Methoden der Organischen Chemie (Houben-Weyl)
Introduction and Guide

Created by David Flaxbart
July 1997

Volume Summary    Subject Guide

Methoden der Organischen Chemie (Methods of Organic Chemistry, often called Houben-Weyl) is a standard reference work for chemists engaged in organic synthesis. In volumes on compound classes, including all Supplemental volumes, preparative methods are treated comprehensively and critically. Tables of examples compare the most important methods and show their scope. Detailed experimental procedures are given for the best methods. The reactivity and further reactions of each compound class are also presented. The extensive use of formula schemes help make the German-language volumes more readily understandable to non-German readers.

The 4th Edition began publication in 1952. The base set of 16 volumes (in 70 parts) was completed in 1987, and covers the full range of organic synthetic topics. In 1982 a Supplemental series began (the E-volumes), which gives further and updated information on topics covered in the base set, as well as new areas not covered earlier. The E-series is scheduled for completion in 1999; volumes appear irregularly and out of order. All volumes are in German until 1990, after which they were published in English. Houben-Weyl is a textual source, and has no online or electronic equivalent.
 
 

Why should you use Houben-Weyl?

H-W offers a valuable and unique addition to standard synthetic reference sources. Unlike the Beilstein handbook or database, extensive experimental detail is provided for products and reactions; results and data are critically assessed by experts. Extensive literature references are also given. Standard English-language sources, such as Organic Syntheses, Organic Reactions, Reagents for Organic Synthesis, etc., while somewhat easier to use, are not nearly as extensive or exhaustive as H-W.

Houben-Weyl's German language, complex arrangement, and lack of comprehensive indexes are obstacles to its effective use. But organic chemists who take the time to learn its layout will find it very useful as a tool to survey synthetic methodologies restrospectively without consulting multiple volumes of other handbooks or Chemical Abstracts, and often without having to locate the original journal articles.
 
 

Basic Principles

Houben-Weyl is structured according to the type of product formed. Only the principal function is considered; other functions present are normally disregarded.

The principal function is defined by the level of oxidation, substitution, or saturation of the carbon atom(s) to be considered. In general, higher oxidation levels have priority over lower ones and heterofunctional atoms or groups are classified by the following list of priorities:

CX3 > CX > C=C > C=C > C-C

M > Hal(F>J) > OH > OX(F > O > N) > OR > S > N > P

Transformations (conversions) of the principal functional group are illustrated by typical or general examples and presented as a methodological overview with cross reference to other Houben-Weyl volumes.

 

How to Use Houben-Weyl

First examine the Index volumes to the base set (Vol. XVI, parts 1, 2a/b) which gives quick (but not comprehensive) access to the complete series up to 1985. This index may be used in different ways: Index of 240 acyclic compound classes and 20,000 compound subclasses (vol. XVI/2a).
   The former are indexed alphabetically and the latter using the basic principles. Index of cyclic compounds as single compounds or compound classes (vol. XVI/2b).
    These are indexed by ring size:
  1. monocyclic (pp.1-514); e.g. 3 to 18 ring atoms
  2. bicyclic (pp.515-767); e.g. 3,3 to 8,8 ring atoms
  3. tricyclic (pp.768-941); e.g. 3,3,3 to 8,8,8 ring atoms
  4. tetra- to polycyclic (pp.942-1072)
  5. spiro compounds (pp.1090-1140)
  6. steroids (pp.1142-79)

  7.  
To aid synthetic planning, various methods for the introduction of different functional groups to the ring systems are included.
Index of name reactions and reagents (vol. XVI/2b, p.1179)

Index of procedures for 800 compound classes (vol. XVI/1, pp. 1-25) and around 100,000 single compounds (pp.26-689).
 

