P650 | 5801 | Russ Skiba

Required Readings:

Delpit, L. (1995).  Other people's children:  Cultural conflict in the
classroom.  New York: New Press.

Assigned Readings: Available on IU Reserve.  The first half of the
class is posted. The second half will be posted by March 1.

Course Description:

Continuing controversies emanating from Herrnstein & Murray's Bell
Curve and the issue minority overrepresentation in special education
have kept the issue of diversity in education at the forefront of
national attention.  Hereditarian individual difference explanations
for these data have in the past been the prepotent explanation for
these differences. An emerging hypothesis for black-white educational
discrepancies is the fact of historical and persistent cultural and
educational disadvantage for children and youth of color.  Given
historical educational disadvantages, depressed achievement may be
hypothesized to be more reflective of inadequate educational
opportunity than inherent ability.

In this seminar, we will begin by addressing data on the extent of
test score discrepancies and minority overrepresentation.  We will
explore the hypotheses of the Bell Curve and the responses of critics.
The course will then explore the alternative hypothesis: that
structural inequalities emanating from historical discrimination
remain embedded in our society and educational systems and play a key
role in depressing the performance of minority students.  A number of
educational subsystems will be explored in this regard, including
curriculum, discipline, and teacher expectations.  The course will
conclude with an exploration of strategies and tactics for improving
equity in public education.

Orientation and Objectives

At its heart, the primary assumption of this course is that all of us,
instructor and students alike, desire a just and equitable system of
education that treats all students fairly.  Yet although commitment to
improving educational outcomes for all children is a necessary
precursor to change, commitment is not sufficient to overcome the
extensive barriers to educational opportunity that still exist.  Thus,
the primary objective of the course will be to ensure that those of us
who wish to advocate for increased justice and equity in the schools
have the knowledge base needed to transform good intentions into
effective systems change. Sub-objectives include:

1.To come to an understanding of the technical arguments concerning
ethnic differences in measured intelligence and minority
disproportionality in special education, and to be able to critically
address the issues raised in that debate.

2.To understand and be articulate concerning historical and current
issues of ethnic and socioeconomic disadvantage in our nation's
schools that lead to inequality of educational opportunity.

3.To identify specific sources of structural inequity that perpetuate
ethnic and economic disadvantage in our nation's schools, and be
conversant in theoretical perspectives concerning those inequities.

4.To identify some of the most promising interventions for reducing
educational inequity, including multicultural education, parental
involvement, increasing opportunity to learn, early intervention, and
school restructuring.

Course Requirements

Since the primary goal of this course is to ensure an extensive and
detailed knowledge base concerning sources of educational inequity,
the primary yardstick for measuring performance will be scholarship.
I trust that we will all respect and nurture the open expression of
any and all opinions, especially those that are strongly held.  Yet if
we are to be effective and credible advocates, we must constantly seek
to ground our opinions in an empirical knowledge base.  Thus, our
course requirements are intended to push us in the direction of
backing up our opinions and positions with data:

1.Readings and Course Participation.  The course will be conducted in
large part as a seminar, exploring critical issues in cultural
diversity together.  It is impossible to overstate the importance of
keeping up with and being prepared to discuss all readings. Active
participation will be part of grading, as it provides me with an
estimate of completion of readings.  I will give feedback to all
students on the status of participation at the midterm.  Should your
participation be low at that point, or if you believe you have a hard
time participating in discussion, you may choose one of the following
options as an alternative:

a. Journal of Readings:  Every two weeks (minimum, you may turn this
in every week if you wish), please submit a journal of your reactions
to the readings for that time period.  Please comment on the main
ideas of the piece, how this article relates to other articles we are
considering for class, and your reactions--about 1-2 paragraphs per
article.  You may choose to synthesize across articles for a given
week, or simply present each article separately.

b.  Final examination on readings:  In addition to the paper/final
examination below, you may take an additional short answer section on
the topic of individual readings and book chapters.

