Education | Educational Assessment and Psychological Measurement
Y527 | 6243 | Dr. Ginette Delandshere

Course Description

For a good part of the 20th century, measurement has been a primary
method used in the conduct of educational research and educational
assessment.  The field of educational research has been changing and
educational assessment and psychological measurement appear to be in
transition.  Some question whether psychological attributes are
quantitative in nature, hence question their measurability. Others
question the adequacy of current test and psychometric theories given
our theoretical understandings of learning, being and behaving, and
the different conceptions of knowledge from which we work.  There is,
however, ever increasing demands for measurement and assessment that
are creating dilemmas for defining the purpose and use of assessment,
the nature of the constructs and observations used in research, and
the nature of measurement and the assessment process.

The aim of this course is to introduce the history, foundations and
major concepts of measurement and its use in research and
assessment.  The important validity questions of data quality,
meaningfulness, appropriateness, credibility, consequences of use,
and inferences we make based from data will also be explored.
Students will also learn how to analyze and interpret
assessment/measurement data.

A variety of instructional formats will be used in this course
including lecture, seminar, and small group discussion.
Participation in the discussions is an important part of learning and
therefore attendance is required.  Course material will also be
available on Oncourse at  Articles on reserve
for this course can be found at

Course Requirements and Assignments

There will be three examinations representing 30%, 35% and 35% of the
final grade respectively.

Students are also responsible for the assigned readings and for in-
class and homework assignments.  Reading response assignments (not to
exceed more than one page per assignment) consisting of written
reflection on assigned readings will be used as a way to stimulate
class discussion and participation and will be taken into account for
the evaluation of the performance for the course.  The reading
response assignments and other homework will not be graded; they will
be checked for completion and adequacy and feedback will be
provided.  To receive full credit all homework assignments have to be
completed and turned in on time.  If homework is not turned in or is
systematically late, incomplete or inadequate your final grade will
be decreased by one grade level or two (e.g., A will turn into A- or
B+) depending on the number of late and incomplete assignments.  A
course grade of “Incomplete” will not be assigned except in the case
of illness or other emergencies.  Intended or unintended cheating
and/or plagiarism (see academic handbook) will yield a grade of F in
the course.


Thorndike, R. M. (1997).  Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology
and Education. (6th Ed.).  NJ: Prentice Hall.

Other readings are assigned as judged appropriate

Other References

Testing and Measurement: Traditional Perspective

Allen, M. J., and Yen, W. M. (1979).  Introduction to measurement
theory.  Monterey, Calif. Brooks-Cole.

Anastasi, A.  (1988).  Psychological Testing.  (Sixth Edition).
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.

Brennan, R. L. (1983)  Elements of generalizability theory.  Iowa
City:  ACT Publications

Guilford, J. P., and Fruchter, B (1978).  Fundamental statistics in
psychology and education. New York:  McGraw-Hill.

Hopkins, K.C., Stanley, J.C. & Hopkins, B.R. (1990).  Educational and
Psychological Measurement and Evaluation.  NY: Prentice Hall.

Linn, R. L. (1989).  Educational Measurement (3rd edition).  National
Council on Measurement in Education, American Council on Education.
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.

Linn, R.L. and Gronlund N.E., (1995).  Measurement and assessment in
teaching.  Prentice Hall.

Nitko, A.J. (1996).  Educational assessment of students (2nd. ed.).
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Pedhazur E. &  Schmelkin L. (1991). Chapter 2: Measurement and
Scientific Inquiry in Measurement, Design and Analysis--An Integrated
Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: New Jersey.

Sax G. (1989).  Principles of educational and psychological
measurement and evaluation (3rd. ed.).  Wadsworth Pub., Belmont, CA.

Thorndike, R. L. (1971).  Educational measurement (2nd ed.).
Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education.