The former are indexed alphabetically and the latter by empirical formula.
Second, examine the detailed table of contents of a relevant Houben-Weyl volume. Every volume contains a bibliography of important review articles or books, an author index, and a subject index (Sachregister). Use a German-English chemical dictionary to look up selected terms for translation.
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METHODEN DER ORGANISCHEN CHEMIE, 4TH EDITION
VOLUME SUMMARY -- BASE SET, VOLS. 1-16
 
1-4 General Chemical Methods 16 Indexes
5-15 Chemistry of Compound Classes Supplementary Series, 1982-

Vol/Part/Page Topic(s) / Date of Publication

1-4 GENERAL CHEMICAL METHODS
 
1 General Laboratory Methods / 1958
1/1 Materials / 1958
1/2 Applied laboratory practices / 1959
2 Analytical Methods / 1953
3 Physical Methods / 1955
4/1A Nonmetallic OXIDATION / 1981
4/1B Metallic/Organic oxidation, antioxidants / 1975 
4/1C-1D REDUCTION 
4/2 General chemical methods
4/3 Carbocyclic 3-member rings: / 1971
  ALKANES (CYCLOPROPANES)
  ALKENES (CYCLOPROPENES)
4/4 Isocyclic 4-member rings: (CYCLOBUTANES) / 1971
4/4  CYCLOPROPANES, CYCLOBUTANES (NATURAL PRODUCTS)
4/5A-B PHOTOCHEMISTRY / 1975
 

