Curtis M. Lively
Professor of Biology
Department of Biology, Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405-3700, USA


B.S., Arizona State University (Zoology), 1977
Ph.D., University of Arizona (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), 1984

Post-doctoral studies

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1984-88
Center for Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Rutgers University (with R. Vrijenjoek), 1989

Awards & Honors

George Mercer Award, from the Ecological Society of America, 1987
Outstanding Young Faculty Award from Indiana University, 1993
Teaching Excellence Recognition Awards, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2011
Jack Gill Fellowship, 1997-2001
Senior Class Award for Teaching Excellence and Dedication to Undergraduates, 2000, 2002
Vice President, Society for the Study of Evolution, 2003
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Fellow, 2004
Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand (HON FRSNZ), 2007
Vice President, American Society of Naturalists, 2012-2013

Editorial Positions

Associate editor, Evolution Dec., 1996- Dec., 1999
Board of editors, Evolutionary Ecology Research
Associate editor, American Naturalist
May, 2002- May, 2005

Publications and links to manuscripts:

Lively, C.M. 1984. Shell-species preferences in the hermit crab Clibanarius digueti Bovier. Pp. 133-147 in Biologia Marina: Memorias del III Simposium. Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Mexico

Delph, L.F. and C.M. Lively. 1985. Pollinator visits to floral colour phases of Fuchsia excorticata. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 12:599-603

Lively, C.M. 1986. Predator-induced shell dimorphism in the acorn barnacle Chthamalus anisopoma. Evolution 40:858-864

Lively, C.M. 1986. Competition, comparative life histories, and maintenance of shell dimorphism in a barnacle. Ecology 67:858-864

Lively, C.M. 1986. Canalization versus developmental conversion in a spatially variable environment. American Naturalist 128:561-572

Raimondi, P.T. and C.M. Lively. 1986. Positive abundance and negative distribution effects of a gastropod on an intertidal hermit crab. Oecologia 69:213-216

Lively, C.M. 1987. Evidence from a New Zealand snail for the maintenance of sex by parasitism. Nature 328:519-521

Lively, C.M. 1987. Facultative parthenogenesis and sex-ratio evolution. Evolutionary Ecology 1:297-300

Lively, C.M. and P.T. Raimondi. 1987. Desiccation, predation, and mussel-barnacle interactions in the northern Gulf of California. Oecologia 74:304-309

Lively, C.M. 1988. A graphical model for shell-species selection by hermit crabs. Ecology 69:1233-1238

Lively, C.M. 1989. The effects of shell mass, surface topography, and depth for withdrawal on shell selection by an intertidal hermit crab. Marine Behaviour and Physiology 14:161-168

Delph, L.F. and C.M. Lively. 1989. The evolution of floral color change: pollinator attraction versus physiological constraints in Fuchsia excorticata. Evolution 43:1252-1262

Lively, C.M. 1989. Adaptation by a parasitic trematode to local populations of its snail host. Evolution 43:1663-1671

Lively, C.M. 1989. Biparental sex and the production of variable progeny. (Review of Michod, R.E. and B.R. Levin [eds.] The Evolution of Sex: an Examination of Current Ideas.) Ecology 70:1196

Lively, C.M. 1989. Sex and its consequences. (Review of Stearns, S.C. [ed.] The Evolution of Sex and its Consequences.) Ecology 70:1551-1552

Lively, C.M. 1990. Male allocation and the cost of sex in a parasitic worm. Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences 22:93-107 (MS copy)

Lively, C.M., C. Craddock and R.C. Vrijenhoek. 1990. Red Queen hypothesis supported by parasitism in sexual and clonal fish. Nature 344:864-866

Lively, C.M. and D.G. Lloyd. 1990. The cost of biparental sex under individual selection. American Naturalist 135:489-500

Lively, C.M. and J. McKenzie. 1991. Experimental infection of a freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, with a digenetic trematode, Microphallus sp. New Zealand Natural Sciences 18:59-62

Lively, C.M. 1991. Sex and death. (Review of Bell, G: Sex and Death in Protozoa: the History of an Obsession.) Evolution 45:468-469

