2-Bromo-2-ethylbutyrylurea

?MAP RN TEMP                  **MAP stores the Registry Number**
serial#TB022                  **This codes (TB022) the information**
?B 399                        **We BEGIN CA SEARCH**
File 399:CA SEARCH  
?EXS TB022                    **And recall the RN that were stored**
      S1     190  RN=77-65-6 
?S S1 AND TOXICITY            **Link RN with toxicity**
             190  S1
          101160  TOXICITY
      S2       6  S1 AND TOXICITY 
?S S2/ENG,NPT                 **Limit to English and nonpatent**
      S3       2  S2/ENG,NPT 
?T S3/TI/ALL NOHEADER         **Print titles without headers**
  Cardiotoxic actions of bromisoval and carbromal 
  Comparison of bromisoval and carbromal in the rat

?B 303
File 303:HEILBRON 
?S XYLOCAINE                  **The chemical name is selected**
     S3       1  XYLOCAINE 
?T S3/5/1                     **Typed in Format 5 (Full Format)**
0051791  Heilbron Acc No: L-00307
Subfile: Dictionary of Organic Compounds, 5th Edition, Main Work, 1982
Heilbron Name: Lignocaine; BAN
2-(Diethylamino -2',6'-acetoxylidide; 8CI ; 
N-Diethylaminoacetyl-2,6-dimethylaniline;        **Notice all the names!**
Lidocaine; INN;Broncaine;Xylocaine;
Lignocaine,Numerous proprietary names
CAS Registry No: 137-58-6               **But only one registry number!**
Formula: C14H22N2O
Weight: 234.341
Compound Type: Anaesthetics, local,     **Lots of other information too**
             Antiarrhythmic agents
Use/Importance: Local anaesthetic,
              antiarrhythmic agent.
State: Needles (C6H6 or EtOH)
Mp: 68-69 deg C
Bp: 180-182 deg C at 4 mm
References:                             **References too!**
    Harms, A.F. et al, J. Med. Chem., 1961, 4, 575; synth,pharmacol 
    Garland, W.A. et al, Biomed. Mass. Spectrom., 1974, 1, 124; ms
    Jones, R.L., J. Pharm. Sci., 1974, 63, 1170; ir
    Yoo, C.S. et al, Acta Crystallogr.Sect.B,1975, 31,1354;cryst struct
    Goto, S. et al, Yakugaku Zasshi, 1979, 99, 146;
    Singh, S.P. et al, Spectrosc. Lett., 1979, 12, 95; nmr

ASSIGNMENT 4: MAP RN TEMP of Substance in Chemname then logically link 
(and) with Term in CA Search

Name                  Substance                    Term

Brady, Sandra         Saccharine                   Toxicity
Burgess-Henry, Jana   Aspartame                    Toxicity
Schlais, Scott 9-Amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine  Fluorescence
Warren, Hope    9,10-Dihydro-10-methylacridine     Fluorescence
Wood, Michael         Saccharin                    Toxicity
Ehorn, William  Malachite Green Leucocyanide       Spectroscopy
Fox, Michael    9-Diazofluorene                    Spectroscopy
Hansen, Janet   4-Amino-4'-cyanobiphenyl           Fluorescence
Harrison, Katherine  Benzoquinuclidine             Fluorescence
Howard, Sean    Diphenyldiazomethane               Fluorescence
Laurie, Greg          4-Nonanolide                 Spectroscopy
Smith, Ray      p-(Dimethylamino)benzonitrile      Fluorescence

Week 6
A chemist must be able to perform a literature search that deals with
synthesis. The lesson done this week will prepare students for this
inevitability. The lesson introduces the online Appending of the letter
p (for "preparation") to the registry number to use for a direct route
to preparation articles. The lesson introduces further limitation on
article retrieval by Suffix Codes such as NPT (nonpatent), ENG (English
language only) and FF (full word only).

In this lesson the students are asked to print and examine a number of
titles of articles while online. They learn telecommunications software
commands to quickly redisplay output that has scrolled off the screen of
the monitor.

LESSON 5: Locating Preparation (Synthesis) Articles

Many chemical literature searches are applied to synthetic research. You
can select and logically link terms such as S RN=58-08-2 AND PREPARATION
but it is easier to append a P (for preparation) to a registry number in
the following fashion: S RN=58-08-2P.

Chemname (File 301) can be used to determine Registry Number(s) and the
"P" can be automatically appended and these numbers can be MAPPED as
seen in the following example that deals with synthesis of the antiviral
agent AZT.

?B 301
File 301:CHEMNAME 
?S SY=AZT                         **Select the synonym AZT**
      S1       1  SY=AZT 
?T S1/5/1
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER: 30516-87-1   **The RN= is given**
    (01) (nr=01; sr=5; ar=C4O.01; fr=OC4.01; ir=16-138-1)
    (01) (nr=01; sr=6; ar=C4N2.01; fr=NCNC3.01; ir=46-195-28)
HP=Thymidine (8CI 9CI), SB=3'-azido-3'-deoxy-
SYNONYMS: Azidothymidine; AZT; AZT(pharmaceutical);
BW-A 509U; Retrovir; Zidovudine; 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine;
3'-Azidothymidine; 3'-Deoxy-3'-azidothymidine

?MAP RN TEMP/"P"             **This appends a P and MAPS (Stores)**
1 select statement(s) 
serial#TB026                 **This code number recalls the RN's**
?B 399                       **We shift to CA Search**
 File 399:CA SEARCH
?EXS TB026                   **EXECUTE the MAPPED Numbers**
 S1   19  RN=8066-44-2P      **There are 19 hits**
?S S1/NPT,ENG                **Limit to English and nonpatent**
S2     8  S1/NPT,ENG    
?T S2/TI/ALL NOHEADER        **Type titles without headers**

  5-Chloro-substituted derivatives of
2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyuridine,3'-fluoro-2',3'- dideoxyuridine and
3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine as anti-HIV agents   
  Methyl 5-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-deoxy-.alpha.,.beta.-D-threo-
pentofuranosideas a divergent intermediate for the synthesis of
3'-substituted-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides: synthesis of
3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine and
3'-cyano-3'-deoxythymidine  .
  .alpha.,.beta.- and .beta.,.gamma.-Methylene 5'-phosphonate
derivatives of 3'-azido-2',3'- dideoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate.
Correlation between affinity for reverse transcriptase, susceptibility
to hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases and anti-retrovirus activity
  Methyl 5-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-deoxy-D-threo-pentofuranoside; an
approach to the synthesis of 3'-substituted-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides
including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and of
  Inhibition of the reverse transcriptase from HIV by
3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine triphosphate and its threo analog
  Synthesis of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyribofuranosylpurines 
  Nucleotide synthesis.  IV.  Phosphorylated 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine
and 5'-amino-5'- deoxythymidine and derivatives
  Synthesis of phosphorylated 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine and

ASSIGNMENT 5 Begin Chemname, append P and search CA Search for:

Name                           Substance
Brady, Sandra                  Saccharine
Burgess-Henry, Jana            Aspartame
Schlais, Scott                 9-Amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine
Warren, Hope                   9,10-Dihydro-10-methylacridine
Wood, Michael                  Brompheniramine
Ehorn, William                 Butamben
Fox, Michael                   9-Diazofluorene
Hansen, Janet                  4-Amino-4'-cyanobiphenyl
Harrison, Katherine            10-Thioxo-9(10H)-anthracenone
Howard, Sean                   Diphenyldiazomethane
Laurie, Greg                   4-Nonanolide
Smith, Ray                     p-(Dimethylamino)benzonitrile


1. /FF may be necessary in File 301 to find the parent compound.
2. TYPE titles with headers (omit NOHEADER command); maximum of 10.
3. Peruse these titles and TYPE one of them in format 5 (Full Format)

You have probably noted that the output from Dialog "scrolls" off the
screen and only a portion is visible. Our telecommunications software is
called Procomm and has a feature that lets you redisplay the last 10,000
characters that have come in. You may need this feature in step 3 above
to peruse the titles. To redisplay the characters that have scrolled off
the screen, press Alt F6. You can move through the redisplay in several
ways: use the PgUp and PgDn to scroll one page in either direction; use
the up and down arrow to move one line in either direction. Pressing the
Home key will cause the first page of the buffer to display while
pressing the End key will cause the last page to display.

Week 7
The lesson this week deals with multiple database searching. This is a
very valuable tool to gather a maximum amount of information from a
variety of sources in a minimum amount of time. The REMOVE DUPLICATES
command is discussed. The ability to remove duplicate articles in a
multiple database search can be very important. The lesson stresses
acronym searching for the occasions in which it is unclear what database
to use.

