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Articles on Miscellaneous Topics

Listed below are miscellaneous articles from the Campus Writing Program library. Short summaries and citations are provided when available.

Alexander, Patricia A., and Judith A. Judy. "The Interaction of Domain- Specific and Strategic Knowledge in Academic Performance." Review of Educational Research 58.4 (1988): 375-404.

Reviews empirical research on how strategies interact with domain- specific knowledge (DSK) to affect academic performance. Suggests hypotheses: DSK needed to use strategies effectively. Inaccurate or incomplete DSK may impede learning. Strategies help in the use and acquisition of DSK. Wrong use of strategies can hurt learning. As DSK goes up, strategy use changes. Differences in the relative importance of DSK and strategies may depend on the particular discipline. Competent performers see relatedness of DSK and strategies across tasks. Motivation and social context affect use and acquisition of DSK and strategies. Article also discusses methodological and other problems with the research, and suggests directions for future research.

Angelo, Thomas Anthony. "A 'Teacher's Dozen': Fourteen General, Research-Based Principles for Improving Higher Learning in Our Classrooms." AAHE (American Assoc. for Higher Education) Bulletin 45.8 (1993): 3-7, 13.

To improve college learning, one needs to know how students learn. Author presents 14 principles of learning that faculty should integrate into their pedagogy: active learning better than passive; learning requires focused attention and awareness of task; need explicit reasonable goals shared by student and prof; need to connect new info to old; unlearning harder than learning; if information organized in personally meaningful ways it's better remembered; need feedback from others and self; assessment affects learning; mastery requires lots of time and effort; transfer of learning requires time and practice; high expectations lead to high achievement; need balance of challenge and support; can change motivation to learning; interaction between prefessors and students, and among students, promotes learning.

Ausubel, David P. "The Transition from Concrete to Abstract Cognitive Functioning: Theoretical Issues and Implications for Education." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 2 (1964): 261- 266.

Describes and defends principles of developmental stages: discrete, sequential, qualitatively distinct phases in development. Then focuses on Piagetian transition from concrete to abstract logical thinking. Describes what the child needs to make this transition (words, higher-order concepts, and practice, basically). Then speculates about whether the transition to abstract thinking can be speeded up.

Baker, Barbara A. "Meeting the Challenges of Networking Video Applications." Advanced Imaging (No year or volume numbers): 20, 22, 72.

Problems of using video/multimedia data on computers: the large sizes of the files, and the time-dependent nature of the data. Problems are particularly difficult in LANs, which are used to dealing with bursts, not streams, of data. One wiring configuration that works is a star network, using Ethernet connections to connect each PC or Mac to a video application server. For a video network, also need to modify network protocol and file server.

Bartholomae, David. "Inventing the University." When a Writer Can't Write: Studies in Writer's Block and Other Composing-Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford Press, 1985. 134-165.

Argues that each classroom is a specialized discourse community, to which a student must get access in order to be successful at college, but to which the student is rarely explicity introduced. Presents student writing as examples of students trying to "write their way into the university." Discusses the problems they have trying to approximate academic discourse--a discourse whose conventions they're unfamiliar with or unsure of.

Basic Aims Committee of the National Council of Teachers of English. "Basic Aims for English Instruction in American Schools." English Journal 31 (1942):40-55

A manifesto, the document outlines principles underlying the American curriculum in English language instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Interesting for its historical perspective, the article begins by reiterating the claim that language is important to the maintaining of a democratic society, and hence language education must be based upon the current needs of society. English language instruction in America, as a consequence, needs to emphasize American authors and incorporate mass media (radio and motion pictures are mentioned) as these are relevant to the American experience.

Basseches, Michael. "Dialectical Thinking and Young Adult Cognitive Development." Adult Cognitive Development: Methods and Models. Ed. Robert A. Mines and Karen S. Kitchener. New York: Praeger. 1985.

Dialectical thinking involves seeing phenomena as developmental transformations that occur through constitutive and interactive relationships. Different from (and in fact a later stage than) Piagetian formal operational thinking. Author gives dialectical analyses of social situations (parenting, courtship, teacher- student). More mature people (e.g. college professors, compared to college seniors, compared to freshmen) use more dialectical schemata in their thinking. Discusses environments that may encourage development of dialectical thinking.

Bazerman, Charles. "What Written Knowledge Does: Three Examples of Academic Discourse." Philosophy and Sociology of Science 11 (1981): 361-387.

Examines 3 examples of academic discourse (Watson and Crick's Structure of DNA paper; an essay on sociology of science by Merton; and an article on a Wordsworth poem by Hartman), all in relation to 4 contexts: object of study, literature, audience, and author(s). The importance of these contexts is weighted differently in the three articles. The different weightings depend on the discipline of the article, the homogeneity of the audience, the object studied in the article, the structure of the literature in the discipline, and the expected role(s) of authors in the disciplines.

Beaufort, Anne. "Operationalizing the Concept of Discourse Community: A Case Study of One Institutional Site of Composing." Research in the Teaching of English 31.4 (1997): 486-529.

