Hitler, Stalin and de Gaulle each embody one of the three major regime types that competed in Twentieth-Century Europe: Fascism, Communism and liberal democracy. Each figure was also influential in the development of his own system that questions of personality have always arisen. With Hitler, both his intense personal magnetism and his obsessional racism have been considered key to explaining the course of the Third Reich. With Stalin, theoretical options are given a larger role, but Stalinís departure from so much in the European socialist tradition has often posed the question of the effect of his personality on the development of the Soviet system. De Gaulle's character has always been seen as key to his politics. Readings will be from the writings of Hitler, Stalin and de Gaulle, biographies of all three figures and a short general text for background.