Education | Advanced Theories of Counseling
G622 | 5462 | Dr. Charles Ridley


The purpose of this course is to provide students an in-depth
examination of major theoretical orientations to counseling and
psychotherapy.  The course deviates in several ways from the standard
treatment of theories which one encounters in most textbooks or
undergraduate and master's level courses on the subject.  First, the
course encourages critical thinking about theory, that is, the
analysis of hypotheses, propositions and philosophical underpinnings.
Second, the course emphasizes empirical research and the scientific
basis of theories.  This emphasis is commensurate with a commitment to
the scientist-practitioner model of training.  Third, skill building
is not a major focus.  While the translation of theory and science
into practice is admittedly important, the practice component of the
theory-research-practice triad is emphasized in other parts of the
curriculum.  In short, this advanced course seeks to teach students to
examine theories critically and scientifically.


More specific objectives include the following:

1.  To promote an understanding of the function of theory in clinical
practice and research.

2.  To critique counseling theories in light of competing theories,
research findings, and basic assumptions.

3.  To encourage reading in primary source material.

4.  To develop the ability to generate researchable questions
regarding counseling process and outcome.

5.  To become acquainted with the important questions, issues, and
controversies among theories.

6.  To begin to develop a personal orientation to clinical and
therapeutic change.

7.  To explore other theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues
that are not theory specific.


The class will meet weekly (Monday, 2:30 - 5:00 for lecture and
discussion).  The instructor will assume responsibility for most of
the lectures.  Students are expected to participate in the
discussions, and they are encouraged to ask questions.


Freud, S. (1969). An Outline of Psycho-Analysis (Revised Ed.).  New
York:  W. W. Norton &Company, Inc.

Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (1999). Systems of psychotherapy:
A transtheoretical analysis (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a Person. Boston:  Houghton Mifflin

* Additional required readings are listed in Appendix B.

1.  Midterm Examination   (March 5, 2001)  -  100

2.  Final Examination/Research Paper (Due April 30, 2001)  -  200



Develop a metatheory of psychotherapeutic change.  Include in your
theory the following features:  (a) basic principles and
presuppositions, (b) key constructs, (c) mechanisms of change, (d)
intervention strategies, and (e) evaluation of change.


Identify parsimonious principles across theories as well as
nonparsimonious principles that you deem are important.

Demonstrate broad coverage of theories.

1.  Demonstrate a clear linkage between theoretical and scientific
aspects with practical aspects of the metatheory.

2.  Carefully operationalize your constructs to avoid ambiguity.

3.  Give credit to the sources of ideas that are not original.

4.  Demonstrate the ability to integrate and synthesize ideas.

5.  Write the paper in APA format.

6.  Produce at least 20-25 pages of text, plus references.

Class Attendance and Participation

* Class Attendance and Participation are implicit course requirements.
If, in the opinion of the instructor, a student falls short on these
criteria, the student's overall grade may be reduced.  You are to
completely read all of the required readings in Appendix B.  Failure
to do so results in an automatic one half grade reduction.  Submit a
written statement on May 2, 2000, certifying that you have completed
the required readings.

Grading Procedure

A+  99 - 100%
A   93 - 98 %
A-  90 - 92 %
B+  85 - 89 %
B   80 - 84 %
C   75 - 79 %
F   Below 75%

Class Schedule

January  8   Introduction;  Are Theories Necessary?
15   Martin Luther King Holiday
22   Person-Centered
29   Person-Centered (continued)

February 5   Psychoanalytic
12   Psychoanalytic (continued)
19   Cognitive-Behavioral
26   Behavioral

March    5   Midterm Examination
12   Spring Break
19   Behavioral (continued)
28   Diversity Issues (Multicultural, Gender, Sexual
Orientation, Religious, Elderly, Disability)

April    2   Diversity Issues (continued)
9   Work on Research Project
16   Research in Counseling Psychology
23   Clinical and Therapeutic Processes
30   Final Exam/Research Paper Due



Hershenson, D. B., Power, P. W., & Seligman, L. (1989). Mental health
counseling theory:  Present states and future prospects. Journal of
Mental Health Counseling, 11(1), 44-69.

Lee, D. J. (1983). Philosophy and counseling:  A metatheoretical
analysis. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61(9), 517-521.

MacDonald, D. (1991). Philosophies that underlie models of mental
health counseling:  More than meets the eye. Journal of Mental Health
Counseling, 13(3), 379-392.

Mahrer, A. R. (2000). Philosophy of science and the foundations of
psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 55(10), 1117-1125.