5-15 Chemistry of Compound Classes
 
5/1A ALKANES, CYCLOALKANES / 1970
5/1B ALKENES (ALKENES,CYCLOALKENES,ARYLALKENES) / 1972
5/1C ALKENES (CONJUGATED DIENES, DIELS-ALDER REACTION) / 1970
5/1D ALKENES (POLYENES, EN-YNE) / 1972
5/2A ACETYLENE COMPOUNDS / 1977
5/2A ALKYNES (ACETYLENES)
5/2A 913 ALKYNES (DI AND POLY -YNES)
5/2A 963 ALLENES (ALLENES,CUMULENES)
5/2A 963 CUMULENES (ALLENES,CUMULENES)
5/2B ARENES, ARYNES / 1981
5/2B AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 
5/2B BENZYNE
5/3 FLUORINE and CHLORINE COMPOUNDS / 1962
5/4 BROMINE and IODINE COMPOUNDS / 1960
6/1A-B ALCOHOLS / 1979-80
6/1C ALCOHOLS (PHENOL) / 1976
6/1C PHENOLS 
6/1D ALCOHOLS (ENOLS,EN-DIOLS) / 1978
6/1D ALKENES (ENOLS,EN-DIOLS)
6/1D ENOLS 
6/1D 217 REDUCTONES (EN-DIOLS)
6/1D 303 ALCOHOLS (BIOSYNTHESIS)
6/2 ESTERS (INORGANIC ACIDS,OXIDES,HALOGEN ACIDS) / 1963
6/2 SILIC ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES
6/2 1 METAL ALKOXIDES, PHENOLATES, ENOLATES, CHELATES
6/2 171 BORIC ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES
6/2 325 NITRIC - NITROUS ACID ESTERS
6/2 35 PHENOXIDES, METAL
6/2 363 ANTIMONIC - ANTIMONIUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES
6/2 363 ARSENIC - ARSENIOUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES
6/2 421 SULFURIC - SULFUROUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES
6/2 487 HYPOHALOGEN ACID ESTERS (ROX)
6/2 5 ALKOXIDES, METAL
6/2 5,35,53 ALCOHOLS (ALKOXIDES, PHENOLATES, ENOLATES
6/2 503 PERCHLORIC ACID ESTERS
6/2 53 ENOLATES, METAL
6/2 561/511 LACTONES / BETA-LACTONES
6/3 1 ETHERS / 1965
6/3 199 ACETALS
6/3 295 ESTERS, ORTHO
6/3 295 ORTHOESTERS
6/3 325 OXONIUM SALTS
6/3 367 EPOXIDES (1,2)
6/3 367,489+ ETHERS, CYCLIC (3,4,5)
6/3 689 ACETALS, SEMICYCLIC (5)
6/4 613 ETHERS, BRIDGED / 1966
6/4 1,443+ ETHERS, CYCLIC (6,7,8+)
6/4 329,475 ACETALS, SEMICYCLIC (6,7)
6/4 505 ETHERS, CYCLIC (1,4-0,N -0,S)
6/4 587 ACETALS, CYCLIC (1,4-0,N -0,S)
6/4 677 ACETALS, BRIDGED
7/1 ; E3 ALDEHYDES / 1975
7/2 KETONES / 1973-77
7/2A KETONES, SYNTHESIS
7/2B KETONES, SYNTHESIS, REACTIONS, ANALYSIS, SEPARATION
7/2C KETONES, MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
7/3 QUINONES / 1977-79
7/3A/1 QUINONES (PARA-BENZO - PARA-NAPHTHO)
7/3B QUINONES (ORTHO-, DERIVATIVES)
7/3C QUINONES (ANTHRA-)
7/4, 1 ISATINS / 1968
7/4, 33 QUINONES (THIONAPHTHEN-)
7/4, 53 KETENES (CARBON SUBOXIDE,THIOKETENE, ETC)
8 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS (ESTERS) / 1952
8, 1 PEROXIDES
8, 247 NITRILES (ISONITRILES,FULMINIC ACID)
8, 359 ACIDS,CARBOXYLIC 
8, 503 ESTERS, CARBOXYLIC
8, 653 AMIDES, CARBOXYLIC
8, 75 CARBONIC ACID DERIVATIVES (PHOSGENE,CYANAMIDE,ETC)
8, 359 DECARBOXYLATION
9 ORGANOSELENIUM COMPOUNDS / 1955
9 ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS 
9 ORGANOTELLURIUM COMPOUNDS
9 SELENIUM COMPOUNDS
9 SULFUR COMPOUNDS
9 TELLURIUM COMPOUNDS
10 NITROGEN, ORGANONITROGEN COMPOUNDS / 1965-71
10/1 1,463 NITRO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC/AROMATIC) / 1971
10/1 1091 HYDROXYLAMINE COMPOUNDS
10/1 891,1017 NITROSO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC/AROMATIC)
10/2 1 HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC)
10/2 123 HYDRAZINES, ACYL (DI,TRI,TETRA)
10/2 169 HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZONES(AROMATIC) RNHNH2/RCH=N-NHR
10/2 693 HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZO COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC)
10/2 71 DIAZIRIDINES
10/2 757 AZO/AZOXY COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC) RN=NR/RNO=NR
10/2 803 AZOACYL COMPOUNDS
10/2 823 TRIAZINES/TETRAAZINES (ALIPHATIC) N=N-N/N-N=N-N
10/2 85,823 AZINES (C=N-N=C) TRIAZINES/TETRAZINES(ALIPHATIC)
10/3 1 DIAZONIUM SALTS (AROMATIC) / 1965
10/3 213,545 AZO COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC)
10/3 471 AZO/AZOXY COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC)
10/3 490 HYDRAZONES, ARYL (THROUGH COUPLING REACTIONS)