2. a.) Contribution to Class Bibliography/Presentation.  Each student
will identify one article on issues of cultural diversity connected to
one of the topics in class.  Three types of articles are acceptable:
data-based research reports, reviews of the literature, and documented
opinion pieces, that is, articles that clearly demonstrate a knowledge
of the literature and present that in a way that is convincing to
educators.  You will make a brief presentation on your article during
the class period devoted to that topic, primarily for the purpose of
sparking discussion and class dialogue; please turn in a citation and
a one to two paragraph summary of the article for distribution to the
class at that time.


b.) Website Review:   Locate a website that addresses issues of
diversity or urban education.  As with the rest of the class, the more
the empirical documentation in the website, the better.  You will
write a one to two page review of the website (format to be
distributed in class) and present the website to your peers in class.
Relevance to the topic of the day is appreciated, but in this case not

3.Paper/Final Exam.  Questions that will form the basis of the final
examination will be distributed in class.  You may choose to take
these as an in-class final, or you may choose to pick one of the
questions and write a 15-20 page APA style paper on that topic. The
paper will be judged on level of scholarship, that is, the extent to
which you demonstrate a strong level of research support for any
assertions that you make.  By February 7,  please let me know in
writing (email is fine) whether you are selecting the final exam or
paper, and if the latter, the topic of your paper.  You may also turn
in a paper outline or draft to me by March 25 if you would like
feedback on it.


30% Participation in class discussion and demonstration of knowledge
of readings
50% Paper/Final Exam.
20% Contributions to bibliography (10 points each for writeup and

Due Dates

Topical Paper:  Due on last day of class
Article Summary and Presentation:  Day of class covering that topic
(e.g., School Discipline, 3/6)
Choice of Paper/Final Exam: Feb. 13
Outline or Draft of Paper (0ptional):  March 25
Final Exam:  On date specified in bulletin.

Class Schedule


1/16 Intro: The Roots of Inequity				
Ellis, Ch. 3; Frederickson,
Talking about Race					
Ch. 13

1/23 The Bell Curve: Ethnicity and Bell Curve, Ch 13;
Measured Intelligence					
Fisher et al. Ch 8;
Suzuki & Valencia; Patterson

1/30 The "Science of Race": The History	Bell Curve, Ch. 15 (skim)
Influence of Eugenics in Tucker; Pscyhological Measurement Moore;

2/6 Minority Disproportionality in Coutinho & Oswald;
Special Education
NRC Exec. Summary;
Fierros & Conroy;
Brown et. al.			

2/13 Disentangling Ethnicity,				
NRC Ch 3; Oswald et al
Poverty, & Inequality;		
Hodgkinson.; Trepagnier
Talking about Race II					

2/20 Institutional Racism in Education?:Delpit Hannsen; Skiba et al
Race, SES, & Opportunity to Learn  Last Ch.	
Traub; Ferguson, Ch.9;

2/27 Academic Disparities:					
Gamoran, Ferguson,Ch.8
Tracking, Training, Expectations,			
Anyon; Greenwood et al.;			
Sleeter & Grant; Yeo	

3/6 School Discipline: Problems of			
Skiba et al (2002b); Vavrus &
Ethnic and SES Fairness				
Cole; Simpson & Erikson; 						
Bowditch; Sheets; Townsend
3/13 Resources, Facilities, Funding;			
Necochea & Cline; Kozol;
Issues in Latino Education				
Velez & Saenz; Goldstein & 						
Harris; TBA


Tentative Readings Schedule: Part II

3/27 Hatred: Dealing with Racism		
Delpit	Gougis; Banks (1995);
& Fear Kleg

4/3 Theories of Structural Inequity	
Ogbu; Cook & Ludwig;
Schofield; Mehan

4/10 Issues in Multicultural Education 	
Frisby & Tucker, 1993;
Huang & Gibbs; Banks, 1996					

4/17 Specific Strategies to Increase 	
Frisby; Barnett;;
Educational Opportunity;				
Affirmative Action					
(Revisit Ferguson, Ch.9)	

4/24 Systemic Reform to Reduce		
Comer; Slavin et al. (1993b)
Inequality: Early Intervention				
Kretovics and School Reform	

5/1 Combatting Racism:  			
Fischer et al., Ch 9; Schorr;
Whose Responsibility?			