Delph, L.F. and C.M. Lively. 1992. Pollinator visitation, floral display, and nectar production of the sexual morphs of a gynodioecious shrub. Oikos 63:161-170

Lively, C.M. 1992. Parthenogenesis in a freshwater snail: reproductive assurance versus parasitic release. Evolution 46:907-913

Lively, C.M. 1993. Rapid evolution by biological enemies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:345-346

Lively, C.M., P.T. Raimondi and L.F. Delph. 1993. Intertidal community structure: space-time interactions in the northern Gulf of California. Ecology 74:162-173

Lloyd, D.G. and C.M. Lively. 1993. Counting genes in models of biparental inbreeding. Evolution 47:1874-1876.

McKone, M.J. and C.M. Lively. 1993. Statistical analysis of experiments conducted at multiple sites. Oikos 67:184-186

Howard, R.S., and C.M. Lively. 1994. Parasitism, mutation accumulation and the maintenance of sex. Nature 367:554-557. (MS copy)

Lively, C.M., and R.S. Howard. 1994. Selection by parasites for clonal diversity and mixed mating. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 346:271-281. (MS copy)

Lively, C.M., and S.G. Johnson. 1994. Brooding and the evolution of parthenogenesis: strategy models and evidence from aquatic invertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 256:89-95.

Lively, C.M., and M.J. McKone. 1994. Choosing an appropriate ANOVA for experiments conducted at few sites. Oikos 69:335.

Dybdahl, M.F., and C.M. Lively. 1995. Diverse, endemic and polyphyletic clones in mixed populations of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 8:385-389.

Dybdahl, M.F., and C.M. Lively. 1995. Host-parasite interactions: infection of common clones in natural populations of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 260:99-103.

Johnson, S.G., C.M. Lively, and S.J. Schrag. 1995. Evolution and ecological correlates of uniparental reproduction in freshwater snails. Experientia 51:498-509.

Jokela, J., and C.M. Lively. 1995. Parasites, sex, and early reproduction in a mixed population of freshwater snails. Evolution 49:1268-1271.

Jokela, J., and C.M. Lively. 1995. Spatial variation for infection by digenetic trematodes in a population of freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Oecologia 103:509-517.

Lively, C.M., and V. Apanius. 1995. Genetic diversity in host-parasite interactions. Pp. 421-449 in B.T. Grenfell and A.P. Dobson (eds.), Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K.

Lively, C.M., S.G. Johnson, L.F. Delph, and K. Clay. 1995. Thinning reduces the effect of rust infection on jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). Ecology 76:1859-1862.

Read, A.F., Albon, S., Antonovics, J., Apanius, V., Dwyer, G., Holt, R.D., Judson, O., Lively, C., McLean, A.R., Metz, H., Schmid-Hempel, P., Thrall, P., Via, S. 1995. Genetics and evolution of infectious diseases in natural populations. Pp. 450-477 in B.T. Grenfell and A.P. Dobson (eds.), Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K.

Fox, J.A., M.F. Dybdahl, J. Jokela, and C.M. Lively. 1996. Genetic structure of coexisting sexual and clonal subpopulations in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Evolution 50:1541-1548.

Levri, E. P., and C.M. Lively. 1996. The effects of size, reproductive condition, and parasitism on foraging behaviour in a freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Animal Behaviour 51:891-901.

Lively, C.M. 1996. Host-parasite coevolution and sex. BioScience 46:107-114

Lively, C.M., and J. Jokela. 1996. Clinal variation for local adaptation in a host-parasite interaction. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 263:891-897.

Sinervo, B., and C.M. Lively 1996. The rock-paper-scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. Nature 380:240-243.

Dybdahl, M.F., and C.M. Lively. 1996. The geography of coevolution: comparative population structures for a snail and its trematode parasite. Evolution 50:2264-2275.

Jokela, J., C.M. Lively, M.F. Dybdahl, and J.A. Fox. 1997. Evidence for a cost of sex in the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Ecology 78:452-460.