10/3 627 FORMAZANS (RN=N-CH=NNH2)
10/3 695 TRIAZINES + HIGHER HOMOLOGS (AROMATIC)
10/3 745 AZOXY COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC)
10/3 777 AZIDO COMPOUNDS (RN=N=N)
10/3 837 NITRILE OXIDES (RCNO)
10/4 1 OXIMES (=N0H) / 1968
10/4 309 AMINE OXIDES (NITRONES)
10/4 449 OXAZIRIDINES
10/4 473 DIAZO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC)
10/4 895 DIAZIRINES
11/1 1 AMINES (PREPARATION) / 1967
11/1 1034 AMMONIA (PROPERTIES AND HANDLING)
11/2 1 AMINES (REACTIONS) 1958
11/2 223 AZIRIDINES
11/2 269 AMINO ACIDS (+DERIVATIVES)
11/2 511 LACTAMS
11/2 587 AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
11/2 641 AMIDES (SULFURIC, SULFUROUS, SULFAMIC ACID -)
11/2 641 SULFAMIC ACIDS (N-SUBSTITUTED)
11/2 641 SULFURIC ACID AMIDES (=N-S03H)
11/2 731 SULFUROUS ACID AMIDES (=N-S02H)
12 ; E1-2 ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS / 1964
12/1 ; E1-2 ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
12/1 ; E1-2 PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (CARBON-PHOSPHORUS BONDS)
12/2 ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (ESTERS, AMIDES, ETC.)
12/2 PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (ESTERS, AMIDES, ETC.)
13 ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS 
13/1 27 ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS (CH-ACIDS) / 1970
13/1 27 CH-ACIDITY (PKA VALUES FOR CH ACIDS)
13/1 3 ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS (PROPERTIES, ANALYSIS)
13/1 3,255 CESIUM COMPOUNDS
13/1 3,255 POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS
13/1 3,255 RUBIDIUM COMPOUNDS
13/1 3,255 SODIUM COMPOUNDS
13/1 731 COPPER COMPOUNDS
13/1 763 SILVER COMPOUNDS
13/1 779 GOLD COMPOUNDS
13/1 87 LITHIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2A 1 BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS / 1973
13/2A 1,47,529 ALKALI EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS
13/2A 47 MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2A 529 BARIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2A 529 CALCIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2A 529 STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2A 553 ZINC COMPOUNDS
13/2A 859 CADMIUM COMPOUNDS
13/2B MERCURY COMPOUNDS / 1974
13/2B 1 MERCURY COMPOUNDS
13/3A-C BORON COMPOUNDS / 1982-84
13/4 1 ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS / 1970
13/4 315 GALLIUM COMPOUNDS
13/4 343 INDIUM COMPOUNDS
13/4 363 THALLIUM COMPOUNDS
13/4 391 RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS
13/5 ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS / 1980
13/5 SILICON COMPOUNDS
13/6 1 GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS / 1978
13/6 181 TIN COMPOUNDS
13/7 1 LEAD COMPOUNDS / 1975
13/7 261 HAFNIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 261 TITANIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 261 ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 335 NIOBIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 335 TANTALUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 335 VANADIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 375 CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 429 MOLYBDENUM COMPOUNDS
13/7 485 TUNGSTEN COMPOUNDS
13/8 33 ARSENIC COMPOUNDS / 1978
13/8 443 ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS
13/8 590 BISMUTH COMPOUNDS
13/9A Mn, Re, Fe, Ru, Os, Pt COMPOUNDS / 1986
13/9B Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd COMPOUNDS / 1984
14 POLYMERS/POLYMERIZATION / 1961-63
14/1 POLYMERIZATION (VINYL/DIVINYL COMPOUNDS)
14/1 VINYL/DIVINYL COMPOUNDS (POLYMERIZATION)
14/2 POLYCONDENSATION/POLYADDITION
14/2 1 ESTERS, POLY-
14/2 193 CARBONYL/THIOCARBONYL (POLYMERIZATION)
14/2 425 CYCLIC MONOMERS
14/2 48 CARBONATES, POLY-
14/2 57 URETHANES, POLY-
14/2 637,917 POLYMER REACTIONS/ANALYSIS
14/2 99 AMIDES, POLY
15/1-2 PEPTIDES (SYNTHESIS/PURIFICATION) / 1974
 