A case study of the writing done in a non-profit organization provides insight into the diferent constraints placed on writing genres by the expectations of the particular discourse community. Furthermore, the case study also documents the types of adjustments necessary to negotiate audience and genre when the writing task involves more than one discourse community. Through following the different strategies adopted by the informants in the study, the author concludes that the notion of discourse community may be a useful heuristic in teaching because it entails considering audience, communication context, and meshing communicative purpose with audience values. These considerations may help students think of the larger implications of their writing.

Berkenkotter, Carol. "Paradigm Debates, Turf Wars, and the Conduct of Sociocognitive Inquiry in Composition." College composition and Communication 42.2 (May 1991): 151-169.

Berkenkotter examines the roots of some disciplinary problems that have polarized composition studies. She explores the conflict between social and cognitive perspectives in discussing writing. In addition, she describes the professionalization of composition faculty throughout the 1980s and explains how that has affected how that has led to "turf wars" in how writing is taught.

Bialostosky, Don H. "Liberal Education, Writing, and the Dialogic Self." Contending with Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age. Eds. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 11-22.

Discusses importance of audience background and knowledge as shapers of a writer's text. Argues that student writers are expected to learn the language of their discipline, which is alien to them, and to use this language in their writing. To help students use languages to find their own voices, students have to objectify their own languages, and retell others' stories in their own words. Discusses the idea of multiple voices and multiple languages, both within and betweeen discourse communities.

Bizzell, Patricia. "Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know About Writing." PRE/TEXT 3.3, (1982): 213-243.

Makes a distinction between theories of writing as inner-directed, and theories of writing as a social activity. Discusses how the two theories view language learning and thinking, and what the basic task of writing is. Discusses Flower and Hayes as inner-directed (because they're cognitive). Then shows how outer-directed ideas can supplement Flower and Hayes's analysis. For example, social context (interpretive communities)is important in writing. Basic writers don't understand that they write for and in discourse communities that have conventional ways of interpreting/understanding written discourse. Inner-directed theories want(scientific) certainty, which is impossible and not desirable.

Bizzell, Patricia. "William Perry and Liberal Education." College English 46.5 (1984): 447-454.

Summarizes Perry's theory of stages of intellectual development, and the cow/bull distinction. Argues that Perry stages shouldn't be used as blueprint for college writing curriculum. Instead, it should be seen as a map of the kinds of changes education tries to induce in students. Perry stages involve increasing distance from, or perspective on, one's own beliefs. Writing fits in here because it also encourages the development of this perspective.

Boice, Robert. "New Faculty as Teachers." Journal of Higher Education 62.2 (March/April 1991): 150-173.

We know little about how professors establish their teaching styles, despite concerns for improving college teaching. This 2-year study follows the experiences of new faculty at two large universities, one a "teaching" institution and the other a "research" institution. New faculty are categorized as "inexperienced," "returning," or "experienced." Each semester is described in terms of collegial support, work and plans, and self-descriptions. With the exception of the experience of a few new faculty involved in development programs, the study shows "an otherwise dreary picture of how new faculty develop as teachers." Some suggestions follow to improve these experiences.

Boice, Robert. "Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge." Journal of Higher Education 64.1 (1993): 19-54.

Discusses why few people write about writing blocks, and why there's little information on or progress in treatment. Reviews reasons for writing blocks: censors, fear of failure, perfectionism, early experience, and procrastination. Describes several types of "therapies" to overcome writers' blocks: automaticity, regimen, altering cognition, providing social skills and supports. Argues for combined treatment.

Boquet, Elizabeth H. "`Our Little Secret': A History of Writing Centers, Pre-to Post-Open Admissions." CCC 50.3 (1999): 463-482.

Starting with an anecdote in which a student enthusiastically talks about an idea given to her by a tutor, Boquet offers a brief history of the writing center in order to reveal that writing centers are torn between identity as a site and identity as a method of instruction. At the same time, the implications of these tensions are not well-documented, and Boquet calls for more rigorous inquiry into the nature of these tensions and their pedagogical implications.

Brantlinger, Patrick. "Who Killed Shakespeare? An Apologia for English Departments." College English 61 (1999): 681-690.

Answers criticism that the English department has abandoned literature in favor of theory. Observes that much of this criticism is based upon poorly-informed and biased views of what constitutes "English." Also points out that fears that English departments are jettisoning authors in favor of making room for theorists are ungrounded. Major authors are so popular that departments need not require students to take seminars in them.

Brueggemann, Brenda Jo. "Whole Brains, Half Brains, and Writing." Rhetoric Review 8.1 (1989): 127-136.

Discusses brain lateralization and the problems with making the dichotomy of left-brain (language and logic side) and right-brain (creative, emotional, holistic side). Suggests that many activities, including writing, requireparticipation of both sides.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay." College English 48.8 (1986): 773-790.