Jokela, J., C.M. Lively, J.A. Fox, and M.F. Dybdahl. 1997. Flat reaction norms and "frozen" phenotypic variation in clonal snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Evolution 51:1120-1129.

Johnson, S.G., C.M. Lively, and S.J. Schrag. 1997. Evolution and ecological correlates of uniparental reproduction in freshwater snails. Pp. 263-291 in B. Streit, T. Städler and C.M. Lively (eds.), Evolutionary Ecology of Freshwater Organisms: Concepts and Case Studies. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.

Lively, C.M., and R.S. Howard. 1997. Selection by parasites for clonal diversity and mixed mating. Pp. 1-11 in W.D. Hamilton and J.C. Howard (eds.), Infection, Polymorphism and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, London. (reprinted from Lively and Howard 1994.)

Streit, B., T. Städler and C.M. Lively (eds.). 1997. Evolutionary Ecology of Freshwater Organisms: Concepts and Case Studies. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.

Dybdahl, M.F., and C.M. Lively. 1998. Host-parasite coevolution: evidence for rare advantage and time-lagged selection in a natural population. Evolution 52:1057-1066.

Howard, R.S., and C.M. Lively. 1998. The maintenance of sex by parasitism and mutation accumulation under epistatic fitness functions. Evolution 52:604-610. (MS copy)

Krist, A.C., and C.M. Lively. 1998. Experimental exposure of juvenile snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) to infection by trematode larvae (Microphallus sp.): infectivity, fecundity compensation and growth. Oecologia 116:575-582.

Lively, C.M., E.J. Lyons, A.D. Peters, and J. Jokela. 1998. Environmental stress and the maintenance of sex in a freshwater snail. Evolution 52:1482-1486.

Lively, C.M. 1999. Developmental strategies in spatially variable environments: barnacle shell dimorphism and strategic models of selection. Pages 245-258 in R. Tollrian and C.D. Harvell (eds.), The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Jokela, J., M.F. Dybdahl, and C.M. Lively. 1999. Habitat-specific variation in life-history traits, clonal population structure, and parasitism in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12:350-360.

West, S. A., C. M. Lively, and A. F. Read. 1999. A pluralist approach to sex and recombination. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12: 1003-1012. pdf

West, S. A., C. M. Lively, and A. F. Read. 1999. Sex may take more than one. Journal of Evolutionary Biology12:1053-1055.

Lively, C.M. 1999. Migration, virulence, and the geographic mosaic of adaptation by parasites. American Naturalist 153: S34-S47. pdf

Jokela, J., C. M. Lively, J. Taskinen, and A. D. Peters. 1999. Effect of starvation on parasite-induced mortality in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Oecologia 119:320-325.

Peters, A.D. and C.M. Lively. 1999. The Red Queen and fluctuating epistasis: a population genetic analysis of antagonistic coevolution. American Naturalist 154:393-405.

Lively, C.M., W.N. Hazel, M.J. Schellenberger, and K.S. Michelson. 2000. Predator-induced defense: variation for inducibility in an intertidal barnacle. Ecology 81:1240-1247.

Peters, A. D. and C. M. Lively. 2000. Epistasis and the maintenance of sex. Pages 99-112 in J.B. Wolf, E.D. Brodie, III, and M.J. Wade (eds.), Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Krist, A.C., C.M. Lively, E. P. Levri, and J. Jokela. 2000. Spatial variation in susceptibility to infection in a snail-trematode interaction. Parasitology 121:395-401.

Raimondi, P. T., S. E. Forde, L. F. Delph, and C. M. Lively. 2000. Processes structuring communities: evidence for trait-mediated indirect effects through induced polymorphisms. Oikos 91:353-361.

Lively, C.M. and M.F. Dybdahl. 2000. Parasite adaptation to locally common host genotypes. Nature 405:679-681.

Lively, C.M. 2001. Parasite-host interactions. Pages 290-302 in C.W. Fox, D.A. Roff, and D.J. Fairbairn (eds.). Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. Oxford University Press.