 
16 Indexes
 
16/1 p1-25 Index of Procedures for 800 compound classes
16/1 p26- Index of Compounds to 1985 (100,000 only)
16/2a Index of 240 Acyclic compound classes; 20,000 compound subclasses (listed according to "basic principles" of HW).
16/2b Index of cyclic compounds, by ring size
16/2b p.1179 Index of name reactions and reagents
  

Supplementary Series, 1982-
 
E1-E2 ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS / 1982
E3 ALDEHYDES / 1983
E4 CARBONIC ACID DERIVATIVES / 1983
E5 CARBOXYLIC ACID, DERIVATIVES / 1985
E6 HETARENES: 5-MEMBERED RINGS WITH ONE HETEROATOM / 1994
E7 HETARENES: 6-MEMBERED RINGS WITH ONE HETEROATOM / 1991-92
E8 HETARENES: 5-MEMBERED RINGS WITH 2+ HETEROATOMS / 1993
E9 HETARENES: 6+ MEMBERED RINGS WITH 2+ HETEROATOMS / 1998
E10 ORGANOFLUORINE COMPOUNDS / 1998
E11 ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS / 1985
E12B ORGANOTELLURIUM COMPOUNDS / 1990 (IN ENGLISH)
E13 ORGANOPEROXO- COMPOUNDS / 1988
E14A1 CARBONYL DERIVATIVES: O/O AND O/S ACETALS / 1991
E14A2 CARBONYL DERIVATIVES: O/N ACETALS / 1991
E14A3 CARBONYL DERIVATIVES: HAL/X-, N/S(N)- AND ANOMERIC SUGARS
E14B CARBONYL DERIVATIVES: C=N DOUBLE BOND SYSTEMS / 1990
E15  EN-X, IN-X COMPOUNDS / 1993
E16A ORGANONITROGEN COMPOUNDS / 1990
E16B ORGANONITROGEN COMPOUNDS: alpha/beta LACTAMS / 1991
E16C-D ORGANONITROGEN COMPOUNDS (MISC) / 1992
E17 3- AND 4-MEMBERED CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS / 1997
E18 ORGANO-PI-METALLIC COMPOUNDS / 1986
E19A LOW-VALENCY CARBON COMPOUNDS: C-RADICALS / 1989
E19B CARBENES, CARBENOIDS / 1989
E19C CARBOCATIONS / 1990
E19D CARBOANIONS / 1993
E20 POLYMERIC MATERIALS / 1987
E21 STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS / 1996
E22 INDEXES (DUE IN 1999)
 