LESSON 6: DIALOG OneSearch (Multiple Database Searching)

Occasionally you will search topics that are somewhat unfamiliar. What
is the best database to use in this situation? Good descriptions of all
the databases can be obtained from the DIALOG Database Catalog. More
detailed information on each database can be gotten from the

OneSearch is a feature that allows searching in up to 20 files
concurrently with one search strategy. With OneSearch you may BEGIN the
desired files (e.g. B 5,10,28) or use the convenient DIALINDEX
Categories (e.g. B CHEMLIT). In the first example the search session
would open to include BIOSIS PREVIEWS (File 5), AGRICOLA (File 10) and
OCEANIC ABSTRACTS (File 28). In the latter example the acronym CHEMLIT
stands for Chemistry Literature and includes Files 8,13,12,34,434,433,
432,144,302,304,315,317,322,399. Combinations of the two options are
also possible, for example B VETSCI,399,76 to add files to the category
or to exclude a file from a category use B CHEMENG NOT 335.

Remember that a "File" represents data abstraction by a particular
source. There can be quite a bit of crossover between Files i.e. you can
get a lot of duplicate records when using OneSearch. The command REMOVE
DUPLICATES (RD) will remove duplicate postings from most (but not all)

Consult DIALOG Database Catalog and the appropriate Bluesheet(s) before
you go online! You should always spend much more time in the offline
planning of your search than the online execution.


?B CHEMLIT                  **You BEGIN the category of choice**
    File  13:INSPEC 
    File  12:INSPEC  
    File  34:SCISEARCH 
    File 434:SCISEARCH
    File 433:SCISEARCH 
    File 432:SCISEARCH      **All the files in that category are listed**
    File 144:PASCAL 
    File 302:Kirk-Othmer Encyc of Chem Technology 
    File 322:POLYMER ONLINE 
    File 399:CA SEARCH

Set  Items  Description 
---  -----  ----------- 
?S CAMPTOTHECIN                **Your search technique is the same as
   S3     447  CAMPTOTHECIN         with a single database, you can
?S S3/ENG,NPT,1987:1990             SELECT, LIMIT, EXPAND etc.**
          357  S3/ENG,NPT
         5195136  PY=1987 : PY=1990
   S4     107  S3/ENG,NPT,1987:1990 

?RD S4                          **REMOVE DUPLICATES (RD) takes
      S5      65  RD S4             out all the duplicate postings**
?T S5/6/1                       **Type the first hit in Format 6**
 5/6/1 (Item 1 from file: 34)   **This indicates which file the information               
                                    came from**
09855051     Number of References: 9

?T S5/6/15                      **Type the 15th hit**   
 5/6/15(Item 15 from file: 434) **Note that is is from a different file**
09359353     Number of References: 22
 Structure-activity study of the actions
of camptothecin derivatives on
mammalian topoisomerase-i - evidence for
a specific receptor-site and a
relation to antitumor-activity 

ASSIGNMENT 6: Search the following

Name                  Acronym   Search Term     Limit   Link with
Brady, Sandra         AGRIBUS   Cotton           /TI    Disease
Burgess-Henry, Jana   LANGUAGE  Euphemism        /TI    Sexual
Schlais, Scott        MARINE    Diatoms          /TI    Toxicity
Warren, Hope          AGRI      Triacontanol     /TI    Improvement
Wood, Michael         REGIONAL  Stealth(w)bomber        Beale
Ehorn, William        DEFBUS    Harrier          /TI    California
Fox, Michael          SOFTWARE  Excel                   Updates
Hansen, Janet         MEDICINE  Stenosis         /TI    Aortic and Rat
Harrison, Katherine   TOXICOL Glomerulonephritis /TI    Rat/DE
Howard, Sean          REVIEWS   Paris Trout             
Laurie, Greg          GEOLOGY   Transform Fault  /TI   
Smith, Ray            WATER     Aquifer          /TI    Butte(w)county

1. Search the above data within the databases of the given acronym.
2. Limit the search as suggested or use your own format.
3. TYPE up to 10 titles.
4. TYPE any one in format 5 (full format).

Lesson 7 requires the students to determine the name of a complex
chemical structure. The process requires the molecular formula and ring
data to be prepared in advance of the online search. The students must
prepare this data after reading a handout on ring data analysis (see page
40). They are given practice problems (with solutions) to master their
technique before going online.

Lesson 7 Ring Structure Analysis Practice Problems

PROCEDURE: For practice calculate molecular formula and ring data on the
following structures. The answers can be found below.

Note: Draw in the following structures (names and Merck 11th Ed. Numbers):

Structure 1     Strophanthidin  8818                                    

Structure 2     Ahistan 179

Structure 3     Afloqualone     171                                     

Structure 4     Adinazolam      149


Structure 1                                   Structure 2
MF=C23H32O6                                   MF=C16H16N2OS
(01) nr=01; sr=5; ar=C4O.01;fr=OC4.01         (01) nr=03; sr=6,6,6;
(01) nr=04; sr=5,6,6,6; ar=fr=C5.01-C6.03     ar=C4NS.01-C6.02;         
Structure 3                               Structure 4           
MF=C16H14FN3O                             MF=C19H18ClN5
(01) nr=01, sr=6; ar=fr=C6.01             (01) nr=01; sr=6; ar=fr=C6.01
(01) nr=02; sr=6,6; ar=C4N2.01-C6.01;     (01) nr=03; sr=5,6,7;
fr=NCNC3.01-C6.01                         ar=C2N3.01-C6.01-C5N2.01;     


Note: you must determine ring data and molecular formula before coming
for your DIALOG search and it must be correct. Check the accuracy of
your calculations with Dr. Miller.

EXAMPLE: What is the name of this compound?

Note: draw structure of Corycavamine here (Merck 11 Ed. number 2540)

Molecular Formula:MF=C21H21NO5
Ring Data:(01) nr=05; sr=5,5,6,6,10; ar=C3O2.02-C6.02-C9N.01;                                  

?S MF=C21H21NO5/FF
      S1     104  MF=;C21H21NO5/FF 
?S AR=C3O2.02-C6.02-C9N.01
      S2      14  AR=C3O2.02-C6.02-C9N.01 
?S S1 AND S2
             104  S1
              14  S2
      S3       2  S1 AND S2 
?T S3/5/all
    (01) (nr=05; sr=5,5,6,6,10; ar=C3O2.02-C6.02-C9N.01;
         fr=OCOC2.02-C6.02-NC9.01; ir=9603-1-1)
    HP=Bis(1,3)benzodioxolo(4,5-c:5',6'-g)azecin-13(5H)-one (9CI), SB=
    4,6,7,14-tetrahydro-5,14-dimethyl-, ST=(.PM.)-
  SYNONYMS: (.+-.)-Corycavamine; Corycavin; Corycavine
    (01) (nr=05; sr=5,5,6,6,10; ar=C3O2.02-C6.02-C9N.01;
         fr=OCOC2.02-C6.02-NC9.01; ir=9603-1-1)
    HP=Bis(1,3)benzodioxolo(4,5-c:5',6J-g)azecin-13(5H)-one (8CI 9CI), SB=
         4,6,7,14-tetrahydro-5,14-dimethyl-, ST=(R)-
  SYNONYMS: (+)-Corycavine; Corycavamine

ASSIGNMENT 6: Search the following in the same fashion:

Name                      Compound
Brady, Sandra               I
Burgess-Henry, Jana         II
Schlais, Scott              III
Warren, Hope                IV
Wood, Michael               V
Ehorn, William              VI
Fox, Michael                VII
Hansen, Janet               VIII
Harrison, Katherine         IX
Howard, Sean                X
Laurie, Greg                XI
Smith, Ray                  XII

Lesson 7 Unknown Compound List

Note: draw structures here. Names and Merck (11 Ed.) Numbers given below:

Compound I      Wortmannin      9964

Compound II     Mopidamol       6171


Compound III    Pteroic Acid    7949


Compound IV     Phenolsulfothalein      7213

Compound V      Brotizolam      1439


Compound VI     Cloxazolam      2415

Compound VII    Fenoverine      3928

Compound VIII   Nitromersol     6531


Compound IX     Oxythioquinox   6933

Compound X      Pleurotin(e)    7509

Compound XI     Puberulonic Acid        7953

Compound XII    Pseudobaptigenin        7925


WEEK 9 or 10
Lesson 8 can be an online demonstration with a twist! The
students can be shown a variety of networking techniques as an online
demonstration. This demonstration can include file transfer, remote host
connection and electronic mail. As they read the E-mail they discover
that it includes an assignment for them! A colleague at a remote site
can pose some intriguing questions for each of them. They can work
independently on their assigned question(s) and then send the collective
answers back to the source via E-mail.

