Education | Qualitative Inquiry in Education
Y611 | 5840 | E. Brantlinger


Socialization practices within cultures help children adapt and learn
how to behave within a given set of circumstances. Influences on
socialization are thought to include: the development of attachment,
child rearing practices, modeling, the media, peers, and siblings.
These influences act upon how children get along with peers, behave
prosocially, control their aggression, understand themselves, behave
morally, and understand their role in the society based on gender
roles. This class will investigate this process of socialization
through a developmental framework during the early childhood years. In
addition, the role of the teacher and the early childhood classroom
will be considered.


There will be quizzes to ensure that the material is being read, but
applied projects and debates to make sure the information is being

Quizzes:  There will be short quizzes randomly distributed throughout
the semester given at the beginning of the class periods. The
questions will be over the readings that are due from the last quiz to
the quiz day. There will be a total of 4. Your quiz grade will be the
total of the best 3 of the 4 quizzes. There will be no make-up
quizzes. If you are absent, that will be the quiz grades that you

Debates:  You will choose two debate topics of interest to you  (see
attached handouts). You will be assigned to debate either Position A
or Position B. In preparation for a debate, you are expected to read
assigned background material. In addition, you will find enough
journal articles related to your position so that you feel you
understand the main points that your side is making. Bring a copy of
the articles (minimum 3) and a short 1-page summary of the key points
to back up your debate. If you are not participating in a particular
debate, you will be the moderator. Your summary is required to receive
points for the debate. Once you are prepared, have fun! This format
should be both interesting and informative! You will be assigned to
groups of 4 - 2 people presenting a particular position. During the
debate you will present your position to the other pair, have an open
discussion of the issue, with each student having opportunities to
argue. Each pair will then present the perspective of the opposing
side as sincerely and persuasively as possible. Finally, the group
should strive to reach a consensus on a position that incorporates all
the evidence presented. Dates for Debates are: Sept. 7, Oct. 5, Oct.

Reaction  Over the course of the semester you will be asked to write
three short (2-3 pages)
Papers:   reaction papers on topics covered in this course (e.g.,
gender, play, aggression, schooling). The purpose of these papers is
to provide you an opportunity to articulate a response to criticisms
and challenges that early childhood professionals face daily. Your
reaction should be thoughtful and should incorporate what you have
learned from your readings. For each of the papers you will be
required to incorporate information from reputable outside sources
(research or professional journals). Due Dates are: Sept. 14, Sept.
24, Oct. 8.

Projects:  Project #1 will entail critiquing a book and it's influence
on socialization. You have an option to discuss sex role issues,
prejudice and diversity issues, or aggression/prosocial issues. Your
argument should make reference to ideas discussed in the book or
relevant articles and should consist of the following subsections:
1.  Introduction - Tell me about the basic premises behind the media
(what's the plot, who are the characters, what do they usually do,

2.  What evidence do you have of how your topic is treated?
A.  Some relevant questions for gender specific roles might include:
What do boy and girl characters do differently, if anything? Do their
actions correspond to or diverge from expected sex roles?
B.  Some relevant questions for prejudice and diversity issues - How
are characters of various cultural groups portrayed? Do the
characters' actions correspond to or diverge from expected norms?
C.  Some relevant questions for prosocial/aggression issues might be:
What types of aggressive and prosocial issues are presented in the
media? Do the characters' actions correspond to or diverge from
expected norms? What types of reactions from victims are presented?

3. Interventions - How can an adult circumvent or build on the
messages being sent? This project will be due on Sept. 28

Project #2 will consist of observing a young child (ages 2-5) in a
play situation. This should be done during your practicum time. Pick
one child (change their name) and observe their behavior as suggested
in the handout. Your report should follow the "Questions to Guide
Observations" handout. After detailing your observations, the second
section of your report should include an analysis of the current level
of functioning for the child in the areas we have discussed. In
addition, suggestions for appropriate activities which will help the
child progress in the areas of affective and social development
addressed in this class should be included. Some of these suggestions
can be taken from our class books, others will be taken from two
required professional journal articles. Find articles which relate to
the age and or types of problems your particular child is having on
ERIC or just by perusing relevant journals. Copies of the articles are
to be turned in with your analysis. The project will be due Friday,
Dec. 7th.  No late projects will be accepted as grades will be due
three days later.