Social constructivism offers insight into discussions involving the nature and purpose of education. Current critiques of education note that education promulgates a particular understanding of knowledge, an understanding that is shaped by the various discourse communities within the academy. Because social construction acknowledges the central role of language in the generation and maintenance of knowledge, social construction draws attention to the linguistic limitations inherent in discourse conventions. A survey of the major threads in social contruction is presented as a way of understanding the potential impact of social construction upon conceptualizing knowledge in various disciplines.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Writing and Reading as Collaborative or Social Acts." Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Random House. 565-574.

Collaborative learning, as evidenced by the social nature of language use, is vital to the writing process. Insofar as writing is a type of "talking" to a reader in a coherent fashion, writing uses language that emerges from a community's experiences as a means to communicate to that particular community. Entrance to the community is partially dependent upon being able to demonstrate competence within the specific discourse, which in turn implies that the writer has internalized the language conventions of that community in order to think about the topic--a type of thinking that involves what Vygotsky would call internalized social speech. That the writer often works alone fails to detract from the social nature of the act because the writer still internalizes the collaborative exchange within her imagination as part of the writing process.

Buckley, Liz. "Distance Mentoring: The Mentoring is in the E-Mail." The Writing Lab Newsletter 23.10 (1999): 1-5.

Writing center tutors are often immersed in composition theory, but have little other contact with the academic community. Matching up faculty with tutors through an email mentor program helps tutors be more aware of the larger context of academic work. Each faculty/tutor pair exchanged one email per week. Tutors believed that they learned more about the larger academic community, while mentors learned more about the work done at the writing center.

Chickering, Arthur W. "Institutionalizing the Seven Principles and the Faculty and Institutional Inventories." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 47 (1991): 51-61.

Improving undergraduate education is a long-term process. The seven principles and the faculty inventories need to be institutionalized in order to make sure that they are present in institutional policies and practices. Obstacles, however, exist. Among these are inertia, traditional socializatioin, institutional structures and rewards, and inadequate information and fear of the unknown. These obstacles can be overcome, given the right perspective at the beginning of the project and then using appropriate best-change strategies.

Chickering, Arthur, and Zelda F. Gamson. "Appendix A: Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 47 (1991): 63-69.

Encourages student-faculty contact, cooperation among students, and active learning; gives prompt feedback emphasizes time on task; communicates high expectations; and respects diverse talents and ways of learning. While the original appeared in the AAHE Bulletin, 39 (1987): 3-7, this copy is better than our other copy.

Chickering, Arthur, and Zelda F. Gamson. "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education." AAHE Bulletin 39.7 (1987): 5- 10.

Encourages student-faculty contact, cooperation among students, and active learning; gives prompt feedback emphasizes time on task; communicates high expectations; and respects diverse talents and ways of learning.

Christians, Clifford G., Kim B. Rotzoll, and Mark Fackler. "Ethical Foundations and Perspectives." No citation.

Describes the Potter box, a diagram that relates 4 dimensions of moral analysis: define the problem, identify values, appeal to ethical principles, choose loyalties. Discusses several ethical norms or principles that can be applied in different moral dilemmas (from Aristotle, Kant, Rawls, etc). Also outlines loyalties that one might choose (loyality to oneself, to supporters, to one's organization, to colleagues, etc.).

Chu, Felix T. "Interviewing in Educational Research: A Bibliographic Essay" Manuscript. 19p.

Discusses effective use of interviewing in qualitative educational research. Considers cultural variables including race, gender, age, social status, and educational level.

Clark, Irene L., and Dave Healy. "Are Writing Centers Ethical?"Writing Program Administration 20 (1996): 32-48.

As writing centers have become independent of specific departments, concerns about tutoring ethics have increased. These concerns generally focus on problems arising from assessing the degree to which students are responsible for their own work. Practices that try to alleviate these concerns, though, also fall on ethically shaky ground because these practices may be counterproductive to student learning. An appropriate writing center ethics would include three traits: a proactive approach to the student's work in which attention would be given to the process of writing the assignment rather than to the product, a committment to collaborative learning while still maintaining more focused upon the writing than to the sense of consensus, and to take advantage of its function to provide individualized writing instruction in an atmosphere that respects the degree of ownership inherent in any piece of writing.

Connors, Robert J. "Composition Studies and Science." College English 45.1 (January 1983): 1-20.

Connors examines the relationship between the fields of composition studies and scientific disciplines. Following Thomas Kuhn's definition of "paradigm," Connors shows how composition studies is trying to create a paradigm to make it a scientific discipline, and tests composition studies against Kuhn's definition. He notes that composition studies' methodology draws from educational research, which is drawn from clinical psychology, which itself isn't considered to be a scientific discipline. Connors believes composition studies should continue doing empirical research, but should accept that it is not a scientific discipline.

Connors, Robert J. "Grammar in American College Composition: An Historical Overview" The Territory of Language. Ed. Donald McQuade. Carbondale, IL: So. Ill. UP, 1986. 3-22.

Traces the history of grammar and composition education in America, shows that in the late- 19th century the teaching of rhetoric and of grammar became intertwined, and discusses the implications of this shift in pedagogy on early linguistic theory. Follows linguistics and English teaching through Structuralism to 1965.

Dasenbrock, Reed Way. "Why Read Multicultural Literature? An Arnoldian Perspective." College English 61 (1999): 691-701.