It is much easier to do a collective lesson in this fashion, utilizing
the network account of one of the instructors rather than attempting to
get an account for each of the students involved.

Please note that the online output is different in these examples. In
addition it varies from one online source to the next.


CSU-Chico is connected to the worldwide INTERNET computer network. The
Internet is a collection of over 700 interconnected computer networks.
All of the computers on the Internet implement the TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocols to connect to the
network. These protocols allow one computer network to interact with
other physically different computer networks. Computer users on the
Internet can share resources such as logging on to remote computers,
file transfer with remote computers and sending and receiving electronic
mail with colleagues at remote sites. The routing of these shared
resources from the user to the host is done by TCP/IP and is invisible
to the user. The user need only know the Internet Address of the
destination computer.

Telnet is the INTERNET standard protocol for remote terminal connection
service. TELNET allows a user at one site to interact with a remote
timesharing system at another site as if the user's terminal or
microcomputer was connected directly to the remote computer. Once you
establish the session, all commands are passed to the remote computer
for processing.

FTP, File Transfer Protocol, is a utility which lets users access files
on other computers which support the TCP/IP protocols. You can use FTP
to get files from archive sites or from a colleague who wants to let you
copy some files. There are many public FTP sites that accept anonymous
logon. When you connect with such a site "anonymous" is used as the
userid and "logon" is used as the password. If a site does not support
anonymous logon you must have have a valid userid and password. You need
to learn a bit of UNIX language to negotiate the directories and
subdirectories of foreign hosts to find the correct files.

BITNET (Because Its Time Network) is a network connecting academic
institutions for communication of messages and information. BITNET has
direct connections to more than 200 computer sites at various campuses
throughout the world. BITNET's main function is the communication of
information. This includes transference of electronic mail from one user
to another and open subscription to interest groups where members
discuss a common interest.



**We logon to the Central Cyber computer which is located in Los Angeles. 
When prompted we use the command "MAIL" to begin the electronic mail 
function. The system response includes where the mail is from (Bitnet 
address), when it was received and a short subject summary. We can peruse 
the subjects and use the command READ to access selected messages.**

                              Summary of messages
   #     To/From             Date    Time   Subject                            
   1     Fr C340@CPC865.EAST Apr 05  18:36  References
   2     Fr C340@CPC865.EAST Apr 09  05:49  Recent Mail
   3     Fr C29105@BETA.IST. Apr 10  12:36  RE: Kerosene
   4     Fr NEW-LIST@NDSUVM1 Apr 12  07:33  New List:  Orchids
   5     Fr EEFA06K@CCS.CSUS Apr 24  14:47  Questions for DIALOG Students

MAIL> read 1
                           Message 1
Date:     Thu, 5 Apr 90  16:48 GMT
From:     C340@CPC865.EAST-ANGLIA.AC.UK
Subject:  References
just for fun I ran a search in CA for referencess to CA-online in
teaching. The file name is CA- references. The file was converted into a
word file and then into an RTF version but was not bin-hexed. Is there
any advantage in using bin-hex?

MAIL> read 2
Date:     Mon, 9 Apr 90  12:03 GMT
From:     C340@CPC865.EAST-ANGLIA.AC.UK
Subject:  Recent Mail
I have had some trouble with the e-mail. This is the third time I have
attempted to send this note. The long teaching file and the file of
references were re-sent last Friday. Let me know if they arrive. Our
computer people think there may be a problem sending long files to the
US via E-mail. If necessary I will split the files.
Have a good Easter.

**The above messages are from Dr. Roger Maskill a chemistry professor at
University of East-Anglia in England. He is conducting online searching
of Chemical Abstracts as part of a computers in chemistry course. We
exchange information via BITNET. An E-mail message is limited to about
10 screens of text. Longer documents are sent as files.**

MAIL>Read 3

From:     C29105@BETA.IST.RCCN.PT
Date:     Tue, 10 Apr 90 20:09:06 GMT
Subject:  RE:
Unfortunately, I realized that, in order to get the density of a
kerosene with b.p. +/- 150 Celsius degrees, there was more bureaucracy
around here than to get married or even buy a new house! If you could
send me some data about the 150 C b.p. kerosene, that would be great
(prices too...)!
  I'm just finishing the job and soon I'll tell you what I've been doing
around here.
Catalytic Greetings ...
Name: Jorge Manuel Dias Prates
Address: Buraca, Portugal

**Jorge is a chemistry student in Portugal. He left an inquiry about a
chemical compound in the CHEM-L discussion group on BITNET. I answered
his question and now we correspond occasionally.**

MAIL> read 4

     This unmoderated list was created to share and discuss information
and experiences of orchid growers.  The discussions will include, but
not be restricted to:
        -Discussion of types grown
        -Cultivation techniques of certain types
        -Orchid Society events
        -Helpful orchid tips to assist growers
        -Scientific, biological issues relating to orchid growth
To subscribe to the list:
       Send a mail message (MAIL only) to MAILSERV@SCU.BITNET.

**The above message is the announcement of a new discussion group on
BITNET. There are hundreds of these groups. Messages sent to the list
are distributed to all the members of the list and this process
stimulates discussion. Because of the worldwide nature of BITNET, a
truly international discussion is commonplace.**

MAIL> read 5
                                   Message 5
Date:     Tue, 24 Apr 90 14:47:30 PDT
Subject:  Questions for DIALOG Students
1.What is known about the reactions of ethylene, C2H4, with ozone 
(rate law and rate constants)? (Sandra Brady)
2.How does one generate (synthesize) and detect singlet oxygen? (Jana
3.What is known about the reactions of ethylene (ethene) with singlet
oxygen (rate law and rate constants)? (Scott Schlais)
4.Are there any photochemical reactions known for ethylene with oxygen?
(Hope Warren)
5.Are there any photochemical reactions known for ethylene with water
vapor? (Michael Wood)
6.Are there any photochemical reactions known for ethylene with carbon
dioxide? (William Ehorn)
7.Are there any photochemical reactions known for ethylene with itself
in a polymerization? (Michael Fox)
8.Describe possible syntheses of hydroxylapatite, Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6?
(Janet Hansen)
9.Describe possible syntheses of fluoroapatite, Ca10F2(PO4)6? (Katherine
10.What is the difference between the two forms of mercury(II) iodide,
red and yellow, especially in terms of their thermodynamics?  How are
they made? (Sean Howard)
11.What is the difference between the two forms of mercury(II) oxide,
red and yellow, especially in terms of their thermodynamics?  How are
they made? (Greg Laurie)
12.What is the difference between the two forms of mercury(II) sulfide,
red and black, especially in terms of their thermodynamics?  How are
they made? (Ray Smith)

**E-mail is a good way to exchange information. Dr Postma
(EEFA06K@CCS.CSUSCC.CALSTATE.EDU) has posed some questions. The
assignment is to search DIALOG for the answers. We will collect the
results as text files and E-mail them to him.**


**We connect with the HP850 computer which supports the FTP protocol.
After beginning the FTP program we OPEN a connection with U. C. Davis by
giving their Internet Address. Once connected to Davis we use anonymous
logon. We negotiate the filing system with the commands: DIR (show
directory); CD (change directory). Finally we locate the needed file
"BabbleList" and GET the file. Files (rw-r--r--) are distinguished from
directories (drwxr-xr-x) by the initial letter r or d.**

login: abc123
$ ftp
ftp> open
Connected to
Name ( anonymous
Password ( 
ftp> dir
drwxr-xr-x  2 ftp      ftp          1536 Apr 11 14:51 named.files
drwxrwxrwx  5 ftp      ftp          1024 Apr 10 07:19 pub
dr-xr-xr-x  2 ftp      ftp          5120 Mar  5 08:45 rfc

ftp> cd pub
ftp> dir
-rw-r--r--  1 ftp      ftp        838144 Dec 21 13:10 24bit.sit
-rw-r--r--  1 ccdan    staff        1852 Nov  2 12:31 BabbleList
drwxr-xr-x  2 ftp      ftp           512 Apr  9 11:47 JIS

ftp>get BabbleList
1852 bytes received in 1.64 seconds (1.10 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> close
ftp> quit

**At this point we CLOSED the connection to U.C. Davis and QUIT FTP.
This still leaves us connected to the HP850. We now use the commands: LS
(lists the files in my account); CAT (prints the file specified on the
computer screen).**

$ ls


$ cat BabbleList

Paul Detjens            
Dan Dorough             
Dana Drennan            
Hugh Everett            
Jason Gabler            
Jonathan Hahn           