Project #3 will involve the building of a Professional Development
Resource Folder of various lesson plans that you can use to address
socialization issues in your classroom. You will also be asked to do a
10-15 minute presentation of an activity which you believe can help
children know more about themselves as social beings. If you're
running short of ideas, there's a resource book available on reserve
in the Education Library with many appropriate lesson ideas - feel
free to adapt to make them most useful. Each student will then prepare
to present their lesson to a group of appropriately aged children
(whom we will pretend to be). A short analysis of how the lesson helps
to promote positive socialization will be due on the day of the
presentation (no more than 1 page). Students will sign up for a
presentation date during the first week of class. Copies of the lesson
plan and analysis should be made for every student in the class to add
to their resource folder.


Points will be accumulated as follows:
- the quizzes (best 3/4) = 60 points (20 points each plus bonus
- the reaction papers = 60 points (20 points each)
- project #1 = 40 points
- project #2 = 60 points
- project #3 = 30 points
- debate preparations (2) = 40 points (20 points each)

Grades will be assigned on the following scale:

281-290  A+
273-280  A
261-272  A-
252-260  B+
244-251  B
232-243  B-
223-231  C+
215-222  C
204-214  C-
194-203  D+     etc.

Assigned Texts:
1.  Beal,  C. R. (1994). Boys and Girls: The Development of Gender
Roles. New York: McGraw-Hill.
2.  Packet of readings from TIS


Please make sure that you follow all policies as outlined in the
student handbook on academic dishonesty, plagiarism, etc.

Please note: I will not give incompletes except for extreme medical

Topics, Readings, and Due Dates for P465

Aug. 27 - Introduction, Observations, Developmental Milestones,

1.  Benjamin, A. C. Observations in early childhood classrooms: Advice
from the field. Young Children, 49(6), pp. 14-20.
2.  Balaban, N. (Nov., 1996). You've got the records: Now what do you
do with them? Child Care Information Exchange, 57-59.

Aug. 29, 31 - Understanding Self (Theories, Self-concept, & Emotions)

1.  Perry, D. G., & Bussey, K. (1984). Social Development. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., pp.137-167.
2.  Marshall, H. H. (1989). The development of self-concept. Young
Children, 44(5), 44-51.
Kuebli, J. (1994). Young children's understanding of everyday
emotions. Young children, 49(3), 36-47.

Sept. 3 - Understanding Self

No Class (Labor Day)

Sept. 5 - Understanding Self (Family Influences)

1.  Dunn, J. (1993). Young children's close relationships: Beyond
attachment. Newbury Park: Sage Publications (Chapter 5: Connections
between relationships within the family), pp. 74-92
2.  Dunn, J. (1993). Young children's close relationships: Beyond
attachment. Newbury Park: sage Publications (Chapter 3: Sibling
relationships), pp. 43-57.
3.  Coleman, M. (1991). Planning for the changing nature of family
life in schools for young children. Young Children, 46(4), 15-20.

Sept. 7 - Understanding Self

DEBATE #1: Praise Can Be Dangerous
(Note: Debate Preparation #1 Due)

Sept. 10 - Understanding Self (Gender Role Development)

Beal - chapter 3, 4, 5, 6,

Sept. 12 - Understanding Self (Socialization of Gender Roles)

Beal - chapter 10, 11, 14

Sept. 14  Understanding Self

Note: Reaction Paper #1 Due

Social Activity Presentations: Self-Concept and Emotions

Sept. 17, 19 - Understanding Self (Diversity and Prejudice)

1.  Durkin, K. (1995). Developmental social psychology: From infancy
to old age. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 346-357.
2.  Davidson, F. H., & Davidson, M. M. (1994). Changing childhood
prejudice: The caring work of the schools. Westport, CN: Bergin &
Garvey, pp. xvii-xx, 1-47.
3.  Marini, R. A. (1993). Reading, Ritin', and racism: Raising
prejudice free children, Indy's Child, p. 25.
4.  Ralph, K. (1995). Classrooms without borders. Childhood Education,
71(5), 290-292.