Argues that reading multicultural literature is "good" because it engages the reader in the type of cultural critique advocated by Matthew Arnold. Arnold's position is often unfairly represented as being based upon a timeless sense of aesthetic superiority when it really calls for a constant reassessment of what should be included in the canon. In this sense, reading multicultural literature is good for Anglos because it provides an encounter with a disvalued viewpoint and forces the reader to confront their notion of their own identity and culture. Similarly, reading multicultural literature is good for students from minority backgrounds because it forces them to engage with their own values in somewhat the same critical fashion.

"Deep Learning, Surface Learning." AAHE Bulletin 45.8 (1993): 10-13.

Case studies of application of Chickering and Gamson's "7 Principles" (to improve higher education) at 3 British polytechnic institutes.

Early, Robert E. "The Alchemy of Mathematical Experience: a Psychoanalysis of Student Writings."

Rather than look at the cognitive forces behind mathematics problem solving in order to determine effective mathematics instruction, Early calls for a holistic type of thinking provided by Jungian psychoanalysis. As part of an extra credit assignment for his classes, Early has students write about a challenging math problem and to write about fantasy images capturing the feeling they had in dealing with the problem. Many of the images show strong thematic connections with alchemical processes. Early suggests that the imaginative dimension behind these images should be encouraged in order for students to make the mathematical experience more meaningful for students.

Fish, Stanley. "How To Recognize a Poem When You See One." Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1980. 322- 337.

Argues, with an example, that interpreters don't interpret a poem (for example); they make it. All objects are made and not found, and they're made by social groups (interpretive communities). How we think about (interpret) things is limited by the institutions we're embedded in. These limitations work the same way on everyone in them, so that people are able, ultimately, to think the same ways about the same things.

Fish, Stanley. "Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics." Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1980. 70-100.

One criticism of affective criticism is that it muddies the distinction between what a poem is and what it does, yet such criticism fails to account for the process by which the reader's response to a text helps create the meaning of the text. A reader's experience of reading is informed by both the text's discourse structures and the reader's "competence," in the linguistic sense. The gap between these two aspects of reading can only be filled by the reader's sensitivity to language, and therefore affective stylistics can be useful in teaching because it initiates a never-ending process of sensitivity to language. As such, the success of the method is that it "transforms minds."

Fish, Stanley. "What Makes an Interpretation Acceptable?" Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1980. 338-355.

One aspect of interpretive communities is their ability to circumscribe the means by which they view texts. Some approaches are acceptable, but others are not, and what constitutes acceptability is determined by the community. Knowing what is acceptable is tantamount to knowing the "rules" of the game. Literary interpretations, therefore, can conflict with each other, but the underlying rules still agree. In fact, even if a critic tries to opt out of the interpretive game, the moves to do so adhere to the underlying discourse conventions.

Flower, Linda S., and John R. Hayes. "Problem-Solving Strategies and the Writing Process." College English 39.4 (Dec. 1977): 449- 461.

Studies of the heuristics and other strategies used by good and bad writers, using protocol analysis. Poor writers use inspiration, prescription, or writer's block. Authors suggest using a problem-solving strategy: planning, generating ideas in words, constructing for an audience.

Freedman, Aviva. "Research and the Writing Center." Improving Writing Skills. New Directions for College Learning Assistance, no. 3. Eds. Thom Hawkins and Phyllis Brooks. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981. 83-93.

Reviews some research, related to composition and the writing center, under 3 headings: the nature of writing done in schools; composing processes; and development of writing abilities. Concludes that more research needs to be done.

Gopen, George D. "Rhyme and Reason: Why the Study of Poetry is the Best Preparation for the Study of Law." College English 46.4 (1984): 333- 347.

Presents 4 reasons for the statement in the title: 1) English concentrates not on the truth of a text, but on its possible interpretations; 2)English communicates the idea that particular words are irreplaceable; 3) English concentrates on the effects of ambiguous phrasing; 4) English concentrates on the idea of contexts.

Harris, Joseph. "The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing." College Composition and Communication 40.1 (February 1989): 11-22.

Harris uses the work of Raymond Williams to establish a framework in which to consider the definition of "community." Harris questions the use of "discourse communities," asking what community is it we want our students to enter? He calls for limiting our use of the word "community" and instead using words like "discourse, language, voice, ideology, hegemony" to explain the effects of social forces on individual writing.

Heyworth, Rex M. "Expert-Novice Differences in the Solving of a Basic Problem in Chemistry." Chinese University of Hong Kong Education Journal 17.1 (1989): 59-72.

Collected think-aloud protocols from "experts" (slightly more advanced students) and novices (slightly less advanced students) as they solved a chemistry problem. Results suggest that experts use different strategies to solve the problem and have more complete abstract representations of the problem than do novices.

"How Students Study: Views from Bloomington Campus Undergraduates."Indiana University, Office for Academic Affairs and Dean of the Faculties.

