Education | Professional Orientation and Ethics
G502 | 5788 | Dr. Fritz Lieber
For a good part of the 20th century, measurement has been the primary
method used in the conduct of educational research and educational
assessment. The field of educational research is changing and
educational assessment appears to be in transition. Changes in
research methodology, in our understanding of learning, in our
conception of knowledge, and the ever increasing demands made on
assessment are creating tensions that affect the role and use of
assessment, the nature of the constructs and observations used in
research and the assessment process.
The purpose of this course is to introduce the foundations and major
concepts of measurement including issues of design, function and
consequences of testing and assessment and the related issues of
validity. As measurement data are used both in research and
assessment, issues of data quality, their meaning, the
appropriateness, credibility and consequences of their uses and the
inferences we make based on such data will also be explored. Students
will also learn how to analyze and interpret assessment/measurement
A variety of instructional formats will be used in this course
including lecture, seminar, and small group discussion. Participation
in the discussions is an important part of learning and therefore
attendance is required.
Course Requirements and Assignments
There will two examinations (each 40 % of final grade) and one written
project (20 % of final grade) which will require the
conceptualization, construction and interpretation of a measurement
instrument or assessment scheme.
Students are also responsible for the assigned readings and for
in-class and homework assignments. Reading response assignments (not
to exceed more than one page per assignment) consisting of written
reflection on assigned readings will be used as a way to stimulate
class discussion and participation and will be taken into account for
the evaluation of the performance for the course. The reading
response assignments and other homework will not be graded; they will
be checked for completion and adequacy and feedback will be provided.
To receive full credit all homework assignments have to be completed
and turned in on time. If homework is not turned in or is
systematically late, incomplete or inadequate your final grade will be
decreased by one grade level or two (e.g., A will turn into A- or B+)
depending on the number of late and incomplete assignments. A course
grade of "Incomplete" will not be assigned except in the case of
illness or other emergencies. Intended or unintended cheating and/or
plagiarism (see academic handbook) will yield an F in the course.
Thorndike, R. M. (1997). Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and
Education. (6th Ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
Other readings are assigned as judged appropriate
Testing and Measurement
Allen, M. J., and Yen, W. M. (1979). Introduction to measurement
theory. Monterey, Calif. Brooks-Cole.
Anastasi, A. Psychological Testing. (Sixth Edition). Macmillan
Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1988.
Brennan, R. L. (1983) Elements of generalizability theory. Iowa
City: ACT Publications
Guilford, J. P., and Fruchter, B (1978). Fundamental statistics in
psychology and education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hanson, F. A. (1993). Testing, testing: Social consequences of the
examined life. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
Hopkins, K.C., Stanley, J.C. & Hopkins, B.R. (1990). Educational and
Psychological Measurement and Evaluation. NY: Prentice Hall.
Linn, R. L. (1989). Educational Measurement (3rd edition). National
Council on Measurement in Education, American Council on Education.
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.
Linn, R.L. and Gronlund N.E., (1995). Measurement and assessment in
teaching. Prentice Hall.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment. Validation
of inferences from persons' responses and performances as scientific
inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 9, 741-749.
Messick, S. (1989). Meaning and values in test validation: The
science and ethics of assessment. Educational Researcher, 18, 2, pp.
Messick, S. The Once and Future Issues of Validity: Assessing the
Meaning and Consequences of Measurement (Chap. 3). In. H. Wainer and
H. Braun (Eds.). Test Validity. Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates: New
Nitko, A.J. (1996). Educational assessment of students (2nd. ed.).
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Pedhazur E. & Schmelkin L. Chapter 2: Measurement and Scientific
Inquiry in Measurement, Design and Analysis--An Integrated Approach.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: New Jersey, 1991.
Sax G. (1989). Principles of educational and psychological
measurement and evaluation (3rd. ed.). Wadsworth Pub., Belmont, CA.
Thorndike, R. L. (1971). Educational measurement (2nd ed.).
Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education.
Other Readings on Assessment
Blake, P. J. ((1998). Testing, friend and foe?: The theory and
practice of assessment and testing. London: Falmer Press.
Bennett, R.E. & Ward, W.C. (Eds.) (1993). Construction Versus Choice
in Cognitive Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance
Testing, and Portfolio Assessment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Curren, R.R. (1995). Coercion and the ethics of grading and testing.
