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Below you will find a variety of resources that may be helpful in your research efforts.



Bennett, J. C. (1991). The Irrationality of the Catharsis Theory of Aggression as Justification for Educators Support of Interscholastic Football. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72(2), 415-418.

Back, L., Crabbe, T., & Solomos, J. (1999). Beyond the Racist/Hooligan Couplet: Race, Social Theory and Football Culture. British Journal of Sociology, 50(3), 419-442.

Bloom, G. A., & Smith, M. D. (1996). Hockey Violence: a Test of Cultural Spillover Theory. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13(1), 65-77.

Brust, J. D., Leonard, B. J., Pheley, A., & Roberts, W. O. (1992). Childrens Ice Hockey Injuries. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146(6), 741-747.

Bushman, B. J., & Wells, G. L. (1998). Trait Aggressiveness and Hockey Penalties: Predicting Hot Tempers on the Ice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 969-974.

Cabanes, B. (1998). Soccer and Violence: a Very Old Story. Histoire, (222), 26-27.

Cobb, B. K., Cairns, B. D., Miles, M. S., & Cairns, R. B. (1995). A Longitudinal Study of the Role of Sociodemographic Factors and Childhood Aggression on Adolescent Injury and ''close Calls''. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17(6), 381-388.

Collins, D., Hale, B., & Loomis, J. (1995). Differences in Emotional Responsivity and Anger in Athletes and Nonathletes - Startle Reflex Modulation and Attributional Response. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17(2), 171-184.

Collings, P., & Condon, R. G. (1996). Blood on the Ice: Status, Self-Esteem, and Ritual Injury Among Inuit Hockey Players. Human Organization, 55(3), 253-262.

Davis, T. C., Byrd, R. S., Arnold, C. L., Auinger, P., & Bocchini, J. A. (1999). Low Literacy and Violence Among Adolescents in a Summer Sports Program. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(6), 403-411.

Dorsch, K. D., & Widmeyer, W. N. (1996). Influence of Contextual Information on Observers' Perceptions of Actors' Intentions to Harm Others. Aggressive Behavior, 22(3), 183-193.

Dunn, J. G. H., & Dunn, J. C. (1999). Goal Orientations, Perceptions of Aggression, and Sportspersonship in Elite Male Youth Ice Hockey Players. Sport Psychologist, 13(2), 183-200.

Dyment, P. G. (1989). Violence in Youth Hockey. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 17(3), 55.

Ennis, C. D., Solmon, M. A., Satina, B., Loftus, S. J., Mensch, J., & Mccauley, M. T. (1999). Creating a Sense of Family in Urban Schools Using the "Sport for Peace" Curriculum. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(3), 273-285.

Garry, J. P., & Morrissey, S. L. (2000). Team Sports Participation and Risk-Taking Behaviors Among a Biracial Middle School Population. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 10(3), 185-190.

George, N. (1990). Sweepea and Other Playground Legends, Tales of Drugs, Violence and Basketball - Valenti,J, Naclerio,R. New York Times Book Review, 9.

Gillette, A. (1991). What Price Victory + Violence and Modern Sports. Museum, 43(2), 59-60.

Ginsburg, K. R. (1997). Teen Violence Prevention - How to Make a Brief Encounter Make a Difference. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 25(3), 69-&.

Goldstein, J. H. (1989). Violence in Sports - Introduction. Current Psychology-Research & Reviews, 7(4), 283-284.

Gordon, W. (1996). Football, Violence and Social Identity - Giulianotti,R, Bonney,N, Hepworth,M. Aggressive Behavior, 22(1), 67-68.

Guttmann, A. (2000). Making Violence Part of the Game: a Socio-Legal History of Violence in American Sports. Contemporary Psychology-Apa Review of Books, 45(3), 269-270.

Hargreaves, J. (1991). Football on Trial - Spectator Violence and Development in the Football World - Murphy,P, Williams,J, Dunning,E. Sociological Review, 39(4), 879-882.