Reports a study conducted at Indiana University as part of an inquiry into institutional effectiveness and assessment of the teaching-learning process. The data suggests that the institution create a culture of studying in which academic responsibilities related to study are emphasized. Offers some suggestions.

Jensen, George H., and John K. DiTiberio. "Personality and Individual Writing Processes." College Composition and Communication 35 (Oct. 1984): 285-299.

Divides up personality types using Jung's categories: extraverts/introverts, sensing/intuiting, thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving. Then discusses how the different categories of personality may approach a writing assignment, what problems each type may have, etc.

Johnson, David W., and Roger T. Johnson. "The Internal Dynamics of Cooperative Learning Groups." Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn. Eds. Robert Slavin, Shlomo Sharan, Spencer Kagan, Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz, Clark Webb, and Richard Schmuck . New York: Plenum, 1985. 103-124.

Compares cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning methods on achievement and on relations among students. Cooperative learning associated with higher achievement than other methods; it also promotes better relationships among students. Examines the potential importance of a number of variables (type of task assigned, strategy used to complete task, occurrence of controversy in group, time on task, etc.) that might mediate beneficial effects of cooperative learning.

Kampf, Louis. "Must We Have A Cultural Revolution?" College Composition and Communication 21 (October 1970): 245-249.

Kampf describes his experience teaching humanities courses at MIT, where there is no composition requirement, in the late 1960s. He argues that these humanities courses focus on developing ways to express the self and that courses like these are generally a luxury allowed to students at elite schools. In contrast, most composition courses inculcate skills and serve the needs of institutions not students. He calls for composition courses to become part of resistance culture by focusing less on skills and more on self-expression.

Kember, David and Lyn Gow. "Orientations to Teaching and Their Effect on the Quality of Student Learning." Journal of HIgher Education 65.1(Jan/Feb 1994): 58-74.

Although common sense suggests a connection between orientations to teaching and the way courses are taught, and although common sense suggests that teaching methodology would affect student learning, no hard data exits to describe these relationships. This article reports on a questionnaire developed to describe two orientations to lecturers' teaching at the higher education level. The results indicate that orientation to teaching strongly influences several levels of teaching, and calls for teacher orientation that makes the connection between teaching methodology and effective student learning more clear.

Kiniry, Malcolm, and Ellen Strenski. "Sequencing Expository Writing: A Recursive Approach." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (May1985): 191-202.

Discusses how to construct a sequence of writing assignments that goes from cognitively simple to complex, and is recursive (does same cognitive task again, at a more complex level).

Kintsch, Walter, and Janice Keenan. "Reading Rate and Retention as a Function of the Number of Propositions in the Base Structure of Sentences." Cognitive Psychology 5 (1973): 257-274.

Experiments designed to determine whether the number of propositions underlying a sentence is an important variable in the retention of that sentence. Data suggest that reading time and memory vary with the number of propositions in a sentence, and that superordinate propositions are remembered better than subordinate ones.

LaTour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar. "An Anthropologist Visits the Laboratory." Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Intro. by Jonas Salk. Postscript by the authors. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. 1986. 43-104.

This selection is the second chapter of a book outlining and exploring the "culture" of the scientist. In an attempt to organize his observations of the workings of the laboratory, the observer uses the notion of "literary inscription." Although a great deal of the output of the laboratory deals with literary production, the content of that production is unique in that it is concerned with the establishment of fact. Statements are made and modified according to their facticity. The observer , then, begins to see the operations of the laboratory in terms of persuasion through literary inscription. At the same time, though, the observer needs to be aware that his own observations and statements are the products of a similar process.

LaTour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar. "The Construction of a Fact: The Case of TRF(H)."Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Intro. by Jonas Salk. Postscript by the authors. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. 1986. 105-150.

This is the third chapter of a a book outlining and exploring the "culture" of the scientist. The central question of this chapter is how are scientific facts constructed. To discover the answer to this question, the observer followed the discussions involving the genesis of a specific fact: the structure of TRF(H), a peptide. LaTour argues that process of social construction surrounding such an "objective" fact indicates the feasibility of a sociology of science.

LaTour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar. "The Microprocessing of Facts."Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Intro. by Jonas Salk. Postscript by the authors. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. 1986. 151-234.

This is the fourth chapter of a a book outlining and exploring the "culture" of the scientist. Here, the attention is upon the mechanisms contributing to the logical arguments, proofs, and thought processes involved in the creation of scientific facts. In the early stages of this construction, the conditions contributing to the veracity of the fact give rise to statements, while later on, the fact itself is the motivation for the formulation of the statement. Although the scientific community resists the notion that facts are socially constructed, the argument tries to show that the process of construction involves procedures which make the traces of production difficult to detect.

Law, Joe. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to MLA Documentation of Electronic Sources. Allyn and Bacon. unpublished.

Outlines MLA documentation for on-line resources.

Law, Joe. "Bloom, Hirsch, and Barthes in the Classroom: Negotiating Cultural Literacy." Freshman English News. nd., np. Texas Christian University.