Lively, C. M. 2001. Propagule interactions and the evolution of virulence. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14:317-324. Manuscript copy

Lively, C. M. 2001. Trematode infection and the distribution and dynamics of parthenogenetic snail populations. Parasitology 123:S19-S26. Manuscript copy

Agrawal, A. and C. M. Lively. 2001. Parasites and the evolution of self fertilization. Evolution 55:869-879.

Agrawal, A. and C.M. Lively. 2002. Infection genetics: gene-for-gene versus matching-allele models, and all points in between. Evolutionary Ecology Research 4:79-90. pdf file

Lively, C. M. and J. Jokela. 2002. Temporal and spatial distributions of parasites and sex in a freshwater snail. Evolutionary Ecology Research 4:219-226. pdf file

Lively, C.M. 2002. Red Queen Hypothesis. Pages 990-993 in Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.

Howard, R. S. and C.M. Lively. 2002. The ratchet and the Red Queen: the maintenance of sex in parasites. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15:648-656.

Jokela, J., C. M. Lively, M. F. Dybdahl, and J. A. Fox. 2003. Genetic variation in sexual and clonal lineages of a freshwater snail. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79:165-181.

Bailey, M., L.F. Delph, and C.M. Lively. 2003. Modeling gynodioecy: novel scenarios for maintaining polymorphism. American Naturalist 161:762-776.

Agrawal, A.F. and C.M. Lively. 2003. Modeling infection genetics as a two-step process combining gene-for-gene and matching-allele genetics. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B. 270:323-334.

Howard, R. S. and C. M. Lively. 2003. Opposites attract? Mate choice for parasite evasion and the evolutionary stability of sex. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16:681-689.

Krist, A.C., J. Jokela, J. Wiehn, and C.M. Lively. 2004. Host condition affects prevalence of infection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17:33-44.

Osnas, E.E. and C.M. Lively. 2004. Parasite dose, prevalence of infection and local adaptation in a host-parasite system. Parasitology 128:223-228.

Hazel, W, R. Smock, and C. M. Lively. 2004. The ecological genetics of conditional strategies. American Naturalist 163:888-900.

Lively, C.M., M.F. Dybdahl, J. Jokela, E. Osnas, L.F. Delph. 2004. Host sex and local adaptation by parasites in a snail trematode interaction. American Naturalist 164:S6-S18. (pdf)

Neiman, M. and C.M. Lively. 2004. Pleistocene glaciation is implicated in the phylogeographic structure of a New Zealand freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum
. Molecular Ecology 13:3085-3098. (pdf file*)

Howard, R.S., and C.M. Lively. 2004. Good vs. complementary genes for parasite resistance and the evolution of mate choice. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:48

Städler, T., M. Frye, M. Neiman, and C. M. Lively.  2005.  Mitochondrial haplotypes and the New Zealand origin of clonal European Potamopyrgus, an invasive aquatic snail.  Molecular Ecology 14: 2465-2473.

Lively, C.M, K. Clay, M.J. Wade, and C. Fuqua.  2005.  Competitive coexistence in vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 7: 1183-1190.

Osnas, E.E. and C.M. Lively.  2005.  Immune response to sympatric and allopatric parasites in a snail-trematode interaction.  Frontiers in Zoology, 2005, 2:8

Neiman, M., J. Jokela, and C.M. Lively.  2005.  Variation in asexual lineage age in Potamopyrgus antipodarum
, a New Zealand snail.  Evolution 59: 1945-1952.  (Maurine Neiman received the 2006 R.A. Fisher Prize for this paper.)

Neiman, M., and C.M. Lively.  2005.  Male New Zealand mud snails persist in copulating with asexual and parasitically castrated females.  American Midland Naturalist 154:88-96.

Lively, C.M.  2005.  Evolution of virulence: coinfection and propagule production in spore–producing parasites.  BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005, 5:64

Clay, K. C. Fuqua, C. M. Lively, and M. J. Wade.  2005.  Microbial community ecology of tick-borne human pathogens.  Pages 41-57 in S.K. Collinge and C. Ray (eds.) Disease Ecology: Community structure and pathogen dynamics.  Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.