P650 Readings-Part I
(Jan 16 - Mar 13)

1/16 Historical Roots of Inequity
Frederickson, G. M. (1988).  The arrogance of race:  Historical
perspectives on slavery, racism, and social inequity.  Middletown, CT:
Wesleyan University.  (Ch. 13)	

Ellis, J. J. (2000).  The Founding Brothers:  The revolutionary
generation.  New York: Vintage Books.  (Ch. 3, The Silence)

1/23 The Bell Curve and Measured Intelligence
Fischer, C.S., Hout, M., Jankowski, M. S., Lucas, S. R., Swidler, A.,
& Voss, K. (1996).  Inequality by design: Cracking the Bell Curve
myth.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  (Ch. 8)  (Skim
Appendix, Summary of Bell Curve)

Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994).  The Bell Curve:  Intelligence
and class structure in American life.  New York:  Free Press. (Ch. 13)

Patterson, O.  (1995).  For whom the bell curves.  In S. Fraser (Ed.),
The Bell 	Curve wars. (pp. 187-213)  Basic Books: New York.

Suzuki, L. A. & Valencia, R. R. (1997).  Race-ethnicity and measured
intelligence:  Educational implications.  American Psychologist, 52,

1/30  	The "Science" of Race:  The History and Influence of Eugenics
Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994).  The Bell Curve. (Ch. 15-Skim)

Moore, D. S. (2001).  The dependent gene:  The fallacy of "nature vs.
nurture.".  NY:  Times Books.  (Ch . 2).

Nisbett, R. E. (1998).  Race, genetics, and IQ.  In C. Jencks & M.
Phillips (Eds.),  The Black-White test score gap.   Washington, D. C.:
Brookings Institution Press.

Tucker, W. H.  (1994).  The science and politics of racial research.
Chicago:  University of Illinois Press. (Ch.3)

2/6 Minority Disproportionality in Special Education
Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. P. (2000).  Disproportionate
representation in special education:  A synthesis and recommendations.
Child and Family Studies, 9, 135-156.

Fierros, E.G., & Conroy, J. W. (2002).  Double jeopardy:  An
exploration of restrictiveness and race in special education.  In D.
J. Losen, & G. Orfield (Eds.),  Racial inequity in special education.
Cambridge, MA:  Harvard Civil Rights Project.

NRC (2002).  Minority students in special and gifted education.
(Executive Summary)

Brown, R. T., Reynolds, C. R., & Whitaker, J. S. (1999).  Bias in
mental testing 	since Bias in Mental Testing.  School Psychology
Quarterly, 14, 208-218.  	

2/13  Disentangling Ethnicity, Poverty, and Inequity Hodgkinson, H. L.
(1995).  What should we call people? Race, class, and the census for
2000.  Phi Delta Kappan, 77, 173-179.

NRC (2002).  Minority students in special and gifted education.  (Ch.

Oswald, D., Coutinho, M. J., & Best, A. M. (2002).  Community and
school 	predictors of overrepresentation of minority children in
special education.  In D. J. Losen, 	& G. Orfield (Eds.),  Racial
inequity in special education (pp. 1-13).  Cambridge, MA:  	
Harvard Civil Rights Project.

Trepagnier, B. (2001). Deconstructing categories: The exposure of
silent racism. Symbolic Interaction, 24, 141-13.

2/20	Institutional Racism in Education
Ferguson, R. F. (1998).  Can schools narrow the Black-White test score
gap? In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.),  The Black-White test score
gap.   Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institution Press.  (Ch. 9)

Hanssen, E. (1998).  A white teacher reflects on institutional racism.
Phi Delta Kappan, 79, 694-698.

Skiba. R. J., Knesting, K. K., & Bush, L. (In press).  Culturally
competent assessment:  More than non-biased tests.  Journal of Child
and Family Studies,  11, 61-78.