In their discussion of the decline of interpretive reading skills, both Bloom and Hirsch treat knowledge as a commodity about which "truth" can be known--at least insofar as a specific culture sees truth. Barthes, however, examines the reading process in such a way that, in a classroom situation, helps to facilitate the process whereby students learn that various readings of a text are valid, yet within a community of readers, some interpretations are more generally acceptable than others. In this process, Barthes' strategy empowers students to become more aware of language while still confronting the humanism inherent in Bloom's work and the communal context of knowledge fundamental to Hirsch's argument for cultural literacy.

Law, Joe. "Common Concerns in Editing the Regional Journal: Reflecting and Shaping the Profession." conference paper. no date.

Regional journals address the concerns of classroom teachers within a specific geographic area. As such, their contributors are often classroom teachers who deal with practical applications of classroom techniques and principles, and the articles deal with applications over theory. These journals, however, are often the only contact that the teachers have with other professionals, and so editors of the journals should encourage articles to incorporate "practice as inquiry," in which applications can be reflected upon in a larger theoretical context. Editors can help encourage the production of these types of articles by suggesting certain subjects and/or approaches in calls for papers. In doing so, editors will help to both shape and reflect the profession.

Law, Joe. "Just the Facts: Reporting the Job Crisis in Academe." Unpublished conference paper. No date given, but internal references suggest 1996.

Uses reports on the "crisis" in academe as a way of critiquing the academy's approach to dealing with the issue of job shortages. On one hand, the academy decries the shortage of jobs, but on the other, the academy fails to recognize and admit the institutional factors that contribute to this shortage. In other words, attempts to confront the issue become characterized by evasive language.

Law, Joe. "The "Other" as Professional." no citation, no date. Internal evidence suggests a workshop given in 1994.

Addresses the ethical problems of hiring temporary instructors. In a shrinking job market, temporary and part-time teaching positions are becoming more and more the norm, yet both insitution and instructor fail to confront the inherent professional and ethical implications of the situation. New PhDs often take these positions out of economic necessity, yet hiring committees tend to denigrate this sort of teaching experience, thus fueling the situation. Also, temporary positions are likely to be made more in the context of availability rather than achievement, so the person hired is not necessarily the best qualified. Furthermore, even when the person is qualified, the appointment is at the last minute so the person cannot prepare herself adequately. Resolution of this problem is difficult.

Leverenz, Carrie Shively and Amy Goodburn. "Professionalizing TA Training: Commitment to Teaching or Rhetorical Response to Market Crisis?" Writing Program Administration 22 (1998): 9-33.

Calls to professionalize TA training respond to three types of pressures: the academic job market, public criticism of higher education, and the rise of composition studies. TA training offers a way for institutions to show their TAs how to build a successful teaching portfolio for the job market. TA training , as a form of professionalization, also avoids criticism for using TAs to teach required courses. Finally, TA training is part of the movement to professionalize composition studies. Rather than see the TA program as part of professionalization, the training program should be more concerned with initiating TAs as classroom professionals.

Medawar, P.B. "Is the Scientific Paper Fraudulent?" Retyped from Saturday Review, August 1, 1964.

Argues that scientific papers misrepresent the nature of scientific thought. Represents an inductive way of viewing science (derived from J.S. Mill). Argues that induction is just guesswork; that coming up with hypotheses to test is also guesswork; that no scientist collects facts completely objectively.

Murray, Donald M. "The Interior View: One Writer's Philosophy of Composition." College Composition and Communication 21 (February 1970): 21-26.

Murray explains his philosophy of "the interior view" of writing by defining the word writer as "A writer is an individual who is learning to use language to discover meaning and communicate it," and explaining it in terms of both professional writing and student writing.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform." The Elementary School Journal (November1983): 113-130.

Report on American education: our students are slipping behind thosefrom other countries. Students at middle school level have unfocusedinadequate curriculum. High school curriculum is full of courses likephysical education and preparation for marriage, etc.Recommendations: in high school, require 4 yrs English, 3 yrs each ofmath, science, and social studies, some computer science, and foreignlanguage for college- bound. Article describes what should be includedin each of these recommendations. Other recommendations: raise grading standards, lengthen school year or day, improve preparation of, and rewards for, teaching.

Neff, Joyce Magnotto. "From a Distance: Teaching Writing on Interactive Television." Research in the Teaching of English 33 (1998): 136-157.

Examines the experience of one instructor's experience with teaching composition in a distance learning environment through a televised classroom. The instructor found that the medium affected the power dynamics of the traditional classroom and challenged university policies meant to reify those hierarchies. Furthermore, although students met at different sites and had no direct contact with the instructor, each site still formed a community of writers. Little research has been done in this area, however, andthe instructor calls for more work on composition in a distance learning environment.

Newell, George E. "Learning from Writing in Two Content Areas: A Case Study/Protocol Analysis." Research in the Teaching of English 18.3 (Oct. 1984): 265-284.

Study of the effects of 3 types of writing tasks (taking notes, answering study questions, writing essays) on 3 measures of learning (recalling, applying concepts, gaining passage-specific knowledge). Results: essay writing produced the greatest gains in passage-specific knowledge. No effect of task on other learning measures.

