Education | Individual Appraisal Principles and Procedures
G505 | 5789 | Dr. Susan Whiston

Text:   Whiston, S. C. (2000).  Principles and applications of
assessment in counseling. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth-Brooks/Cole.

Other required readings (these articles are on reserve at the School
of Education Library):

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bourchard, T. J., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N.,
Ceci, S. J., Halpern, D. F., Loehlin, J. C., Perloff, R., P.,
Sternberg, R. J., & Urbina, S. (1996).  Intelligence: Knowns and
unknows. American Psychologist, 51, 77-101.

Polanski, P. J., & Hinkle, J. S. (2000). The mental status
examination: Its use by professional counselors.  Journal of
Counseling & Development, 78, 357-364.

Ridley, C. R., Li, L. C., & Hill, C. L. (1998).  Multicultural
assessment: Reexamination, reconceptualization, and practical
application.  The Counseling Psychologist, 26, 827-910.

Sampson, J. P. (2000).  Using the Internet to enhance testing in
counseling.  Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 348-356.

Spengler, P. M., Strohmer, D. C., Dixon, D. N., & Shivy, V. A. (1995).
A scientist-practitioner model of psychological assessment:
Implications for training, practice, and research.  The Counseling
Psychologist, 23, 506-534.

Description:  An analysis of statistical, psychometric, sociometric,
and clinical principles crucial to professional interpretation of
standardized and informal data regarding individual clients.  Current
issues/controversies about ethnic, gender, cultural, and individual
differences will be examined.


1.  Students will become familiar with the general purposes of

2.  Students will develop a base of knowledge concerning the
theoretical foundations and historical bases for assessment

3.  Students will interpret different psychometric statistics
including types of assessment scores, measures of central tendency,
indices of variability, standard errors, and correlations.

4.  Students will develop strategies for selecting, administering,
interpreting, and using assessment and evaluation instruments in

5. Students will compare and contrast different methods for estimating
reliability including methods for establishing stability, internal,
and equivalence reliability.

6. Students will develop a knowledge base concerning different methods
for establishing validation evidence including content,
criterion-related or empirical, and construct validity.

7.  Students will develop a base of knowledge concerning aptitude and
ability, intelligence, and personality assessment.

8. Students will become familiar with different appraisal methods
including individual and group inventory/test methods, behavioral
observation, performance assessment, and environmental assessment.

9. Students will have an understanding of general principles and
methods for case conceptualization, assessment, and/or diagnoses of
mental and emotional status.

10. Students will discuss topics related to age, gender, ethnicity,
language, disability, and culture factors related to the assessment
and evaluation of individuals and groups.

11.  Students will describe the major concepts relate to report

12.  Students will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of
technological applications in appraisal.

13.  Students will explain the ethical implications related to
assessment and appraisal.


1.  Each student will be required to take three examinations based on
class lectures and materials covered in the textbook.  Each exam is
worth 25 percent of the total grade.  The tentative examination
schedule is:

First Exam: October 1, 2001
Second Exam: October 29, 2001
Third Exam: December 10, 2001

2.  Each student is required to write a paper concerning a topic
related to assessment.  The topic will be agreed upon with the
instructor by November 12 and the paper is due December 3, 2001.  This
requirement is worth 20 percent of the total grade.

3.  Each student will participate in a project that will involve an
overview of two assessment instruments and provide a brief
presentation on both assessments to the class.  Students will work in
pairs on this project.  Please follow the following outline in
developing your handouts.  You will need to provide handouts for other
students in this class.  This project is worth 5 percent of each
student's grade.

a) Title of instrument:
b) Author(s) of instrument:
c) Publication Date:
d) Description of instrument (1 to 2 paragraphs):
e) Client group:
f) Publisher or contact information:


The three exams will be graded according to the

90% to 100% = A
80% to   89% = B
70% to   79% = C
60% to   69% = D

The paper will be evaluated according to the following procedures:

References and use of references: Use APA Publication Manual (5th
English usage, style, and form
Evidence of student involvement with the topic of the paper
Topic development and presentation

This paper will be deducted a half grade for each week that it is

3. The presenters will both receive the same grade based on the
thoroughness of the overall presentation.  This presentation will be
worth 5% of your grade.

Tentative Outline

August 27

Chapter 1

September 3
(Labor Day)
Basic Assessment Principles

Chapter 2

September 10
Chapter 3

September 17
Item Analysis

Chapter 4

September 24

Selecting Assessments
Assessment in Counseling
Chapter 5
Spengler, Strohmer,
Dixon, & Shivy (1995)

October 1
First Test

October 8
Initial Assessment
General Ability & Intelligence

Chapter 6
Polanski & Hinkle (2000)
Chapter 7
Neisser et al. (1996)

October 15
Achievement & Aptitude
Career Assessment
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10

October 22
Marriage and Family

Chapter 11

October 29
Second Test
Assessment Reviews

November 5

Introduction to Diagnosis & DSM-IV

Chapter 12
Chapter 13

November 12

November 19
Special Populations

Chapter 14
Ridley, Li, & Hill (1998)

November 26
Chapter 16
Sampson (2000)

December 3
Ethical & Legal Issues

Chapter 15

December 10
Third Test


Aiken, L. R. (1996).  Personality assessment: Methods and practices
(2nd ed.). Seattle: Hegrefe & Huber.

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological
Association, National Council on Measurement in Education (1999).
Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington DC:
American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association (1993). Finding information about
psychological test: A guide for locating and using both published and
unpublished test. Washington, DC: Author.

Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.).
New York: MacMillian Publishing.

Butcher, J.N. (1987). Computerized psychological assessment. New York:
Basic Books, Inc.

Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern
test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Cronbach, L.J. (1984). Essentials of psychological testing. New York:
Harper & Row.

Donovan, D.M., & Marlatt, G.A. (1988). Assessment of addictive
behaviors. New York: Guilford Press.

Fisher, J., & Corcoran, K. (1994). Measure for clinical practice: Vol.
1: Couple and families (2nd Ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Goldman, L. (1971). Using tests in counseling. Pacific Palisades, CA:
Goodyear Publishing.

Goldstein, G., & Hersen, M. (1990). Handbook of psychological
assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Pergamon Press.

Hood, A.B., & Johnson, R. (1991). Assessment in counseling: A guide to
the use of psychological assessment procedures. Alexandria, VA:
American Association for Counseling and Development.

L'Abate, L. (1994). Family evaluation: A psychological approach.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Sattler, J.M. (2001). Assessment of children's intelligence and
special abilities (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Touliatos, J., Perlmutter, B.F., & Straus, M.A. (1990). Handbook of
family measurement techniques.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Witt, J. C. (1994). Assessment of children: Fundamental methods and
practices. Madison, WI: Benchmark Publishers.