**We can have a file from U.C. Davis in a few minutes. The above
"BabbleList" is a list of colleagues and their INTERNET addresses.**

**In the next example a Macintosh computer program (i.e. software) that
continually calculates the U.S.Debt will be downloaded from Stanford

$ ftp
ftp> open
Connected to
Name ( anonymous
Password ( 
ftp> dir
drwxr-x--x  2 root     staff         512 Nov 12  1988 etc
drwxr-sr-x  2 13       8            1536 Apr 13 13:58 imap
drwxr-xr-x 26 macmod   info-mac      512 Apr 13 02:15 info-mac
drwxrwsrwt  6 root     8            1536 Apr 10 18:06 pub
ftp> cd info-mac
ftp> dir
-rw-r--r--  1 macmod   info-mac      757 Mar 15 16:04 00readme.txt
drwxr-xr-x  2 macmod   info-mac     1536 Apr 10 16:17 comm
drwxr-xr-x  2 macmod   info-mac     4608 Apr 11 17:27 da
drwxr-xr-x  2 macmod   info-mac     2048 Apr  7 13:24 demo
drwxr-xr-x  2 macmod   info-mac     1024 Apr  3 00:30 virus
ftp> cd da
ftp> dir
-rw-r--r--  1 macmod  info-mac  55806 Dec 21  scientific-calculator.hqx
-rw-r--r--  1 macmod  info-mac  23134 Nov 7   scientific-conversions.hqx
-rw-r--r--  1 macmod  info-mac   8657 Feb 26  us-debt-20.hqx
-rw-r--r--  1 macmod  info-mac   8034 Mar 7   world-population.hqx
ftp> get us-debt-20.hqx
8657 bytes received in 12.47 seconds (0.68 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> close
ftp> quit
$ ls
**Notice that my file now contains two items. Computer programs are code
and are not readable. This file "us-debt-20.hqx" would need to be
further downloaded to a Macintosh computer to be useful. Stanford
University Archives have thousands of useful computer programs that are
Public Domain.**


**The HP850 and the Central Cyber both support TELNET. In the following
example TELNET is used to connect to the University of California MELVYL
System. MELVYL is a very user friendly online card catalog. This can be
useful for general information or for planning interlibrary loans or
perhaps a trip to U.C. Davis to procure references that are unavailable
at Chico. In the following example the command FIND PE locates the given
periodical title and FIND PA locates the given author name.**

$ telnet
>telnet open
                           MELVYL SYSTEM DATABASES
                    Welcome to the MELVYL CATALOG Database
  Contents:   As of 4/13/90, approximately 5,509,848 titles
              for materials in the University of California libraries
              and the California State Library.

Search result:  1 record found in the Periodicals file

1. African violet magazine.
   [Knoxville, Tenn., African Violet Society of America]
   UCB  BIOS     SB413.A4 A4      11(Sept 1957)-37(1984)-; Shelved at
   UCLA CLU-BIO  W1 AF547 

Search request: FIND PA, KUMLI, KARL 
Search result:  1 record at all libraries
1. Kumli, Karl F., 1927-
   Fundamentals of chemistry / Karl Kumli. New York:D. Van Nostrand Co
   c1980. UCB   Chemistry QD31.2 .K841 1980

telnet> quit
$ exit

The instructor of each of the three chemistry courses involved
now assigns projects and written reports that include literature review.
In addition, the student has an ongoing assignment from Lesson 8.

The laboratory is still supervised but the students are well prepared to
do mostly independent online searching.

By now, many of the students have discovered that with over 300
databases available, literature review of most subjects is as close as
the keyboard. As time allows, we let students search other projects


The information contained in each database is organized into
records. A record may be a bibliographic citation with abstract, or a
direct entry of company name, address, and telephone number, or a table
of chemical or physical data, or the complete text of an article. Each
record in a database is identified by an "accession number" that appears
on the first line.

by choosing a database Databases are identified by file numbers.
To initiate a search in a database, enter the command BEGIN x,y,zI
(abbreviated B x,y,zI), where x, y and z are the file numbers of the
desired databases. Up to 20 files can be searched simultaneously.

the desired term(s) The SELECT command, abbreviated S, retrieves
sets of items containing the search term(s) specified.

To retrieve variations in word endings, place a question mark at the end
of a word. With this method any number of characters can follow the word
stem. For example spectro? would retrieve spectroscopic, spectroscopy,
spectrometer, and spectroscopist.
A ? followed by a space and another ? allows only one additional
character following the word stem. This can be used to retrieve singular
and plural terms. To specify the maximum number of characters following
a word, enter as many ? as the number of characters you wish. A
truncation character can be in the middle of a word. For example ALK?NE
will retrieve alkane, alkene and alkyne.

AND, OR, NOT the logical operators
These logical operators help define the logical relationship among the
search terms. All three operators are used in SELECT commands. Logical
operators are also known as Boolean operators.

OR operator
OR  groups several search terms into a single set. Thus, the retrieval
of CATION OR ANION consists of all records containing one or both of
these terms.

The AND operator retrieves records where two or more search terms or
group of search terms occur in the same record. Thus, CATIONS AND
CHROMATOGRAPHY retrieves only those records containing both of these

NOT operator
NOT can exclude certain search terms from being retrieved. The search
CATIONS NOT CALCIUM retrieves records that contain the term CATIONS but
eliminates from the set those records that contain the term CALCIUM.

Logical Operator Order
DIALOG processes NOT, then AND then OR logic in a SELECT statement. To
vary this order you must use parentheses. Expressions enclosed in
parentheses are executed before those that are not.

Free-Text Searching (Adjacency or Proximity Searching)
Proximity searching provides a  means for searching for phrases that
appear in a record. This process  can be used to retrieve words that are
adjacent, or near each other. The distance between terms, word order,
and hierarchical relationships in descriptors can be specified.
Proximity operators are similar to AND logic: both terms must be present
in the same field. The proximity operators are:

     Details                    Example                 Retrieval

(W)  Words adjacent; and in     GAS(W)CHROMATOGRAPHY    Gas Chromatography
     the order specified                

(nW) Up to n intervening        HEAT(1W)FUSION          Heat of Fusion
    words in order specified            

(N)  Words adjacent; no word    DONALD(N)CRAM           Donald Cram,
        order specified                                 Cram, Donald

(nN) Up to n intervening words; CHARGE(1N)MASS          Charge to Mass
     no word order specified                            Mass to Charge

(F) Words anywhere in the same  AIR(F)POLLUTION     Identifiers:environmental
 field, no word order specified                     pollution,safety lead air

(L)  Words in same descriptor   COFFEE(L)CAFFEINE(L)BEANS  Descriptors:
 unit; no word order specified                            Coffee...
                                                            Caffeine detn
                                                             in beans of
S is the most versatile to use when strict word order is not vital and
AND is too broad. S requires words to be in the same subfield as defined
by database (e.g for CA Search: Title, Descriptor, Identifier, CA
Section Title). S maintains the specificity of L, but extends beyond the
descriptor field. The F operator retrieves all that S does plus those
where words are in different subfields within a field. Therefore the
ranking for specificity is W > N > L > S > F where W is the most

Reviewing results online allows you to make modifications in the
strategy, or to retrieve final results immediately. Displaying records
online does not end the search or interfere with further modification
and SELECTion of terms.

The TYPE command, abbreviated T, displays records at your terminal. The
command is followed by the number of the set that you wish to view, a
format specification, and finally the number(s) of the record(s) to be
viewed. The example TYPE S1/2/1-5 requests the first five records in set
one, displayed in Format 2.

The item numbers can indicate a single record, a range of records (e.g.
1-10), or a  group of records (e.g. 1,5,9,11-21). You can enter the word
ALL to type all the records in the designated set.

Format Specifications
Formats vary from database to database depending on the type of records
contained in each. Always check the Bluesheets for exact format
specifications. As an example in CA Search the following formats are
pre-defined: 1 CA volume and abstract number 2 bibliographic citation
and key words 3 bibliographic citation 4 full format with tagged fields
5 full record; 6 title and journal reference; 8 title, key words and
descriptors; 9 title only.

Search Limitation
Careful choice of search terms is often not enough to limit a search. A
student was interested in "Hands-on Education" and carefully chose her
search terms to be: EXPERIENTIAL AND EDUCATION. The response in File 1
(ERIC the education database) was a staggering 4387 hits. This is
obviously an unmanageable number and must be decreased significantly!
The search terms are fine but the problem is that unless otherwise
commanded, DIALOG searches the "Basic Index" This index is typically the
title, abstract, and subject descriptors. This means that if the words
EXPERIENTIAL AND EDUCATION appear anywhere in the article it is
SELECTed! This search was simplified by changing the command slightly:
(EXPERIENTIAL AND EDUCATION)/TI. The addition of /TI limits the search
to titles only. The result was a manageable 162 hits. The titles of
these hits were TYPED (this took about 2 minutes) and then the titles
were examined offline and relevant hits were later TYPED in Format 5 to
give abstract and citation. Other ways of limiting searches are
presented below.