Nyquist, Jody et. al. "On the Road to Becoming a Professor." Change May/June, 1999: 19-27.

Part of a 5-year study examining how graduate students develop into faculty members. Participants include graduate students from a Research I land-grant institution, a Research I non-land-grant institution, and a Master's I institution. Reports students' experiences with adapting to the values of the academy, their confusion about mixed messages, and their need for more support (especially in the form of mentoring). Many graduate students cannot see what is involved in a faculty career. Two major structural issues interfere with changing the graduate experience: the dependence upon research dollars within the science program priviledges research over teaching, and the demand for TA-taught service courses in the humanities creates a need for more grad students than a department can mentor.

Office of the Bloomington Chancellor. "Frequently Asked Questions about the Proposed New Freshman Curriculum." Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. pamphlet. nd. 14pp.

Besides the FAQ, the document also contains summary notes from faculty and student committees that met from 1997-98 and an Outline of the Proposal for a Partial Common Curriculum.

Olsen, Deborah and Lizabeth A. Crawford. "A Five-Year Study of Junior Faculty Expectations about Their Work." The Review of Higher Education 22.1 (1998): 39-54.

Academic institutions demand faculty excellence in a variety of areas, yet little is known about how faculty positions match faculty's professional expectations. The "met expectations" hypothesis suggests that when expectations are fulfilled, employees experience greater job satisfaction, perform better, and improve their "job survival." After following junior faculty over the first five years of their career, the study indicates that inexperienced faculty tended to have lower job satisfaction than those with prior faculty experience and were less able to establish a balance between teaching and other academic demands. Furthermore, the ability to establish a balance seemed to help faculty publish early in their career and maintain an active research program.

Olsen, Deborah and Ada Simmons. "Balancing Teaching and Research at Indiana University-Bloomington." unpublished study. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Office of Academic Affairs and Dean of the Faculties. nd. 22pp.

One hundred fourteen members of both the College of Arts and Sciences and Business School faculty were interviewed to explore how teaching load, instructional goals, evaluation of student learning, and attitudes toward students and teaching affect faculty teaching interests and priorities. Faculty interest and work time were distributed along a bell-shaped curve--appropriate to the dual missions of the university--and faculty allocation of work time followed professional interests. Furthermore, faculty interest did not significantly affect teaching practices. Individual accommodation of teaching and research roles is insufficient; institutions must help faculty to find mechanisms and strategies to coordinate these roles more effectively.

Ottinger, Henry F. "In Short, Why Did the Class Fail?"Insight: A Rhetorical Reader, 2nd ed. Ed. Hurtik, Emil and Robert Yarber. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Co, 1973. 521-524.

In a sardonic letter to his students, a professor indicates that the majority of the class has failed because they declined to participate in the very exercises and opportunities that they claim they desire.

Perry, William G., Jr. "Examsmanship and the Liberal Arts: A Study in Educational Epistemology." Harvard College: A Collection of Essays by Members of the Harvard Faculty, 1967. 754-765.

Articulates a distinction between 2 epistemologies: one based on cow, the listing of facts without context or significance; the other based on bull, the discussion of contexts and significance without bringing in facts. Discusses the relative merits of each epistemology, and the typical responses to each from university professors. Argues that understanding contexts, relevancies as well as facts is crucial to a liberal education.

Prendergast, Catherine. "Race: The Absent Presence in Composition Studies." CCC 50.1 (1998): 36-53.

Race, when it is discussed within composition studies, tends to get subsumed into issues of the "basic writer" or other marginalized groups within the academy. Critical race theory, however, exposes how discourse reveals assumptions about assimilationist attitudes that prevent an awareness of mechanisms that prevent some students from being heard and that either inscribe certain groups of students as foreigners or invisible.

Prichard, Nancy S. "The Training of Junior College Teachers." College Composition and Communication 21 (February 1970): 48-54.

Prichard details the need for training programs focused on preparing teachers of English at the junior college level. She outlines potential degree requirements, and emphasizes the need for some interdisciplinary training. In addition, she explains how it will be necessary to teach grad students about the specific needs of community college students.

Sawyer, Thomas M. "The Common Law of Science and The Common Law of Literature." College Composition and Communication 21 (December 1970): 337-341.

Sawyer's essay, written during a period of university protests against major industrial firms in the late 1960s, considers the similarities and differences of the "literary" and "science" cultures to find a starting part of negotiation between them. He contends that the key difference is one of rhetoric and semantics, of the spectrum of translateableness of the different disciplines.

Shugrue, Michael F. "Educational Accountability and the College English Department." College Composition and Communication 21 (October 1970): 250-

In the context of the late 1960s, early 1970s expansion of universities, Shugrue calls for English departments to shift their emphasis away from developing research scholars to developing undergraduate teachers. He offers several suggestions for improvement, such as incorporating multi-media into courses, teaching interdisciplinary courses, and offering more independent study and tutorial opportunities.

Slavin, Robert E. "Developmental and Motivational Perspectives on Cooperative Learning: A Reconciliation." Child Development 58 (1987): 1161-1167.