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METHODEN DER ORGANISCHEN CHEMIE, 4TH ED.
SUBJECT GUIDE:
BASE SET, VOLS. 1-15
SUPPLEMENTAL SERIES, VOLS. E1-E21

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N  O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z
 
Topic Vol/part/(page)
   
ACETALS 6/3 199
ACETALS, BRIDGED 6/4 677
ACETALS, CYCLIC (1,4-0,N -0,S) 6/4 587
ACETALS, SEMICYCLIC (5) 6/3 689
ACETALS, SEMICYCLIC (6,7) 6/4 329,475
ACETYLENE COMPOUNDS  5/2A
ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS (CH-ACIDS) 13/1 27
ACIDS,CARBOXYLIC 8 359
ALCOHOLS (BIOSYNTHESIS) 6/1D 303
ALCOHOLS (ENOLS,EN-DIOLS) 6/1D
ALCOHOLS (PHENOL) 6/1C
ALCOHOLS (ALKOXIDES, PHENOLATES, ENOLATES 6/2 5,35,53
ALCOHOLS  6/1
ALDEHYDES 7/1 ; E3
ALKALI EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS 13/2A 1,47,529
ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS (PROPERTIES, ANAL.) 13/1 3
ALKANES (CYCLOBUTANES) 4/4
ALKANES (CYCLOPROPANES) 4/3
ALKANES (ALKANES,CYCLOALKANES) 5/1A
ALKENES (ENOLS,EN-DIOLS) 6/1D
ALKENES (ALKENES,CYCLOALKENES, ARYLALKENES) 5/1B
ALKENES (CONJUGATED DIENES, DIELS-ALDER REACTION) 5/1C
ALKENES (CYCLOPROPENES) 4/3
ALKENES (POLYENES, EN-YNE) 5/1D
ALKOXIDES, METAL 6/2 5
ALKYNES (ACETYLENES) 5/2A
ALKYNES (EN-YNE) 5/1D 527,609
ALKYNES (DI AND POLY -YNES 5/2A 913
ALLENES (ALLENES,CUMULENES) 5/2A 963
ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS 3/4 1
AMIDES (SULFURIC, SULFUROUS, SULFAMIC ACID) 11/2 641
AMIDES, CARBOXYLIC 8, 653
AMIDES, POLY 14/2, 99
AMINE OXIDES (NITRONES) 10/4 , 309
AMINES (PREPARATION) 11/1, 1
AMINES (REACTIONS) 11/2, 1
AMINO ACIDS (+DERIVATIVES) 11/2, 269
AMMONIA (PROPERTIES AND HANDLING) 11/1, 1034
AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS 11/2 587
ANTIMONIC  
ANTIMONIUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES 6/2 363
ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS 13/8 443
ARENES, ARYNES 5/2B
AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 5/2B
ARSENIC; ARSENIOUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES 6/2 363
ARSENIC COMPOUNDS 13/8 33
ARYLALKENES 5/1B
AZIDO COMPOUNDS (RN=N=N) 10/3 777
AZINES (C=N-N=C)   
TRIAZINES/TETRAZINES(ALIPHATIC) 10/2 85,823
AZIRIDINES 11/2 223
AZO COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC) 10/3 213,545
AZO/AZOXY COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC); RN=NR/RNO=NR 10/2 757
AZO/AZOXY COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC) 10/3 471
AZOACYL COMPOUNDS 10/2 803
AZOXY COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC) 10/3 745
BARIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 529
BENZYNE 5/2B
BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 1
BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION 4/1A
BIOSYNTHESIS (ALCOHOLS) 6/1D 303
BISMUTH COMPOUNDS 13/8 590
BORIC ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES 6/2 171
BORON COMPOUNDS 13/3A
BROMINE COMPOUNDS 5/4 13,679
CADMIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 859
CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 529
CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, 3- AND 4-MEMBERED E17 (ENGLISH)
CARBON COMPOUNDS (LOW VALENCE; IONS) E19
CARBONATES, POLY- 4/2 48
CARBONIC ACID DERIVATIVES; (PHOSGENE, CYANAMIDE, ETC) 8 ,75 ; E4
CARBONYL DERIVATIVES E14A,B
CARBONYL/THIOCARBONYL (POLYMERIZATION) 14/2 193
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS (ESTERS) 8 ; E5
CESIUM COMPOUNDS 13/1 3,255
CH-ACIDITY (pKa VALUES FOR CH ACIDS) 13/1 27
CHLORINE COMPOUNDS 5/3 503 5/4 679
CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 375
CONJUGATED DIENES 5/1C
COPPER COMPOUNDS 13/1 731
CUMULENES (ALLENES,CUMULENES) 5/2A 963
CYANINE  5/1D 227
CYCLIC MONOMERS 14/2 425
CYCLOALKANES 5/1A
CYCLOALKENES 5/1B
CYCLOBUTANES  4/4
CYCLOHEPTATRIENE 5/1D 301
CYCLOOCTATETRAENE/CYCLOOCTATRIENE 5/1D 527
CYCLOPROPANES (CYCLOPROPENES) 4/3
CYCLOPROPANES, CYCLOBUTANES; (NATURAL PRODUCTS) 4/4 445
DECARBOXYLATION 8 359
DIAZIRIDINES 10/2 71
DIAZIRINES 10/4 895
DIAZO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC) 10/4 473
DIAZONIUM SALTS (AROMATIC) 10/3 1
DIELS-ALDER REACTION 5/1C
DIENES SEE ALKENES
EN-DIOLS SEE ALKENES, ALCOHOLS
EN-X E15
EN-YNE SEE ALKENES, ALKYNES
ENOLATES, METAL 6/2 53
ENOLS  6/1D
EPOXIDES (1,2) 6/3 367
ESTERS (INORGANIC ACIDS,OXIDES,HALOGEN ACIDS)* 6/2
ESTERS, CARBOXYLIC 8 503
ESTERS, ORTHO 6/3 295
ESTERS, POLY- 14/2 1
ETHERS  6/3 1
ETHERS, BRIDGED 6/4 613
ETHERS, CYCLIC (1,4-0,N -0,S) 6/4 505
ETHERS, CYCLIC (3,4,5) 6/3 367,489+
ETHERS, CYCLIC (6,7,8+) 6/4 1,443+
FLUORINE COMPOUNDS  5/3 1
FORMAZANS (RN=N-CH=NNH2) 10/3 627
GALLIUM COMPOUNDS 13/4 315
GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS 13/6 1
GOLD COMPOUNDS 13/1 779
HAFNIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 261
HETARENES E6, E7, E8, E9
HYDRAZINES, ACYL (DI,TRI,TETRA) 10/2 123
HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC) 10/2 1
HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZO COMPOUNDS (AROMATIC) 10/2 693
HYDRAZINES/HYDRAZONES (AROMATIC) RNHNH2/RCH=N-NHR 10/2 169
HYDRAZONES, ARYL (THROUGH COUPLING REACTIONS) 10/3 490
HYDROCARBONS  4 and 5
HYDROXYLAMINE COMPOUNDS 10/1 1091
HYPOHALOGEN ACID ESTERS (ROX) 6/2 487
INDIUM COMPOUNDS 13/4 343
IN-X E15
IODINE COMPOUNDS 5/4 517,679
ISATINS 7/4 1
KETENES (CARBON SUBOXIDE,THIOKETENE, ETC) 7/4 53
KETONES  7/2
KETONES, MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 7/2C
KETONES, SYNTHESIS, REACTIONS, ANALYSIS, SEPARATION 7/2A
KETONES 7/2B
LACTAMS 11/2 511; E16b
LACTONES / BETA-LACTONES 6/2 561/511
LEAD COMPOUNDS 13/7 1
LITHIUM COMPOUNDS 13/1 87
MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 47
MERCURY COMPOUNDS 13/2B 1
MERCURY COMPOUNDS 13/2B
METAL ALKOXIDES, PHENOLATES, ENOLATES, CHELATES  6/2 1
MOLYBDENUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 429
NIOBIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 335
NITRENES E16c
NITRIC - NITROUS ACID ESTERS 6/2 325
NITRILE OXIDES (RCNO) 10/3 837
NITRILES (ISONITRILES,FULMINIC ACID) 8 247
NITRO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC/AROMATIC) 10/1 1,463
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  10
NITROSO COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC/AROMATIC) 10/1 891,1017
OLEFINS  5/1B-1D
ORGANOBORON COMPOUNDS 13/3A
ORGANOBROMINE COMPOUNDS 5/4 13,679
ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS 5/3 503 5/4 679
ORGANOFLUORINE COMPOUNDS 5/3 ; E10
ORGANOHALOGEN COMPOUNDS 5/3-4
ORGANOIODINE COMPOUNDS 5/4 517,679
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS 13 ; E18
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS  SEE ALSO INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS in vol.13
ORGANONITROGEN COMPOUNDS 10 ; E16
ORGANOPEROXO COMPOUNDS E13
ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS 12 ; E1-2
ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS 12/1 ; E1-2
ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (ESTERS, AMIDES, ETC.) 12/2
ORGANOSELENIUM COMPOUNDS 9
ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS 13/5
ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS  9 ; E11
ORGANOTELLURIUM COMPOUNDS 9 ; E12b (ENGLISH)
ORTHOESTERS 6/3 295
OXAZIRIDINES  10/4 449
OXIDATION  4/1A-1B
OXIMES (=N0H) 10/4 1
OXONIUM SALTS 6/3 325
PEPTIDES (SYNTHESIS/PURIFICATION) 15
PERCHLORIC ACID ESTERS 6/2 503
PEROXIDES 8
PHENOLS 6/1C
PHENOXIDES, METAL 6/2 35
PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (ESTERS, AMIDES, ETC.) 12/2
PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS (CARBON-PHOSPHORUS BONDS) 12/1 ; E1-2
PHOTOCHEMISTRY 4/5A-B
POLYCONDENSATION/POLYADDITION 14/2
POLYENES 5/1D 1,527
POLYMER REACTIONS/ANALYSIS 14/2 637,917
POLYMERIZATION (VINYL/DIVINYL COMPOUNDS) 14/1 ; E20
POLYMERS/POLYMERIZATION 14 ; E20
POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS 13/1 3,255
QUINONES (ANTHRA-) 7/3C
QUINONES (ORTHO-, DERIVATIVES) 7/3B
QUINONES (PARA-BENZO - PARA-NAPHTHO) 7/3A/1
QUINONES (THIONAPHTHEN-) 7/4 33
QUINONES  7/3
RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS 13/4 391
REDUCTION  4/1C-1D
REDUCTONES (EN-DIOLS) 6/1D 217
RUBIDIUM COMPOUNDS 13/1 3,255
SELENIUM COMPOUNDS 9
SILIC ACID, ORGANIC DERIVATIVES 6/2
SILICON COMPOUNDS  13/5
SILVER COMPOUNDS 13/1 763
SODIUM COMPOUNDS 13/1 3,255
STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS E21 (ENGLISH)
STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS 13/2A 529
SULFAMIC ACIDS (N-SUBSTITUTED) 11/2 641
SULFUR COMPOUNDS 9 ; E11
SULFURIC - SULFUROUS ACID, ORGANIC DERIV 6/2 421
SULFURIC ACID AMIDES (=N-S03H) 11/2 641
SULFUROUS ACID AMIDES (=N-S02H) 11/2 731
TANTALUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 335
TELLURIUM COMPOUNDS 9
THALLIUM COMPOUNDS  13/4 363
TIN COMPOUNDS 13/6 181
TITANIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 261
TRIAZINES + HIGHER HOMOLOGS (AROMATIC) 10/3 695
TRIAZINES/TETRAAZINES (ALIPHATIC)  

N=N-N / N-N=N-N

10/2 823
TUNGSTEN COMPOUNDS 13/7 485
URETHANES, POLY- 14/2 57
VANADIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 335
VINYL/DIVINYL COMPOUNDS (POLYMERIZATION) 14/1
ZINC COMPOUNDS 13/2A 553
ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS 13/7 261
 

Note: for organic compounds with elements not listed above, consult indexes in vol.16, as well as v.13, E10, E12b, E18. See also the Gmelin Handbook under the element in question.

 
 
 
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David Flaxbart 7/97
 



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