Osnas, E.E. and C.M. Lively.  2006.  Host ploidy, parasitism, and immune defense in a coevolutionary snail-trematode system.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19:42-48.

Pilling, A.D., D. Horiuchi, C.M. Lively, and W.M Saxton. 2006.  Kinesis-1 and dynein are the primary motors for fast transport of mitochondria in Drosophila
motor axons.  Molecular Biology of the Cell 17: 2057-2068.

Lively, C. M.  2006.  The ecology of virulence.  Ecology Letters 9: 1089-1095.

Delph, L.F., C.M. Lively, and C.J. Webb.  2006.  Gynodioecy in native New Zealand Gaultheria
(Ericaceae).  New Zealand Journal of Botany 44: 415-420.

Koskella, B. and C.M. Lively. 2007.  Advice of the Rose: experimental coevolution of a trematode parasite and its snail host.  Evolution 62: 152-159.

Peters, A. D. and C.M. Lively.  2007.  Short- and long-term benefits and detriments to recombination under antagonistic coevolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 1206-1217.

Bashey, F., L.T. Morran, and C.M. Lively.  2007.  Coinfection, kin selection, and the rate of host exploitation by a parasitic nematode.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 9: 947-958.

Wolinska, J., C.M. Lively, and P. Spaak.  2008.  Parasites in hybridizing communities: the Red Queen again?  Trends in Parasitology 24: 121-126

Lively, C.M., L.F. Delph, M.F. Dybdahl, and J. Jokela. 2008.  Experimental test for a coevolutionary hotspot in a host-parasite interaction.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 10: 95-103.  

Vigneux, F., F. Bashey, M. Sicard, and C.M. Lively.  2008.  Low migration decreases interference competition among parasites and increases virulence.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21: 1245-1251.

Wolinska, J. and C.M. Lively.  2008.  The cost of males in Daphnia pulex
.  Oikos  117: 1637-1646.

Dybdahl, M.F., J. Jokela, L.F. Delph, B. Koskella, and C. M. Lively.  2008.  Hybrid fitness in a locally adapted parasite.  American Naturalist 172: 772-782.

Wolinska, J., K.C. King, F. Vigneux, and C.M. Lively.  2008.  Virulence, cultivating conditions, and phylogenetic analyses of oomycete parasites in Daphnia.  Parasitology 135: 1667-1678.

Bashey, F. and C.M. Lively.  2009.  Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.  Evolution 63: 1301-1311.

Jokela, J., M.F. Dybdahl, and C.M. Lively.  2009.  The maintenance of sex, clonal dynamics, and host-parasite coevolution in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails.  American Naturalist 174: S43-S53.

King, K. C. and C.M. Lively.  2009.  Geographic variation in sterilizing parasite species and the Red Queen.  Oikos 118: 1416-1420.

Lively, C. M.  2009.  Local host competition in the evolution of virulence.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1286-1274.

Koskella, B. and C. M. Lively.  2009.  Evidence for negative frequency-dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode.  Evolution 63: 2213-2221.
(Britt Koskella received the 2010 R.A. Fisher Prize for this paper.)

King, K. C., L. F. Delph, J. Jokela, and C. M. Lively.  2009.  The geographic mosaic of sex and the Red Queen.  Current Biology 19: 1438-1441
(see Dispatch by J.N. Thompson in the same issue)

Lively, C.M.  2009.  Host Parasite Evolution.  Pages 640-642 in M. Ruse and J. Travis (eds.), Evolution: The First Four Billion Years.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.

Lively, C. M.  2009
.  The maintenance of sex: host-parasite coevolution with density-dependent virulence.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 22: 2086–2093.

Lively, C. M.  2010.  Antagonistic coevolution and sex.  Evolution: Education and Outreach 3: 19-25.


Frey, F., Lively, C.M., and Brodie, E.D. III.  2010.  Selection and evolution with a deck of cards. Evolution: Education and Outreach 3: 114-120.