Field Suffix Codes
As in the above example a slash (/) followed by a  letter field suffix
code, such as TI for title, will limit the search to that specific
field. For a complete listing see the Bluesheets for each database. A
few examples are: /AB for abstract, /SH for section heading,  /DE for
descriptor, /ENG for English language and /NPT for nonpatent. For an
example see Lesson 1 (page 11).

Prefix Codes
Any fields other than the "Basic Index" are known as "Additional
Fields". There are many different kinds and Bluesheets should be
consulted for details. Some common prefix codes that can be searched are
shown below. For an example see Lesson 2 (page 9).

Field                   Prefix  Example

Author                  AU=     AU=CRAM, DONALD
Corporate Source        CS=     CS=NASA
Journal Name            JN=     JN=J. ORG. CHEM.
Publication Year        PY=     PY=1987
Language                LA=     LA=FRENCH
Registry Number         RN=     RN=482-94-0
Patent Number           PN=     PN=32889
State                   ST=     ST=CA

There are many variations in prefix code and the form of entry for the
data. There is no easy way to remember all of the possible variations,
so always consult the Bluesheets.

Comment Lines
You can save one or more "Comment lines" to be included as part of your
search. These lines are not used in the search. To enter a comment line,
type an asterisk (*) as the first character in the line and then type
the comment. These are useful for personal identification or reminders.

Saving Search Strategy
DIALOG enables access to many different databases. It is convenient to
use the same search strategy for several files and searching multiple
databases requires planning.

**Plan the search carefully before going online. Have names and Registry
  Numbers ready.

**Codes, limits, prefixes, or suffixes that work in one file may not
  work in another. Be prepared for such differences by using the

**Truncate carefully, particularly for author entries and variant
  spellings. Use EXPAND when necessary.

**Use SAVE TEMP to save your search strategy before switching files. The
  SAVE TEMP command stores your search for one week. This type of
  SearchSave can be called up and used in any file. The following search
  illustrates the search storage technique:

Topic: Find Information on caffeine extraction

?begin 399
File 399 CA Search 1967-1989
? select caffeine(l)extraction
                8811   caffeine/de
                20608 extraction/de
        S1      10       caffeine(l)extraction
Temp SaveSearch "TC010" stored
?BEGIN 305
File 305: Analytical Abstracts Online
?EXS TC010
                  43      caffeine/de
                2060    extraction/de
        S1         2       caffeine(l)extraction

Note that the search was developed in one file and then saved. When
another file was opened the stored search was recalled with EXECUTE
STEPS (abbreviated EXS) followed by the serial number assigned by
DIALOG. If you are not sure of the serial number of a stored SearchSave
use the RECALL TEMP command to view a list of your temporary saves.

EXPAND to view database indexes
The Basic Index or the Additional Indexes of a database can be examined
with the EXPAND command. The system response is a twelve-line display of
index terms in alphanumeric order. At the far left are the "E numbers"
which identify the entries. These E numbers can be SELECTed as though
they were the search terms they represent. Once selected they become
sets that can be logically linked and typed. The next column, marked
"Items", lists the number of records for each word or phrase listed at
the right. Multiple-word entries are descriptors or identifiers that
have been phrase indexed. The third entry is the term expanded and is
marked with an asterisk. The PAGE command (abbreviated P)  displays the
next twelve lines of index entries that follow the last line in a
previous EXPAND. PAGE- backs up one list at a time. In the following
example, the word AROMATICITY is EXPANDed:

Ref     Items   RT      Index-term
E1      16              AROMATICITIES
E2      1               AROMATICITIY
E3      17773   1       *AROMATICITY
E4      1               AROMATICITY,
E5      1               AROMATICITY,.SIGMA.-
E6      2               AROMATICITY,ANTI
E7      16              AROMATICITY,ANTI-
E8      1               AROMATICITY,ANTIHOMO
E9      5               AROMATICITY,BICYCLO-
E10     1               AROMATICITY,BISHOMO- 
E11     1               AROMATICITY,CYCLIC
E12     2               AROMATICITY,DIATROPICITY

Related Terms (RT the Online Thesaurus)
Some databases on DIALOG provide a thesaurus as part of the online file.
The words and phrases in the thesaurus are usually indexed as
descriptors in the database. The command ?THESAURI will list databases
with thesari.

To view the contents of an online thesaurus, enter EXPAND followed by
the search term of interest. If thesaurus terms are available in the
database, an extra column appears and is labelled "RT" for Related
Terms. Notice that in the example above AROMATICITY has one related
term. To view the Related Term for AROMATICITY, enter a second EXPAND
command followed by the E number with the related term. The resulting
display shown below is similar to the prior EXPAND display except that
the entry numbers begin with R to show that all the terms in the list
are related. Continuing from the above search example:

?E E3
Ref     Items   Type     RT     Index-term
R1      1927              1     *AROMATICITY
R2     181812     R      13     RESONANCE
?E R2
Ref     Items   Type     RT     Index-term
R1     181812            13     *RESONANCE
R2      1927      R       1      AROMATICITY
R3       8514     R       2      CONJUGATION
R4       26033    R              ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
R5      38376     R      17      ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
R6      46217     R       6      ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE
R7      967       R              FERMI RESONANCE
R8       624      R       1      HYPERCONJUGATION
R9      73888     R       6      NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
R10      3541     R       5      NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE
R11      2083     R       2      OPTICAL DOUBLE RESONANCE

The column labelled "Type" gives the relationship among the terms in the
list. Most databases use the following abbreviations:
        F    Use for (this term is preferred to the term EXPANDed)
        U       Use (use the EXPANDed term as the preferred term)
        N       Narrower term
        B       Broader term
        R       Related term (neither broader nor narrower)

EXPAND in Additional Indexes
The prior examples were EXPANDed in the Basic Index. Expand can also be
used in additional fields (indexes). The following search illustrates
the search for the works of a particular author. You need to know the
full name of the author in question or you may miss variant entries.

File 399:CA SEARCH
Ref     Items   Index-term
E1      1       AU=KORTE, W.
E2      7       AU=KORTE, W.D.
E3      0       *AU=KORTE, W
E4      1       AU=KORTE, WILFRED
E5      6       AU=KORTE, WILLIAM D.
E6      2       AU=KORTE, WULF
E7      1       AU=KORTEEV, M.P.
E8      1       AU=KORTEEV, V.A.
E10     2       AU=KORTEGAS, K.E.
        Enter P or E for more
        1       AU=KORTE, W.
        7       AU=KORTE, W.D.
        6       AU=KORTE, WILLIAM D.
    S1  14      E1,E2,E5

If you had chosen Korte, William D. as the search term in the above
example you would have missed eight of his publications. Be prepared for
variant spellings! Be prepared for different formats i.e. SCISEARCH
(File 34) does not use punctuation and does not spell out any names
other than the surname. Consult the Bluesheets for details.

Searching Multiple Files (DIALOG OneSearch)
To use OneSearch, simply enter more than one file number (separated by
commas) in a BEGIN command. You can also enter a DIALINDEX category by
using the appropriate acronym. From this point on, you are searching all
the files indicated in your BEGIN command. When you SELECT a term, you
will see the number of records retrieved for each term by your group of
databases. Similarly, when you EXPAND a term, you receive an E-numbered
list of terms showing the number of records that your group of databases
contains for each term. In the following search, files 5, 76, and 399
are searched simultaneously.
?B 5,76,399
System:OS  - DIALOG OneSearch 
     File     5:BIOSIS PREVIEWS 
     File   399:CA SEARCH
      Set  Items  Description 
      ---  -----  ----------- 
?SS algae(s)inhibition(s)copper
      S1   45521   ALGAE
      S2  459363  INHIBITION
      S3  287497  COPPER
?S S4/eng
      S6      17  S4/ENG 
?T s6/ti/1,8,14
 6/TI/1     (Item 1 from file: 5) 
The toxic effect of copper on Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) theibautii 
6/TI/8     (Item 2 from file: 76) 
  Evaluation of toxic effects of heavy metals on unicellular algae. 5.
Influence of extracellular products on toxicity and on type of inhibition. 

6/TI/14     (Item 2 from file: 399) 
  Treatment of the water in pools or other bodies of water 

Using OneSearch is as easy as searching a single database and is more
efficient than searching multiple databases individually.