Traub, J. (2000, January 18).  What no school can do.  New York Times
Magazine,  52-56, 68 ff.

Constantino, R. (1996).  Miles away, worlds apart.  Equity and
Excellence in Education,  29 (2),  78-81.

2/27  Academic Inequity
Anyon, J.  (1981).  Social class and school knowledge.  Curriculum
Inquiry, 11, 3-42.
Ferguson, R. F. (1998).  Teachers' perceptions and expectations and
the Black-White test score gap. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.),
The Black-White test score gap.   Washington, D. C.: Brookings
Institution Press.

Greenwood, C. R., Hart, B., Walker, D., & Risley, T. (1994).  The
opportunity to learn and academic performance revisited:  A behavioral
theory of developmental retardation and its prevention.  In  R.
Gardner, R., D. M. Sainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L. Heward,
J. W. Eshleman, & T. A. Grossi (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education:
Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 213-224).  Pacific
Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Gamoran,  A. (2000).  High standards: A strategy for equalizing
opportunities to learn?  In R. D. Kahlenberg (Ed.), A notion at risk:
Preserving public education as an engine for social mobility.  New
York:  Century Foundation Press.

Sleeter, C. E., & Grant, C. A. (1991).  Race, class, gender and
disability in current textbooks.  In M. W. Apple & L. K.
Christian-Smith (Eds.), The politics of the textbook. New York:
Routledge & Chapman-Hall.

Yeo, F. (1997).  Teacher preparation and inner-city schools:
sustaining educational failure.  The Urban Review, 29, 127-143.

3/6  Inequity in School Discipline.
Bowditch, C. (1993).  Getting rid of troublemakers:  high school
disciplinary procedures and the production of dropouts.  Social
Problems, 40, 493-507.

Sheets, R. H. (1996).  Urban classroom conflict:  Student-teacher
perception: Ethnic integrity, solidarity, and resistance.  Urban
Education, 28, 165-183.

Simpson, A. W., & Erikson, M. T. (1983).  Teachers' verbal and
nonverbal communication patterns as a function of teacher race,
student gender, and student race. American Educational Research
Journal, 20, 183-198.

Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. (2002). The
color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality
in school punishment. Urban Review.

Townsend, B. (2000).  Disproportionate discipline of African American
children and youth:  Culturally-responsive strategies for reducing
school suspensions and expulsions.  Exceptional Children, 66, 381-391.

Vavrus, F., & Cole, K. (2002).  "I didn't do nothin'": The discursive
construction of school discipline.  Urban Review, 34, 87-111.

3/13 Resources, Facilities & Funding:
Necochea, J., & Cline, Z.  (1996).  A case study analysis of within
school funding 	inequities.  Equity and Excellence in Education,
29(2),  69-77.		

Kozol, J. (1991).  Savage inequalities.    New York: Crown. (Ch. 3)
Rothstein, R. (2000).  Equalizing education resources on behalf of
disadvantaged children. In R. D. Kahlenberg (Ed.), A notion at risk:
Preserving public education as an engine for social mobility.  New
York:  Century Foundation Press.

Issues in Latino Education:

Vélez, W., Saenz, R. (2001).  Toward a comprehensive model of school
leaving process among Latinos.  School Psychology Quarterly, 16,

Goldstein, B. S. & Harris, K. C. (2000).  Consultant practices in two 	
heterogeneous Latino schools.  School Psychology Review,  29, 368-377.

3/21.  Theories of Structural  Inequity.

Ogbu, J. U. (1986).  The consequences of the American caste system.
In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children: New
perspectives.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cook, P. J., & Ludwig, J. (1998).  The burden of "acting white": Do
black adolescents disparage academic achievement? In C. Jencks & M.
Phillips (Eds.),  The Black-White test score gap.   Washington, D. C.:
Brookings Institution Press.

Schofield, J. W. (1986).  Black-white contact in desegregated schools.
In M. 	Hewstone, & R. Brown (eds),  Contact and conflict in
intergroup encounters.  Basil 	Blackwell.