Educational Theory, 45, 4, 425-441.
Finch, F. (1991). Educational performance assessment. Chicago:
Riverside Publishing Company
Gifford, B. R. & O'Connor, M.C. (Eds.), (1992). Changing assessments:
Alternative views of aptitude, achievement and instruction. Boston:
Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gipps, C. V. (1999). Socio-cultural aspects of assessment. Review of
Research in Education, 24.
Gipps, C. V. (1994). Beyond Testing. London: Falmer Press.
Kane, S., Crooks, T., & Cohen, A. (1999). Validation measures of
performance. Educational Measurement, 18(2), 5-17.
Madaus, G. F. (1994). Testing place in society: An essay review of
testing: Social consequences of examined life. American Journal of
Education, 102, 222-234.
Madaus, G. F. & O'Dwyer, L. M. (1999). A short history of performance
assessment. Phi Delta Kappan (May). 688-695.
Meier, D. (2000). Will standards save public education? Boston, MA:
Milofsky, C. (1989). The sociology of school psychology. Brunswick,
NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Resnick, L. B., & Resnick, D. P. (1992). Assessing the thinking
curriculum: New tools for educational reform. In B. Gifford & M.
O'Connor (Eds.), Changing assessment: Alternative views of aptitude,
achievement and instruction (pp. 37-76), London: Kluwer Academic
Pellegrino, J. W., Baxter, G. P., and Glaser, R. (1999). Addressing
the "Two Disciplines" problem: Linking theories of cognition and
learning with assessment and instructional practices. Review of
Research in Education, 24.
Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture.
Educational Researcher, 26(7), 4-14.
Shepard, L. A. (1991). Psychometrician's beliefs about learning.
Educational Researcher, 20(6), 2-16.
Shepard, L. A (1989). Why we need better assessment. Educational
Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Abilities are forms of developing expertise.
Educational Researcher, 27(3), 11-20.
Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Myths, Countermyths, and Truths about
Intelligence. Educational Researcher, 25(2), 11-16.
Wiggins, G. P. (1998). Educative assessment. San Francisco:
Wiggins, G. P. (1993). Assessing student performance: Exploring the
purpose and limits of testing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Wolf, D. (1993). Assessment as an episode of learning. In Bennett,
R.E. & Ward, W.C. (Eds.) Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive
Measurement: Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing, and
Portfolio Assessment (pp. 213-240). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Tentative Course Outline and Class Schedule (subject to change)
8/28 Introduction and Overview
Issues of Inference
9/4 History, Definitions and Perspective
[Thorndike - Chap. 1]
[Gipps - Chap. 1]
[Pedhazur & Schmelkin Chap. 2]
(reading response assignment)
9/11 Validity - The Meaning of Scores and Judgments
[Thorndike - Chap. 5]
9/18 Validity (cont.)
Messick - ER 89
(reading response assignment)
First Assignment: Analysis of a Measure and Reported Data
9/25 Test scores: statistical concepts and norms
[Thorndike - Chap. 2 & 3]
10/2 Reliability - The Consistency of Scores and Judgments
[Thorndike - Chap. 4]
10/9 Examination # 1
10/16-23 Educational Assessment
( Achievement measures - Objective tests
( Classroom assessment
( Performance Assessment
( Aptitude measures
( Interest, personality and attitude measures
( Other psychological measurement
Selected readings depending on students' interests and focus for
[Thorndike - Chap. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15]
[Linn & Gronlund, Chap. 10] - [Sternberg, 1998]
[Madaus & O'Dwyer, 1999]
10/30-11/6 Assessment, Learning and Instruction
[D. Wolf - Chap. 10 in Bennett & Ward]
[Shepard, 1989, 2000]
(reading response assignment)
11/13-20 Assessment and Measurement Conceptualization,
Development and Use
Issues in Performance Assessment
Issues in Psychological Measure
[including discussion of reading focused on substantive
learning and psychological theories]
11/27-12/4 Bias, Equity and Ethics
[Thorndike, Chap. 14]
[Curren, R.R. (1995). Coercion and the ethics of
grading and testing. Educational Theory, 45, 4, 425-441.]
Examination # 2