The MAP command retrieves search terms from a specified field in a
record or group  of records and creates a SearchSave of them. MAP  makes
your online session easier by scanning records for search terms of
interest and then storing them for you to use later. This eliminates the
need to re-key those terms while online.

MAP removes duplicate terms within the specified group of records and
sorts remaining terms in alphanumeric order. You can EXECUTE the
SearchSave created by MAP in any database that includes the field used
in the original search.

MAP is particularly important in chemical searching. MAP TEMP is used to
save CAS Registry Numbers (MAP RN TEMP) or chemical name synonyms (MAP
SY TEMP)  for easy cross-file searching. A typical strategy would be to
search CHEMNAME (File 301) and MAP RN TEMP or MAP SY TEMP and then BEGIN
CA SEARCH (File 399) and EXECUTE STEPS to recall the SearchSave. The
following example MAPs all CAS Registry Numbers of a substance with the
trade name Londax.

?B 301
File 301:CHEMNAME 1967-Sep89
      Set  Items  Description 
      ---  -----  ----------- 
      S1       1  LONDAX 
?T S1/5/1
  REPLACED CAS REGISTRY NUMBER(S): 96081-37-7 104466-83-3 110280-01-8
    HP=Benzoic acid (9CI), SB=
         methyl)-, NM=methyl ester
  SYNONYMS: Bensulfuron-methyl; DPX-F 5384; F 5384; Londax
?B 399
File 399:CA SEARCH 1967-1989 
      Set  Items  Description 
      ---  -----  ----------- 
?EXS TB009
              38  RN=83055-99-6
               1  RN=96081-37-7
               3  RN=104466-83-3
               1  RN=110280-01-8
      S1      43  RN=83055-99-6 + RN=96081-37-7 + RN=104466-83-3 +
      S2      16  S1/ENG,NPT 
?T S2/3/1
  109188881    CA: 109(21)188881j    JOURNAL
  Determination of bensulfuron methyl residues in rice grain and straw
by high-performance liquid chromatography
  AUTHOR(S): Slates, Robert V.
  LOCATION: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc.,Wilmington,DE,19898,USA
  JOURNAL: J. Agric. Food Chem.  DATE: 1988  VOLUME: 36  NUMBER: 6  PAGES:
1207-11  CODEN: JAFCAU  ISSN: 0021-8561  LANGUAGE: English

Note that a chemical can have "replaced registry numbers". All the
registry numbers are included in the MAP command and set one (S1) in
File399 indicates this.


Dialog Database Descriptions

The following databases were frequently used by our students:

Provides information on the active components found in agrochemical
products used worldwide.

Devoted to all aspects of analytical chemistry.

This is the database version of Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen
Chemie. The handbook is the world's most extensive collection of data on
known organic compounds.

Covers all aspects of biotechnology, including biochemical engineeri
CA SEARCH       (File 399)
The Chemical Abstracts Search database includes citations to the
literature of chemistry and its applications. Complete index contains CA
General Subjects heading from a controlled vocabulary, and CAS Registry
CHEM-INTELL (File 318)
Information on manufacturing plants as well as trade and production

Worldwide chemical news about chemicals, use and production with an
emphasis on European news.

Provides information on industrial practice and theoretical chemical

A comprehensive database of chemicals that have been identified in both
human tissues and body fluids and feral and food animals.

An index to U.S. federal regulatory material relating to the control of
chemical substances.

Provides information on the hazardous and potentially hazardous effects
of chemicals.

CHEMNAME (File 301)
Contains a listing of chemical substances cited in CA SEARCH more than
one time since 1967. Each record in CHEMNAME contains identifying
information about each chemical substance such as the CAS Registry
number, molecular formula, synonyms, and  complete ring data The
specific purpose of this file is to enable substance searching and
identification on the basis of nomenclature, trade names and others.

Subjects covered include: civil, biological and chemical engineering.

Subject, title and author guide to all dissertations accepted since
1861. Abstracts available after 1980.

Covers the world's environmental information.

Provides access to literature in the areas related to food science and
technology. Allied disciplines such as chemistry and biochemistry are
also covered.

HEILBRON (File 303)
This is the chemical properties database.

This is an exhaustive and comprehensive treatise of applied chemical
science and industrial technology.

Information in the fields of: biochemistry, neuroscience, toxicology and

Provides complete text for Biotechnology Newswatch, Chemical Engineering
and Chemical Week and many others.

This is an updated and expanded version of the printed 10th Edition.
Several hundred additional records are available that are not in the
printed edition.

NTIS (File 6)
Reports are available from such agencies as NASA, DDC, DOE, HUD, DOT and
240 others. These reports cover a wide spectrum and include chemistry,
biology and medicine.

PAPERCHEM (File 240)
Includes the chemistry of carbohydrates, cellulose, hemicelluloses,
lignin and wood extractives.

PASCAL (File 144)
Pascal is a multidisciplinary database covering physics, chemistry,
biology, medicine, psychology, applied and earth sciences.

Provides coverage of polymer science and engineering.

RTECS (File 336)
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) is a
database of basic toxicity information for over 100,000 chemical

SCISEARCH (Files 34, 432-434)
A multidisciplinary index to the literature of science and technology.
Contains 90% of the world's significant scientific literature.

Aspects covered include: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, mortality
and morbidity.

Lists chemical substances in commercial use in the U.S.

DIALOG logon using Procomm software (IBM compatible computer)

1. A carriage return is shown by the following symbol:  < >
2. ALT stands for the ALTERNATE Key
3. Characters may be typed in upper or lower case
4. Quotes indicate a system response that appears on the screen

 1. ALT D (i.e. depress ALT and D at the same time) displays the Dialing
 2. Find the number (1-10) associated with DIALOG and type that number
 3. type < >
 4. "CONNECT 1200"  will appear
 5. A line of gibberish will appear
 6. Type an A but do not hit < >
 7. "PLEASE LOG IN:" is a system prompt you respond with
 8. ALT 1 also, if necessary (check dialog box) type ALT L to toggle
    printer on
 9. "PLEASE LOGON:" you respond with
10. ALT 2 
11. "ENTER PASSWORD:" you respond with
12. ALT 3

At this point you will be connected to DIALOG. The system will welcome
you and possibly give you some news and information. The system will
then automatically start you in FILE 399:CA SEARCH and you can stay in
this database or begin another. The system prompts you with a question

After you complete your search type:
1. ALT 4
2. The system will respond with search times and other information
3. ALT L will toggle the printer off
4. ALT H will hang up and end the session

The last four steps would be omitted if there is someone waiting to
begin a search after you are done.

Catalog Plus Logon and Logoff on IBM Compatible Computer

1. A carriage return is shown by the following symbol:  < >
2. CTRL stands for the CONTROL Key
3. ALT stands for the ALTERNATE Key
4. Characters may be typed in upper or lower case
5. Quotes indicate a system response that appears on the screen

 1. ALT D (i.e. depress ALT and D at the same time) displays the Dialing
 2. Find the number (1-10) associated with LIBRARY and type that number
 3. type < >
 4. "CONNECT 1200"  will appear then you type < >
 5. Gibberish will appear on the screen
 6. Type CATDIAL (the letters will not appear on the screen)
 7. Type < >
 8. More gibberish appears and you respond with
 9. CTRL O also, if necessary (check dialog box) type ALT L to toggle
    printer on

At this point you will be connected to the Meriam Library Online
Catalog. The system prompts you to select a search type. For additional
information see "Catalog Plus" and "Catalog Plus Remote Access Guide".
Keep in mind that the commands are the same for a remote terminal or a
terminal in the library, but the keystrokes for the commands are

After you complete your search type:

2. The system will return to the introductory screen
3. ALT L will toggle the printer off
4. ALT H will hang up and end the session
The last four steps would be omitted if there is someone waiting to
begin a search after you are done.

Catalog Plus Remote Access Guide

Welcome to Catalog Plus at CSU-Chico.
library and can also be accessed from your personal computer or terminal
during all open library hours.

The online catalog provides access to the library's book, periodical,
and nonprint media collections. Current location and circulation status
are immediately available.

Remote Access
1) Set your computer for VT-100 emulation.
2) Set your computer for 1200 baud, 8 data bits, no parity.
3) Set your computer to dial the communications number

1) Dial in to the campus computer. Wait 10 seconds.
2) Press Return. The system will respond with "enter class."
3) Type CATDIAL and press Return.
4) When the word "Connected" appears, press he
   introductory screen:

*                                                                     *
*   You may search the catalog using any of the methods listed below. *
*   Choose by pressing the corresponding number key. You may request  *
*   assistance at any time by pressing the HELP key.                  *
*                                                                     *
*   To Search By:   (1) SUBJECT                                       *
*                   (2) AUTHOR                                        *
*                   (3) TITLE                                         *
*                   (4) ALL CATEGORIES                                *
*                   (5) CALL NUMBER                                   *
*   Press Selection Number                                            *

1) Press Control and O to return to the introductory screen then use the
   command to hang up.