Sept. 21 - Understanding Others (Play)

Nourot, P. M., & VanHoorn, J. L. (1991). Symbolic play in preschool
and primary settings. Young Children, 46(6), 40-50.
Stephens, K. (May 1995). On the floor with kids! Teachers as block
play partners. Child Care Information Exchange, p. 51-53.
Berk, L., & Winsler, A. (1995). Scaffolding children's learning:
Vygotsky and early childhood education (Chapter 3: Play), pp. 51-79.
Christie, J. F., & Wardle, F. (1992). How much time is needed for
play? Young Children, 47(3), 28-32.

Sept. 24 - Understanding Others (Play/Friendships)

Note: Reaction paper #2 due

Beal, Chapter 7
Perry, D. G., & Bussey, K. (1984). Social Development. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., pp.307-330.
Kemple, K. M. (1991). Preschool children's peer acceptance and social
interaction. Young Children, 48(1), 47-54.
1.  Wittmer, D. S., & Honing, A. S. (1994). Encouraging positive
social development in young children. Young Children, 49(5), 4-12.
2.  Powlishta, K. K. (1995). Gender segregations among children:
Understanding the Acootie phenomenon:. Young Children, 50(4), 61-69.

Sept. 26 - Understanding Others (Aggression/Prosocial Behavior & Moral

1.  Perry, D. G., & Bussey, K. (1984). Social Development. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., pp.206-233
2.  Beal, pp. 176-204
3.  Legg, J. (July 1993). What's a little bite among friends? Child
Care Information Exchange, p. 41-43
4.  Carlson-Paige, N., & Levin, D. E. (1992). Making peace in violent
times: A constructivist approach to conflict resolution. Young
Children, 48(1), 4-13.

1.  Oken-Wright, P. (1992). From Tug of War to Let's make a deal: The
teacher's role. Young Children, 48(1), 15-20.
2.  Buzzelli, C. A. (1992). Young children's moral understanding:
Learning about right and wrong. Young Children, 47(6), 47-53.

Sept. 28 - Understanding Others (Prosocial Behavior & Moral

Note: Media Critique Due

Social Activity Presentations: Cooperation and Prosocial Skills

Oct. 1 - Outside Influences (Schools)

1.  Berk, L. (1994). Child Development (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn &
Bacon (chapter 15: Peers, media, and schooling), pp. 628-643.
2.  Beal, chapter 8

Oct. 3 - Outside Influences (Media)

1.  Berk, L. (1994). Child Development (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn &
Bacon (chapter 15: Peers, media, and schooling), pp. 621-628.
2.  Beal, chapter 9
3.  Cornell, C. E., (1993). Language and culture monsters that lurk in
our traditional rhymes and folktales. Young Children, 48(6), 40-46.
4.  Pogrebin, L. C. (1981). Growing up free: Raising your child in the
80's. Toronto, Bantam Books. (Print media Section), pp. 443-453.

Oct. 5 - Outside Influences (Media)

DEBATE #2: Television
(Note: Debate preparation #2 Due)

Oct. 8 - Outside Influences (Daycare)

Note: Reaction paper #3 due

New, R. (1990). Excellent early education: A city in Italy has it.
Young Children, 45(6), 4-11.

1.  Elkind, D. (1989). Developmentally appropriate practice:
Philosophical and practical implications. Phi Delta Kappan, 71,
2.  Kostelnik, M. J. (1992). Myths associated with developmentally
appropriate programs, Young Children, 47(4), 17-23.

Oct. 10 - Outside Influences (Daycare)

DEBATE #3 - Working Mothers
(Note: Debate Preparation #3 Due)

Oct. 12 - Final Day of Class

Child Observation Due Friday December 7th