Hobbs, D., & Robins, D. (1991). The Boy Done Good - Football Violence, Changes and Continuities. Sociological Review, 39(3), 551-579.

Huang, D. B., Cherek, D. R., & Lane, S. D. (1999). Laboratory Measurement of Aggression in High School Age Athletes: Provocation in a Nonsporting Context. Psychological Reports, 85(3), 1251-1262.

Hutchins, B., & Mikosza, J. (1998). Australian Rugby League and Violence 1970 to 1995: a Case Study in the Maintenance of Masculine Hegemony. Journal of Sociology, 34(3), 246-263.

Jones, J. C. H., Stewart, K. G., & Sunderman, R. (1996). From the Arena Into the Streets: Hockey Violence, Economic Incentives and Public Policy. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55(2), 231-243.

Kindlundh, A. M. S., Isacson, D. G. L., Berglund, L., & Nyberg, F. (1999). Factors Associated With Adolescent Use of Doping Agents: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. Addiction, 94(4), 543-553.

King, A. (1995). Outline of a Practical Theory of Football Violence. Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association, 29(4), 635-651.

Laraque, D., Barlow, B., & Durkin, M. (1999). Prevention of Youth Injuries. Journal of the National Medical Association, 91(10), 557-571.

Leach, R. E. (1997). Violence and Sports. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(5), 595.

Maguire, J. (1989). Violence at Soccer Matches in Victorian-England - Issues in the Study of Sports Violence, Popular Culture and Deviance. Current Psychology-Research & Reviews, 7(4), 285-297.

Markert, L., & Schmidbauer, W. (1994). Violence at the Sports Stadium - Police Tactics for Controlling the Problem. Kriminalistik, 48(7), 493-498.

Mintah, J. K., Huddleston, S., & Doody, S. G. (1999). Justifications of Aggressive Behavior in Contact and Semicontact Sports. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(3), 597-605.

Moorhouse, H. F. (1995). Football, Violence and Social Identity - Giulianotti,R, Bonney,N, Hepworth,M. Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association, 29(1), 171-172.

Nielsen, B. C. (1989). Controlling Sports Violence - Too Late for the Carrots - Bring on the Big Stick. Iowa Law Review, 74(3), 681-712.

Normandeau, A. (2000). Violence in Sports. Canadian Journal of Criminology-Revue Canadienne De Criminologie, 42(1), 91-94.

Palmer, C. T. (1993). Anger, Aggression, and Humor in Newfoundland Floor Hockey - an Evolutionary Analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 19(3), 167-173.

Rabbie, J. M. (1989). Football Violence in the Heizel Stadium - a Management Crisis - Hart, Pijnewburg,B. Current Psychology-Research & Reviews, 8(1), 50-56.

Robins, D. (1995). Football, Violence and Social Identity - Giulianotti,R, Bonney,N, Hepworth,M. Sociological Review, 43(1), 213-216.

Rowe, C. J. (1998). Aggression and Violence in Sports. Psychiatric Annals, 28(5), 265-269.

Russell, G. W. (1989). Sports Violence. Aggressive Behavior, 15(1), 114.

Ryan, M. K., Williams, J. M., & Wimer, B. (1990). Athletic Aggression - Perceived Legitimacy and Behavioral Intentions in Girls High-School Basketball. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 48-55.

Schneider, A. (1995). Sex, Violence and Power in Sports - Rethinking Masculinity - Messner,Ma, Sabo,Df. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 22, 143-149.

Shields, D. L. L., Bredemeier, B. J. L., Gardner, D. E., & Bostrom, A. (1995). Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12(3), 324-336.

Shields, E. W. (1999). Intimidation and Violence by Males in High School Athletics. Adolescence, 34(135), 503-521.

Stephens, D. E., & Bredemeier, B. J. L. (1996). Moral Atmosphere and Judgments About Aggression in Girls' Soccer: Relationships Among Moral and Motivational Variables. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18(2), 158-173.