Lively, C. M.  2010.  Parasite virulence, host life history, and the costs and benefits of sex.  Ecology 91: 3-6.


Hawlena, H., Bashey, F., Mendes-Soares, H, and Lively, C.M.  2010.  Spiteful interactions in a natural population of the bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii.  American Naturalist 175: 374-381.


Lively, C. M.  2010.  A review of Red Queen models for the persistence of obligate sexual reproduction.  Journal of Heredity 101: S13-S20


Lively, C. M.  2010.  The effect of host genetic diversity on disease spread.  American Naturalist 175: E149-E152.


Lively, C. M.  2010.  Ecology and evolution’s big questions.  Quarterly Review of Biology 85: 359.  (Book review)


Lively, C. M.  2010.  An epidemiological model of host-parasite coevolution and sex.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 1490-1497.

Hawlena, H., Bashey, F., and Lively, C. M.  2010.  The evolution of spite: population structure and bacteriocin-mediated antagonism in two natural populations of Xenorhabdus bacteria.  Evolution 64: 3198-3204.

King, K. C., Jokela, J., and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Trematode parasites infect or die in snail hosts.  Biology Letters 7: 265-268.


Osnas, E. E. and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Using definitive host feces to infect experimental intermediate host populations: waterfowl hosts for New Zealand trematodes.  New Zealand Journal of Zoology 38: 83-90.


King, K. C., Jokela, J., and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Parasites, sex, and clonal diversity in natural snail populations.  Evolution 65: 1474-1481.


Lively, C. M.  The cost of males in non-equilibrium populations.  2011.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 13: 105-111


King, K. C., Delph, L. F., Jokela, J., and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Coevolutionary hotspots and coldspots for host sex and parasite local adaptation in a snail-trematode interaction.  Oikos 120: 1335-1340.


Morran, L. T., Schmidt, O. G., Gelarden, I. A., Parrish R. C. II, and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex.  Science 333: 216-218. 


Koskella, B., Vergara, D., and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Experimental evolution of sexual host populations in response to parasites.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 13:315-322.


Greischar, M. A. and Lively, C. M.  2011.  Parasites can simplify host population dynamics and reduce the risk of extinction.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 13:557-569.


Bashey, F., Hawlena, H., Young, S. K., and Lively, C. M.  2012.  Spiteful interactions between sympatric natural isolates of Xenorhabdus bovienii benefit kin and reduce virulence.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 431-437.


King, K. C. and Lively, C. M.  2012.  Does genetic diversity limit disease spread in natural host populations?  Heredity 109: 199-203. 


Hawlena, H. Bashey, F., and Lively, C. M.  2012.  Bacteriocin-mediated interactions within and between coexisting species.  Ecology and Evolution 2: 2516-2521.


Lively, C. M.  2012.  Feedbacks between ecology and evolution: interactions between ΔN and Δp in a life-history model.  Evolutionary Ecology Research 14: 299-309.


Bashey, F., Hawlena, H., and Lively, C. M.  2013.  Alternative paths to success in a parasite community: within-host competition can favor higher virulence or direct interference.  Evolution 67: 900-907.


Soper, D. M., Delph, L. F., and Lively, C. M.  2013.  Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  Ecology and Evolution 110: 227-234.


Morran, L. T., Gelarden, I. A., Parrish R. C. II, and Lively, C. M.  2013.  Temporal dynamics of outcrossing and host mortality rates in host-pathogen experimental coevolution.  Evolution 67: 1860-1868.

Vergara, D., Lively, C. M., King, K. C., and Jokela, J.  2013.  The geographic mosaic of sex and infection in lake populations of a New Zealand snail at multiple spatial scales.  The American Naturalist 182: 484-493.

Go to publications by Lively-lab graduate students from thesis work at IU

*This is an electronic version of an article published in Molecular Ecology: complete citation information for the final version of the paper, as published in the print edition of Molecular Ecology, is available on the Blackwell Synergy online delivery service, accessible via the journal's website at or

C. M. Lively, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University
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