Mehan, H. (1992).  Understanding inequality in schools: The
contribution of interpretive studies.  Sociology of Education, 65,

3/29.  Hatred and Racism.

Gougis, R. A. (1986).  The effects of prejudice and stress on the
academic performance of Black Americans.  In U. Neisser (Ed.), The
school achievement of minority children: New perspectives (pp.
145-157).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Banks, J. A. (1995).  Multicultural education and the modification of
students' racial attitudes.  In W. D. Hawley, & A. W. Jackson (1995).
Toward a common destiny:Improving race and ethnic relations in
America.  SF: Jossey Bass.

Kleg, M.  (1993).  Hate, prejudice and racism  NY:State University of
New York Press.(Ch 4, Race & Racism)

4/5.  Issues in Multicultural Education

Frisby, C. L. & Tucker, C. M. (1993).  Black children's perception of
self: Implications for educators.  Educational Forum, 57,  146-156.

Huang, L. N., & Gibbs, J. T. (1992).  Partners or adversaries:
Home-school collaboration across culture, race and ethnicity.  In S.
L. Christenson & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), Home-school collaboration:
Enhancing children's academic and social competence.  Silver Spring,
MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Banks, J. A. (1996).  Multicultural education:  Historical
development, dimensions, and practice.  In J. A. Banks, & C. A.
McGee-Banks, Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp.
3-23). NY: Macmillan.

4/12.  Parent Involvement and Early Intervention.

Frisby, C. L. (1992).  Parent education as a means for improving the
school achievement of low-income African-American children. In S. L.
Christenson & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), Home-school collaboration:
Enhancing children's academic and social competence.  Silver Spring,
MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Hendrickson, R. M. (1997).  The Bell Curve, affirmative action, and
the quest for equity.   In J. L. Kincheloe, S. R. Steinberg, & A. D.
Gresson (Eds.), Measured lies:  The Bell Curve Examined.  New York:
St. Martin's Press.

Barnett, W. S. (1995).  Long-term effects of early childhood programs
on cognitive and school outcomes.  The Future of Children, 5(3),

4/19.  System Reform and School Restructuring

Comer, J. P., Haynes, N. M., & Joyner, E. T. (1996).  The School
Development Program.  In J. P. Comer, N. M. Haynes, E. T. Joyner, & M.
Ben-Avie (Eds.), Rallying the Whole Village:  The Comer Process for
Reforming Education.  New York: Teachers College Press.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L. J., & Wasik,
B. A. (1993b).  Success for All: A comprehensive approach to
prevention and intervention. .  In R.E. Slavin, N. L. Karweit, & B. A.
Wasik (Eds.), Preventing early school failure: Research, policy, and
practice.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (Ch. 8).

Kretovics, J., Farber, K., & Armaline, W. (1991).  Reform from the
bottom up: Empowering teachers to transform schools.  Phi Delta
Kappan, 73, 295-299.

4/26.  Combatting Institutional Racism

Fischer, C.S., Hout, M., Jankowski, M. S., Lucas, S. R., Swidler, A.,
& Voss, K. (1996).  Inequality by design: Cracking the Bell Curve
myth.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  (Ch. 9)

L. B. Schorr (1993).  Looking ahead: Integrating urban policies to
meet educational demands.


Slavin, R. E. (1993a).  School and classroom organization in beginning
reading:  Class size, aides, and instructional grouping.  In R.E.
Slavin, N. L. Karweit, & B. A. Wasik (Eds.), Preventing early school
failure: Research, policy, and practice.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Slavin, R. E. (1995).  Enhancing intergroup relations in schools:
Cooperative learning and other strategies.  In W. D. Hawley, A. W.
Wells et al. (Eds.), Toward a common destiny: Improving race and
ethnic relations in America (pp. 291-314).  San Francisco, CA:

Miles, K. H., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1997).  Rethinking the allocation
of teaching resources: Some lessons from high performing schools.
Developments in School Finance, 199, 33-58.