Testing and Measurement: Critical Perspective

Chapmann, P. D. (1988).  School as sorters: Lewis M. Terman, applied
psychology, and the intelligence testing movement, 1890-1930.  New
York, NY: New York University Press.

Curren, R.R. (1995).  Coercion and the ethics of grading and
testing.  Educational Theory, 45, 4, 425-441.

Hanson, F. A. (1993).  Testing, testing: Social consequences of the
examined life.  Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Madaus, G. F. (1994).  Testing place in society:  An essay review of
testing:  Social consequences of examined life.  American Journal of
Education, 102, 222-234.

Michell, J. (1990)  An introduction to the logic of psychological
measurement  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Milofsky, C. (1989).  The sociology of school psychology.  Brunswick,
NJ:  Rutgers University Press.


Campbell, D. T. & Fiske, D. W. (1959).  Convergent and discriminant
validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix.  Psychological
Bulletin, 56, 81-105.

Cronbach, L. J., (1989).  Construction validation after thirty
years.  In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Intelligence: Measurement theory and
public policy. Urbana, Il: University of Illinois Press.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in
psychological tests.  Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Fiske, D. W. & Campbell, D. T. (1992).  Citations do not solve
problems. Psychological Bulletin, 112(3), 393-395.

Messick, S. (1995).  Validity of psychological assessment.
Validation of inferences from persons' responses and performances as
scientific inquiry into score meaning.  American Psychologist, 50, 9,

Messick, S. (1989).  Meaning and values in test validation:  The
science and ethics of assessment.  Educational Researcher, 18, 2, pp.

Messick, S.  (1988). The Once and Future Issues of Validity:
Assessing the Meaning and Consequences of Measurement (Chap. 3). In.
H. Wainer and H. Braun (Eds.). Test Validity. Lawrence Erlbaum and
Associates: New Jersey.


Blake, P. J. ((1998).  Testing, friend and foe?: The theory and
practice of assessment and testing.  London: Falmer Press.

Bennett, R.E. & Ward, W.C. (Eds.) (1993).  Construction Versus Choice
in Cognitive Measurement:  Issues in Constructed Response,
Performance Testing, and Portfolio Assessment.  Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Finch, F. (1991).  Educational performance assessment.  Chicago:
Riverside Publishing Company

Gifford, B. R. & O’Connor, M.C. (Eds.), (1992).  Changing
assessments:  Alternative views of aptitude, achievement and
instruction.  Boston:  Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gipps, C. V. (1999).  Socio-cultural aspects of assessment.  Review
of Research in Education, 24.

Gipps, C. V. (1994).  Beyond Testing.  London:  Falmer Press.

Kane, S., Crooks, T., & Cohen, A. (1999).  Validation measures of
performance.  Educational Measurement, 18(2), 5-17.

Madaus, G. F. & O’Dwyer, L. M. (1999).  A short history of
performance assessment.  Phi Delta Kappan (May). 688-695.

Meier, D.  (2000).  Will standards save public education?  Boston,
MA: Beacon Press.

Shepard, L. A. (2000).  The role of assessment in a learning
culture.  Educational Researcher, 26(7), 4-14.

Shepard, L. A. (1991).  Psychometrician’s beliefs about learning.
Educational Researcher, 20(6), 2-16.

Shepard, L. A (1989).  Why we need better assessment.  Educational
Leadership, April.

Wiggins, G. P. (1998).  Educative assessment. San Francisco:  Jossey-
Bass Publishers.

Wiggins, G. P. (1993).  Assessing student performance:  Exploring the
purpose and limits of testing.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass

Wolf, D. (1993). Assessment as an episode of learning. In Bennett,
R.E. & Ward, W.C. (Eds.) Construction Versus Choice in Cognitive
Measurement:  Issues in Constructed Response, Performance Testing,
and Portfolio Assessment (pp. 213-240).  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.