Reconciles developmental theories of cooperative learning, which suggest that it works by creating cognitive conflict and exposing students to higher quality thinking, and motivational views, which emphasize rewards for cooperative behavior. Reviews research on rewards and cooperative learning, and theorizes that group rewards motivate students to give high-quality help and explanations to others.

Slavin, Robert E. "Synthesis of Research on Cooperative Learning." Educational Leadership 48.5 (1991): 71-82.

This article reviews research in collaborative learning: Most successful approaches include group rewards for individual learning. See consistently positive effects on learning at all grade levels, in all subjects, at urban, suburban, and rural schools, for good andpoor students. Cooperative learning also improves self-esteem, attitudes toward school, acceptance of others, etc.

Smith, Mike U. "Expertise and the Organization of Knowledge: Unexpected Differences Among Genetic Counselors, Faculty, and Students on Problem Categorization Tasks." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 29.2 (1992): 179-205.

Compares genetics profs, students, and genetic counselors on categorization of problems in genetics. Found that students and counselors both sort according to problem knowns and unknowns, but profs sort according to concepts. Counselors also sort according to how to solve problem, while students sort according to verbatim aspects of question asked. Concluded that as expertise is acquired, people develop ability to sort into categories based on dimensions that are important to day-to-day use of the information.

Sokal, Alan. "A Physicist Experiments with Cultural Studies." Lingua Franca. May/June 1996. 62-64.

Sokal confesses that his article "Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity," which appeared in Social Text, was a parody. He indicates that the degree of unverified claims and assumptions should have indicated that the article was "liberally salted with nonsense," even though it conformed to the conventions of academic discourse and the ideology of the journal. Sokal points to several reasons for his parody, including the desire to show the dearth of critical reasoning in general, and the particular problem of denying the practicality of an external reality in favor of a reality made up of social constructs. This denial of any external reality is, Sokal claims, a result of the arrogance of postmodern literary theorists who apply theory to areas in which they have no expertise in order to put forth political agendas. Sokal does not take issue with the political agendas themselves, but with an academic subculture that ignores or disdains reasoned criticism.

Sokal, Alan D. "Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity." Social Text 46/47 (1996): 217-252.

Argues that physical reality is a social construct, using developments in physics from Einstein's theory of relativity to quantum mechanics in which clear distinctions between th observer and the observed are lost. The political and ideological implications of developments in quantum gravity theory are manifold, but as a postmodern science, quantum gravity breaks free of the tyranny of objective truth, transgresses boundaries, and leads toward the "radical democratization of all aspects of social, economic, political, and cultural life." Note that Sokal's article is a parody of a postmodern cultural studies approach. See his article in Lingua Franca for an explanation of his motives and why he believes that Social Text accepted his parody in the first place.

Tompkins, Jane P. "The Reader in History: The Changing Shape of Literary Response." Reader-Response Criticism. Ed. Jane P. Tompkins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. 201-232.

Response-based criticism, far from being a radical departure from New Criticism, shares many similarities with formalist criticism. Although both differ in the location of textual meaning, both agree that criticism seeks meaning--an underlying assumption that binds the two schools in a history of critical thought. The relationship between the two, both in common attitudes and differing practices, is demonstrated through a brief history of critical thought.

Vygotsky, L. S. "The Development of Scientific Concepts in Childhood."Thought and Language.Ed. and translated by Eugenia Hanfman and Gertrude Vakar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. 82-118.

Discusses the interrelation between instruction and developmental stages with respect to the ability to form and understand scientific concepts. Contrary to the notion that instruction, which involves socialization, supplants a child's spontaneous concept formation, Vygotsky argues that child concept formation is a unified process in which spontaneous and nonspontaneous concept developments are related and constantly influence each other. Instruction helps the child to transform the child's spontaneous concepts and organize them into a system. It is this systemization which helps further the child's development.

Vygotsky, L. S. "Thought and Word." Thought and Language.Ed. and translated by Eugenia Hanfman and Gertrude Vakar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. 119-153.

Discusses the relationship between thought and language, especially in the development of word meanings in childhood. Contrary to some psychologists who believe that words are separate from speech, words are central to the development not only of thought, but also to human consciousness. After surveying and evaluating previous work in the area, Vygotsky presents the results of studies showing how the development of inner speech supports the notion that words are vital to consciousness.

Watson, Dorothy. "Reflections on Whole Language: Past, Present and Potential." Oregon Council of Teachers of English XI.I (1988): 4-8.

Defines "whole language" and summarizes the history of research on it, its current use, and hopes for the future--into schools of education, publishing companies, etc.

Watson, Dorothy J. "In College and in Trouble--With Reading." Journal of Reading (April 1982): 640-645.

Case study of a college-age student's difficulties with reading and writing, and the author's techniques to help him learn to read and write.

Watson, Dorothy J., and Suzanne C. Davis. "Readers and Texts in a Fifth-Grade Classroom." Literature in the Classroom. Ed. Ben F. Nelms. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1988, pp. 59-67.

Describes the use of literature study groups and journals in a 5th grade classroom.

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