Quick Search Guide
1) Get to the introductory screen as described above.

2) Decide if you want to search in SUBJECT, AUTHOR, TITLE, ALL
   CATEGORIES, or CALL NUMBER and press the corresponding number.

3) Type in your search term(s).

4) Press Control W (Browse)
-To scan alphabetically through author, title, and subject entries.
-When you know exact author, title, or Library of Congress subject heading.
-For a call number search.      

Control K (Keyword)
-When you do not know the correct word order, or all words in an author,
 title, or subject.
-When using boolean operators, truncators, and limiters.

5) Items will appear on the screen. Press the number preceding the term
   you want to see. The system will display a short record with the call
   number and circulation status.

6) Follow online instructions for full record, search history, compose
   and other commands.

7) Press Control O to begin a new search.

Function Key Equivalents

Function        Keys  Description
Start Over  Control O The system returns you to the welcome screen.
Help        Control Y System gives help.
Compose         C     Allows you to enter a new search term.
Next            N     Displays the next page of a multiple page record.
Previous        P     Displays the previous page of a multiple page record.
Full            F     Calls up the full record display.
Copy            C     Calls up the copy availability display.
Brief           B     Gives one-line bibliographic descriptions.
Search History  S     Lists up to 9 searches and the records 
                      that match the search term(s).
Browse    Control W   Gives you the closest alphabetical match 
                      to your search term(s).
Keyword   Control K   Gives you the number of records that 
                      contain your search keywords.
Ring System Searching on Dialog

Note: Draw structure of Camptothecin here (Merck 11th Ed. No. 1742)

File 301:CHEMNAME(TM) 1967-Jan89
      S1       2  SY=CAMPTOTHECIN 
?TYPE s1/5/1
    CAS REGISTRY NUMBER: 31456-25-4
    FORMULA: C20H16N2O4
    (01) (nr=05; sr=5,6,6,6,6; ar=C4N.01-C5N.02-C5O.01-C6.01;
         fr=NC4.01-NC5.02-OC5.01-C6.01; ir=7726-21-4)
    CA NAME(S):
(9CI), SB=4-ethyl-4-hydroxy-, ST=(.PM.)-
    HP=Camptothecine (8CI), ST=(.PM.)-
    SYNONYMS: (.+-.)-Camptothecine; (.+-.)-Camptothecin; dl-Camptothecin; 

Note in the above record for the chemical camptothecin:

nr= is the NUMBER OF RINGS
sr= is the SIZE OF RINGS

NUMBER OF RINGS (NR=). This is a two digit, left-zero-filled number
which indicates the number of rings in a specific ring system. In this
case NR=05 i.e. there are 5 rings that make up the camptothecin

The Number of Rings is an indication of the complexity of a ring system
and is best used in conjunction with search terms which specify some
other ring data about the ring system. Camptothecin (and many other

NR= term with another term or terms describing the ring system. For
example, ?S NR=05(S)FR=NC4 would retrieve ring systems containing five
rings of which at least one of the rings is an NC4 ring.

SIZE OF RINGS (SR=).he size of rings term is a count of the atoms in
each ring of a unique ring system. For ring systems with two or more
rings, the size of each ring in the system is listed in ascending order,
separated by commas. For example in camptothecin we know there are 5
rings in the ring system (NR=05). Note that four of these rings are six
membered and one has five members. Therefore SR=5,6,6,6,6.

A SELECT statement such as ? Select SR=5 retrieves all substances which
contain one or more five-membered rings either as part of a multiple
ring system or one or more isolated five-membered rings. To restrict
retrieval to those substances with one or more isolated five-membered
rings, the /FF suffix is used with the term, e.g., ? Select SR=5/FF. The
substances retrieved by this command include at least one isolated
five-membered ring and may or may not include additional ring systems of
other sizes.

To retrieve ring systems containing multiple rings, the sizes of the
individual rings within the ring system are listed in ascending order.
For example ? Select  SR=4,5  will retrieve substances containing at

Meaningful search results can be achieved by linking the SR= term with
another term via the (S) operator. For example to retrieve substances
with at least one four-membered ring containing carbon and nitrogen, the
Component of Rings (CR=) may be used as follows: ?Select SR=4(S)CR=CN.

ANALYSIS OF RINGS (AR=). This field presents the formula of each unique
ring with element symbols listed in Hill Order (Carbon followed by
hydrogen followed by any other element in alphabetical order If no
carbon is present then all elements in alphabetical order), followed by
a two-digit multiplier indicating the number of occurrences of that ring
in the ring system. For ring systems with two or more rings, the term
lists the rings in ascending order by ring size and carbon count. For
camptothecin AR=C4N.01-C5N.02-C5O.01-C6.01. The smallest ring is
5-membered and has 4 carbons and one nitrogen. There is only one ring
like this therefore C4N.01. There are two 6-membered rings with 5
carbons and one nitrogen therefore C5N.02. There is one 6-membered ring
with 5 carbons and one oxygen therefore C5O.01. There is one 6-membered
ring with 6 carbons therefore C6.01.

A broad search such as ? Select AR=C5O will retrieve substances that
include the C5O ring either as an isolated ring or as part of a multiple
ring system. One or more C5O rings may be present.

More specific results are obtained when a two digit multiplier is
included, e.g., ? Select AR=C5O.01. The substances retrieved include
those which have one or more ring systems consisting of at least an
isolated C5O ring. The total number of occurrences of a ring system with
a given AR= term in a substance may be specified by appending a second
two-digit multiplier. For example ? Select AR=C5O.01.02 retrieves only
those substances which include two isolated C5O ring systems. Other ring
systems may be present.

Identical rings can be retrieved e.g., ? Select AR=C5O.01(S)02. This
retrieves all substances with two identical C5O rings. Other rings may
also be present in these substances.

The analysis of rings for multiple ring systems has a hyphen connecting
the data for the individual rings of the ring system, in order of
increasing ring size. ?Select AR=C5O.01-C6.01 retrieves all substances
with at least one two-ring system containing a C5O ring and a C6 ring.
Other ring systems may be present also. Again, for identical ring
selection: ?Select AR=C5O.01-C6.01(S)02 retrieves substances which
include two ring systems, each containing a C5O ring and a C6 ring.

FORMULA OF RINGS (FR=). This indicates the arrangement of elements in a
ring graph. For all ring systems consisting of atoms of only one
element, the formula of rings is identical to the analysis of rings. For
all ring systems consisting of two or more different elements, the
formula is derived by starting with the smallest ring and lowest
alphabetical non-carbon element symbol (i.e., N before O) and then
moving around the ring in the shortest path to the next non-carbon atom.
camptothecin FR=NC4.01-NC5.02-OC5.01-C6.01.

Broad retrieval is obtained if the Formula of Rings is searched without
any multipliers, e.g., ? Select FR=NC5  which will retrieve substances
which include one or more NC5 rings either isolated or part of a
multiple ring system.

More specific results are obtained when the two-digit multiplier is
included: ? Select FR=NC5.01 will retrieve substances which have one or
more ring systems consisting of at least an isolated NC5 ring.
Substances that have the NC5 ring in a multiple ring system are excluded
when the ring system multiplier is included. Still more specific results
are obtained if a second two-digit multiplier is included in the FR=
term to specify the total number of occurrences of a ring system in a
substance, e.g., ?Select FR=NC5.01.03. This will retrieve substances
which include a total of three isolated NC5 ring systems. The three ring
systems may or may not have identical bonding. Other ring systems may or
may not be present in the substance.

substances with identical NCNC2 rings, e.g., ? Select FR=NC5.01(S)03
which would retrieve all substances with at least three identical NC5

The Formula of Rings for multiple ring systems has a hyphen connecting
the data for the individual rings of the ring system, in order of
increasing size. ? S FR=NC5.01-C6.01 would retrieve all substances with
one or more two-ring systems, each containing an NC5 ring and a C6 ring.
The ring systems may or may not be identical. Other ring systems may
also  be present in the substance.

As illustrated before, more specific results can be obtained by
appending a second two-digit multiplier, to indicate how many ring
systems in the substance should have the specified Formula of Rings,
e.g., ? Select FR=NC5.01-C6.01.02 which retrieves all substances which
include two of these two-ring systems, each containing an NC5 ring and a
ring systems may also  be present.