The Meaning of Constructs: Ability, Intelligence, Aptitude,

Resnick, L. B., & Resnick, D. P. (1992).  Assessing the thinking
curriculum:  New tools for educational reform.  In B. Gifford & M.
O’Connor (Eds.), Changing assessment:  Alternative views of aptitude,
achievement and instruction (pp. 37-76), London: Kluwer Academic

Pellegrino, J. W., Baxter, G. P., and Glaser, R. (1999).  Addressing
the “Two Disciplines” problem:  Linking theories of cognition and
learning with assessment and instructional practices.  Review of
Research in Education, 24.

Sternberg, R. J. (1998).  Abilities are forms of developing
expertise.  Educational Researcher, 27(3), 11-20.

Sternberg, R. J. (1996).  Myths, Countermyths, and Truths about
Intelligence.  Educational Researcher, 25(2), 11-16.

Tentative Course Outline and Class Schedule (subject to change)

PART I: History & Foundation

Introduction and Overview
Experience with measurement and assessment
Issues of Inference

Current Definitions and Perspectives
[Thorndike - Chap. 1]
[Gipps - Chap. 1 – on reserve]
[Pedhazur &  Schmelkin Chap. 2 – on reserve]
(reading response assignment)

History of the Concept of Measurement & Early Uses
[Michell (1990)- Chap. 1 “Making the myth of mental measurement” – on
[Chapman (1988) - Chap. 1 “Solutions in search of problems: The
emergence of intelligence testing in the progressive era, 1890-1917”–
on reserve]
[Chapman (1988) – Chap.7 “National patterns in the use of tests” – on
(reading response assignment)

Validity – History, Sources of Evidence
[Thorndike - Chap. 5]
(examination of measurement instruments)

Validity – Issues of Meaning and Values, Appraisal and Inferences
[Messick (1989) – “Meaning and values in test validation:  The
science and ethics of assessment” – on reserve]
[Cronbach, L. J., (1989).  Construction validation after thirty
years.  In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Intelligence: Measurement theory and
public policy. Urbana, Il: University of Illinois Press – on reserve]
(reading response assignment)


PART II: Statistical Concepts in Psychological and Educational

Test scores: Statistical Concepts and Norms
[Thorndike - Chap. 2 & 3]

Reliability – The Consistency of Scores and Judgments
[Thorndike - Chap. 4]

Validity revisited – Empirical Evidence
[Thorndike – Chap 5 review]
The Factorial Validity of Scores on the Teacher Interpersonal Self-
Efficacy Scale.  A. Brouwers; W. Tomic. Educational and Psychological
Measurement.  2001. Volume: 61 no. 3 pp.433 -- p445, Sage
Publications.  [available online -- items included – used FA].


PART III: Current Issues – Assessment & Measurement in Context

Educational Tests & Assessments (work from examples)
• Achievement measures - Objective tests
• Performance (“alternative”) Assessment
[Informational readings: Thorndike - Chap. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15 & Linn &
Gronlund, Chap. 10]
[Issue Articles: Madaus & O’Dwyer, 1999 & Shepard, 1989, Delandshere
& Arens, 2003]

Assessment, Learning and Teaching
[D. Wolf (1993) - Chap. 10 in Bennett & Ward]
[Shepard, 2000]
(reading response assignment)

Psychological Measures (work from examples)
• Aptitude measures
• Interest, personality and attitude measures
• Other psychological measurements/observations

[Sternberg, R. (1998). Abilities are forms of developing expertise.
Educational Researcher, 27(3), 11-20.]

[Holtzman, W. H., (2002). Personality theory and assessment: Current
and timeless issues.  In H. Braun, D. Jackson & D. Wiley (Eds.), The
role of constructs in psychological and educational measurement.
Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.]

[Attitude & affective measurement – other readings]

Bias, Equity and Ethics
[Thorndike, Chap. 14]
[Curren, R.R. (1995).  Coercion and the ethics of grading and
testing.  Educational Theory, 45, 4, 425-441.]