Ritzer, G. (1990). Metatheory in sociology. Sociological Forum, 5,

Rychlak, J. F. (1981). Fundamental dimensions of theoretical
orientation (Chapter 2). In J. F.

Rychlak, A philosophy of science for personality theory (2nd ed.).
Malabar, FL:  Robert E. Krieger.

Tjeltveit, A. C. (1989). The ubiquity of models of human beings in
psychotherapy:  The need for rigorous reflection. Psychotherapy,
26(1), 1-10.

Turner, J. H. (1991). The misuse and use of metatheory. Sociological
Forum, 5, 37-53.


Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and
interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered
framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science, Vol.
III Formulations of the person and the social context. New York:
McGraw Hill, 184-256.


Greenwald, A. G. (1992). New look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed.
American Psychologist, 47(6), 766-779.


Atkinson, D. R., & Lowe, S. M. (1995). The role of ethnicity, cultural
knowledge, and conventional techniques in counseling and
psychotherapy. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casos, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M.
Alexander (Eds.). Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 387-414).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Atkinson, D. A. & Thompson, C. E. (1992). Racial, ethnic, and cultural
variables in counseling. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.).  Handbook
of Counseling Psychology (2nd ed.), (pp. 349-382). New York:  John

Sue, D. W., Bingham, R. P., Porch -Burke, L., & Vasquez, M. (1999).
Diversification of psychology: A multicultural revolution. American
Psychologist, 54(12), 1061-1069.


Gilbert, L. A. (1992). Gender and counseling psychology:  Current
knowledge and directions for research and social action. In S. D.
Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.). Handbook of Counseling Psychology (2nd
ed.), (pp. 383-416). New York: John Wiley.

Yoder, J. D., & Kahn, A. S. (1993). Working toward an inclusive
psychology of women. American Psychologist, 48(7), 850-856.


Asay, T. P., & Lambert, M. J. (1999). The empirical case for the
common factors in therapy: Quantitative findings. In M.A. Hubble, B.L.
Duncan, & S.D. Miller (Eds.). The heart and soul of change: What works
in therapy (pp. 23-55). Washington, DC: American Psychological

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological,
educational, and behavioral treatment: Confirmation from
meta-analysis. American Psychologist, 48(12), 1181-1209.

Persons, J. B. (1991). Psychotherapy outcome studies do not accurately
represent current models of psychotherapy: A proposed remedy. American
Psychologist, 46(2), 99-106.

Wampold, B. E. (2000). Outcomes of individual counseling and
psychotherapy: Empirical evidence addressing two fundamental
questions. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.). Handbook of Counseling
Psychology (3rd ed) (pp. 711-739). New York: John Wiley.

Whiston, S. C., & Sexton, T. L. (1993). An overview of psychotherapy
outcome research:  Implications for practice. Professional psychology:
Research and practice, 24(1), 43-51.


Bergin, A. E. (1991). Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and
mental health. American Psychologist, 46(4), 394-403.

Johnson, W. B., Ridley, C. R., & Nielsen, S. L. (2000). Religiously
sensitive rational emotive behavior therapy: Elegant solutions and
ethical risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1),


Nosek, M. A. & Fuhrer, M. J. (1998). Independence among people with
disabilities: A heuristic model.  In D. R. Atkinson & G. Hackett
(Eds.). Counseling Diverse Populations (2nd ed). (pp. 141-154).
Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Heller, K. (1998). Prevention activities for older adults: Social
structures and personal competencies that maintain useful social
roles. In D. R. Atkinson & G. Hackett (Eds.). Counseling Diverse
Populations (2nd ed). (pp. 183-198). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Fitzgerald, L. F. & Nutt, R. (1986). The Division 17 Principles
concerning the counseling psychotherapy of women: Rationale and
implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 14, 180-216.

Browning, C., Reynolds, A. L., & Divorkin, S. H. (1991). Affirmative
psychotherapy for lesbian women. The Counseling Psychologist, 19,

Shanna, J. W. & Woods, W. J. (1991). Affirmative psychotherapy for gay
men. The Counseling Psychologist, 17, 197-215.


Bachelor, A., & Horvath, A. (1999). The therapeutic relationship. In
M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan, & S. D. Miller (Eds.). The heart and soul
of change: What works in therapy (pp. 133-178). Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.

Barnett, P. A., & Gotlieb, I. H. (1988). Psychological functioning and
depression: Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and
consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104(1), 97-126.

Pyszcznski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1987). Self-regulatory preservation
and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of
reactive depressions, Psychological Bulletin, 102(1), 122-138.