As before, retrieval of identical ring systems, is achieved using the
(S) operator, to link the ring system multiplier with the Formula of
Rings for that ring system, e.g., ? Select FR=NC5.01-C6.01(S)02 which
retrieves substances which include two identical two-ring systems, each
containing an NC5 ring and a C6 ring. Other ring systems may also  be

RING SYSTEM MULTIPLIER. The Ring System Multiplier is a two-digit,
left-zero-filled number which does not have an associated prefix or

suffix. It indicates the number of times a unique ring system occurs in
a substance.

Previous examples have shown the Ring System Multiplier appended to an
Analysis of Rings term or a Formula of Rings term to specify the number
of times the term should appear in a substance.

Previous examples have also shown the Ring System Multiplier linked to
any ring data field using the (S) operator to specify that the data must
refer to identical ring systems.

IDENTITY OF RINGS (IR=).  The Identity of Rings is composed of three
segments. The first segment identifies the graph (skeleton) of the ring
system. The nodes (ring atoms) are identified by the second segment, and
the bonding is identified by the third segment. The numbers representing
the node and bond segments for a specific graph are arbitrarily

The  Identity of Rings provides the most specific search term available
for describing each complete ring system within a substance based on the
skeleton of the ring system, the atoms in that skeleton, and the bonding
between the atoms. The IR= field can be used to locate all substances
which contain a given ring system as a substructure. For example, the
Identity of Rings assigned to the naphthalene ring system is 591-49-57.
All substances containing at least one isolated naphthalene ring system
can be retrieved by ? Select IR=591-49-57.

Broader search results are obtained if the  Identity of Rings term is
searched using truncation after the hyphen, e.g., ? Select IR=591-49-?
nodes, but with bonding variations from totally saturated to totally

A still broader search is to specify the ring system at only the graph
level. For example ? Select IR=591 which retrieves all substances with
the 6,6-membered ring systems regardless of the atoms in the skeleton
and the bonding between the atoms.

The (S) operator can be used to link Identity of Rings term to other
ring data. For example ? Select IR=591-49-57(S)02 will retrieve
substances with two identical isolated naphthalene ring systems.

following techniques can be used online: 1) search a known substance
which contains the ring system, using the complete name (CN=) term. 2)
Use the AR= or FR= field with the ring multiplier combined with the term
RING-PARENT e.g., ? Select RING-PARENT AND FR=C5.01 which would retrieve
the correct IR= term for cyclopentane. 3) Use the MF= with the /FF
suffix combined with the FR= term e.g., ? S MF=C4H4N2/FF AND FR=NCNC3.01
which gives the IR= term for pyrimidine.

A list of common IR= terms and associated rings can be found in the
DIALOG book in room 309. Remember the three segments i.e., ? S
IR=46-150-18  will retrieve all compounds containing a benzene ring ? S
IR=46-150-?  will retrieve all 6-membered carbon rings and ?S IR=46 will
retrieve all 6-membered rings.

COMPONENT OF RINGS (CR=). This field lists the elemental composition of
each ring system or all the ring systems of the substance in Hill order
CR= field is searchable but does not display separately from the AR=
term. This field provides a broader search approach than the Analysis of
Rings field in that the number of occurrences of each element in the
ring skeleton is not specified. For example, to retrieve all substances
with ring systems consisting of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, the
following could be used: ? Select CR=CNO. The ring systems retrieved may
be of any size. The retrieved substances may have additional ring

Common elements in the Component of Rings field may yield a very large
number of hits. More unusual elements will yield a manageable number.

ELEMENTS OF RINGS (ER=). The Elements of Rings field lists the count of
all the atoms of each element contained in the graph (skeleton) of each
consists of the element symbol followed by a four-digit,
left-zero-filled numb
Again, less common elements will yield manageable results. For example
to retrieve substances with two silicon atoms in the ring system of the
substance, use the following: ? S ER=SI0002.

A range may be specified in the ER= field. For example, ? S
ER=S0002:ER=S0004  will retrieve substances with ring systems that
contain 2 to 4 sulfur atoms.

TOTAL NUMBER OF RINGS (TR=). The Total number of Rings field lists a
two-digit, left-zero-filled number which is a count of all the rings in
a substance.

The Total number of Rings field includes an additional term, TR=00,
which provides easy access to all substances without any rings. For
example, ? S TR=00 AND EC=C0008 AND NM=KETONE will retrieve ketones with
8 carbon atoms which do not contain any rings.

BITNet (see also CREN)
BITNET (Because Its Time Network) is a network connecting academic and
other institutions for communication of messages and information. BITNET
has direct connections to more than 200 computer sites at various
campuses throughout the world. BITNET's main function is the


Catalog Plus
Catalog Plus is CSU-Chico's online library library catalog. The online
catalog provides access to the library's book, periodical, and nonprint
media collections. Current location and circulation status are
immediately available.

The Classroom Instructional Program is a low cost program for
educational institutions that offer online searching in a supervised
classroom setting. The program is offered by Dialog Information

CREN (see also Bitnet)
Formerly known as Bitnet, CREN consists of a nationwide network of
computer systems linked via telephone and other communication lines.

3460 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, (800)-334-2564.

Dialog's online document procurement service.

Electronic mail.

FTP, File Transfer Protocol, is a utility which lets users access files
on other computers which support the TCP/IP protocols. You can use FTP
copy some files.

The Internet is a collection of over 700 interconnected computer
networks. All of the computers on the Internet implement the TCP/IP
connect to the network. These protocols allow one computer network to
interactically different computer networks. Computer
users on the Internet can share resources such as logging on to remote
computers, file transfer with remote computers and sending and receiving
electronic mail with colleagues at remote sites.

Macro Key
Software is programmed such that a keystroke enables a series of

The MELVYL CATALOG is the online database for materials in the
University of California libraries and the California State Library. As
form of security that keeps unauthorized personnel from accessing the

Telnet is the INTERNET standard protocol for remote terminal connection
service. TELNET allows a user at one site to interact with a remote
timesharing system at another site as if the user's terminal or
establish the session, all commands are passed to the remote computer
for processing.

The Yellowsheets are the printed guide to the vendors available on
Dialorder. These sheets are helpful in selecting a vendor and getting
an approximate cost for document procurement.

/AB 30
/DE 30
/ENG 8,30,34
/FF 8,17,20
/NPT 30
/SH 30
/TI 8
accession number 28
acronym searching 17,33
Additional Fields 30
Additional Indexes 32,33
AND 8,29
anonymous FTP 23
anonymous logon 23
append 15
AU= 11,33
basic index 11,13,30,31
BEGIN 7,23
BITNET 23,44
Bluesheets 6,18,31,44
boolean operators 5,39
CA Search 13
call number search 39
Catalog Plus 9,10,38,39
Catalog Plus Logon 37
Catalog Plus Remote Access Guide 10
Chemical Abstracts 2,4
chemically related databases 2
CIP 5,44
Classroom Instructional Program 5,44
command language 5
Comment Lines 31
Component of Rings 41,43
computer literacy 4
computer-based searching 2
cross-file searching 34
CS= 12
Database Descriptions 35
electronic mail 22,23,25,45
EXPAND 11,31,33
Field Suffix Codes 30
File Transfer Protocol 45
Format Specifications 30
Free-Text Searching 29
FTP 23,26,45
Function Key Equivalents 40
Hill Order 4
How to interpret lessons 7
inter-library loan 5,9,11
interest groups 23
Internet 23,45
Keyword 10,11
Lesson 1 7
Lesson 2 9
Lesson 3 11
Lesson 4 13
Lesson 5 16
Lesson 6 17
Lesson 7 19
Lesson 8 23
Logical Operator Order 29
logoff 6
logon 6,37
macro key 6,45
MAP 14,16,34
MAP RN TEMP 14,16,34
MELVYL 4,27,45
MF= 20
multi-database vendor 4
networking 23
nonbibliographic databases 13
NOT 29
OneSearch 17,33
open 26
OR 29
parent compound 17
password 5,45
Prefix Codes 30
Procomm 17,37
Proximity Searching 29
redisplay 16,17
reference material 6
Registry Number Search 13
registry numbers 5,14
Related Terms 11,32
Ring Structure Analysis 19
Ring System Searching 40
RN= 13
Saving Search Strategy 31
Search Limitation 30
security 5,6
short lesson method 5,7
suffix codes 8,15
Telecommunications software 5,6,15,17
telecommunications workstation 4
TELNET 4,23,27,45
truncation 9,10,28,31
workstations 5,7
writing proficiency requirements 2
Yellowsheets 6,45

This document was retrieved via anonymous FTP from the pub/chemistry
directory at ( The document is
page number adjusted for printing 64 lines per page.

Dialog, OneSearch, Classroom Instructional Program, Procomm, Dialindex
are all registered trademarks.