Stephens, D. E., Bredemeier, B. J. L., & Shields, D. L. L. (1997). Construction of a Measure Designed to Assess Players' Descriptions and Prescriptions for Moral Behavior in Youth Sport Soccer. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28(4), 370-390.

Stott, C., & Reicher, S. (1998). How Conflict Escalates: the Inter-Group Dynamics of Collective Football Crowd 'violence'. Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association, 32(2), 353-377.

Taylor, J. C. (1987). The War on Soccer Hooliganism - the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehavior at Sports-Events. Virginia Journal of International Law, 27(3), 603-653.

Tenenbaum, G., Stewart, E., Singer, R. N., & Duda, J. (1997). Aggression and Violence in Sport: an Issp Position Stand. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 37(2), 146-150.

Thompson, N. J., & Morris, R. D. (1994). Predicting Injury Risk in Adolescent Football Players - the Importance of Psychological Variables. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19(4), 415-429.

Trudel, P., Guertin, D., Bernard, D., Boileau, R., & Marcotte, G. (1991). Analysis of the Behavior of Coaches Relative to Violence in Junior Ice Hockey. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences-Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Sport, 16(2), 103-109.

Trudel, P., Dionne, J. P., & Bernard, D. (1992). Qualitative-Analysis of Violence in Hockey - Perceptions of Coaches and Players. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences-Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Sport, 17(4), 320-332.

Vokey, J. R., & Russell, G. W. (1992). On Penalties in Sport as Measures of Aggression. Social Behavior and Personality, 20(3), 219-226.

Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., Holland, L. C., Jacob, B. E., Owens, D. A., & Wells, D. D. (1999). Beliefs in Symbolic Catharsis: the Importance of Involvement With Aggressive Sports. Social Behavior and Personality, 27(2), 155-163.

Weeks, J. (1988). Football as a Metaphor for War + Historical Sport Violence. American Heritage, 39(6), 113.

Weinstein, M. D., Smith, M. D., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (1995). Masculinity and Hockey Violence. Sex Roles, 33(11-12), 831-847.

White, D. V. (1986). Sports Violence as Criminal-Assault - Development of the Doctrine by Canadian Courts. Duke Law Journal, (6), 1030-1054.

Xie, H. L., Cairns, R. B., & Cairns, B. D. (1999). Social Networks and Configurations in Inner-City Schools: Aggression, Popularity, and Implications for Students With Ebd. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 7(3), 147-155.

Young, K. (1993). Violence, Risk, and Liability in Male Sports Culture. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10(4), 373-396.

Zani, B., & Kirchler, E. (1991). When Violence Overshadows the Spirit of Sporting Competition - Italian Football Fans and Their Clubs. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 1(1), 5-21.

Professional Organizations Papers and Articles

American Legion Baseball Program

American Youth Soccer Organization (AYSO)

Australian Sports Commission

CNN/Sports Illustrated Home Page

The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Home Page

ESPN Home Page

INTERMAT: Amateur Wrestling

Little League On-Line

National Alliance For Youth Sports Home Page

National Institute For Fitness and Sport

National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association

National Parent Information Network

National PONY (Protect Out Nation's Youth) League

National Recreation & Parks Association

National Youth Development Information Center

NCAA Home Page

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The President's Challenge Youth Fitness Program

Urban Education Web Site

USA Gymnastics

USA Olympic Home Page

Senate Judiciary Committee Media Violence Report

Testimony of Jeanne B. Funk, Ph. D. Department of Psychology University of Toledo regarding The Impact of Interactive Violence on Children before the United States Senate Commerce Committee

The Effects of Media Violence on Children
Jane E. Ledingham C. Anne Ledingham John E. Richardson

Violence Today No. 4 Violence in Sport by Brian Wenn, Manager, Policy and Planning Australian Sports Commission