Education | Strategies for Educational Inquiry
Y520 | 5775 | Carin Neitzel


Course Description

This course is an introduction to the purpose and means of the various
practices of educational research. The purpose of the course is to
develop an understanding of the language of social science inquiry,
the aims and use of research, the various ways of framing research
questions and designing studies, and procedures for generating,
analyzing and interpreting both qualitative and quantitative data.
Ethical and socio-political issues involved in conducting and
reporting research will also be discussed.

Course Goals:

In general, this course aims to help students become intelligent and
critical readers of educational research.  For those students going on
to do their own research, the course should help lay the foundation
for this work as well. The course will prepare students for future
courses that emphasize more in-depth understanding and skills of
qualitative and quantitative methodologies. To develop further
understanding of specific research methodologies students need to
consider other courses offered through the Inquiry Methodology program
area as well as specialty research courses offered in respective
departments.  Some of those courses are the following:

H510, Foundations of Educational Inquiry
H601: Historical Inquiry in Education
Y502, Intermediate Statistics Applied to Education
Y527, Educational Measurement
Y535, Evaluation Models and Techniques
Y603, Statistical Design of Educational Research
Y604, Multivariate Analysis in Educational Research
Y611, Qualitative Inquiry in Education
Y617: Psychometric Theory
Y635, Methodology of Educational Evaluation
Y750, Topical Seminar in Educational Research Design and Analysis


Course Objectives:

By the end of the course, each student will be able to:

1. Understand and use key terms comprising the special language of
social scientific inquiry

2. Identify basic ethical and socio-political issues involved in the
conduct of disciplined inquiry

3. Identify differences in the goals and describe the basic structure
and design of studies conducted in the quantitative and qualitative
inquiry traditions

4. Describe the general orientation of qualitative and quantitative
researchers on criteria and procedures appropriate for establishing
the goodness, validity, credibility, trustworthiness, reliability,
etc.

5. Discriminate among various types of qualitative and quantitative
data and describe instruments appropriate for collecting these data

6. Demonstrate an understanding of the role of interpretation in
qualitative studies, and statistics in quantitative studies


Required Readings

Krathwohl, D. R. (1998).  Methods of Educational and Social Science
Research.  Addison Wesley Longman: New York, NY.

A collection of readings available at Mr. Copy.  A few readings will
be handed out in class.


Requirements and Grading

You are expected to prepare for discussion of the assigned readings,
to participate in class discussions, and to complete all assignments.
The course is based also on small group class work organized around
specific questions; for this reason you are also expected to attend
class regularly.

Course Assignments: There will be a literature review, three
three-page article critique assignments that call for the selection of
a research article and analysis/critique of the article according to
criteria specified, and a final project. To prepare for the final
project you will need to keep a running commentary, notes or a
reflective journal on your understanding of research and how it
evolves throughout the course. Details of these assignments will be
explained in class and available through Oncourse. Each assignment is
worth 20% of the final course grade

Course Grades:  Grades will be assigned for each assignment.  The
grade for the course will be figured after applying the grading scale
below. Grading procedures are in accordance with the Bulletin for the
Graduate Program of the School of Education.

Course Grading Scale: 	
96-100 A
91-95.99 A-
86-90.99 B+
81-85.99 B
76-80.99 B-
71-75.99 C+
66-70.99 C
61-65.99  C-
56-60.99  D+
51-55.99  D
46-50.99  D-
	
Incompletes will be given only under the conditions spelled out in the
Academic Guide.

Assignments presented in this class must be original and solely the
work of the student.  Cheating, plagiarism, or other acts of student
academic misconduct as defined in Indiana University's Code of Conduct
will be punished by an appropriate sanction, including but not limited
to reduction of or zero on assignment grade, failing grade in the
course, and recommendation of dismissal from the university.

Course Web Site:  The course syllabus, schedule, class notes, and
assignments will be available on the Y520 web site at:
http://www.oncourse.indiana.edu.  The web-based schedule will be kept
up to date with any changes required.


Tentative Schedule and Topics

Week of 1/14
		
1/14 Introduction - Review of syllabus
Locating the Course in the Research Process.

1/16 Nature and Purpose of Research - Types of Research
Research Focus - Research Questions
[Krathwohl Chapters 1 & 2]

What is research?  Why do we do research?  What are ways of doing
research?
Key concepts:-research problem, social phenomenon, social problem,
event
-description, interpretation, explanation, prediction, research
hypothesis,
-science - scientific method, experiment, cause-effect relationship
-validating/supporting hypotheses or explanations
-research orientation, objective reality, logic of inference
-methods, methodology, theory, epistemology
-verbal (qualitative) and numerical (quantitative) data
-dependent and independent variables

Week of 1/21

1/21 General Methodological Issues - Chain of Inferences - Nature of
inferences
Connecting purpose, questions, theory, hypothesis, design and analysis
Research Strategies/Methodology
Subjectivity
[Krathwohl Chapter 4]

What is the role of theory in research?  What do we mean by validity
and generalizability of research findings?
Key concepts:	-explanation, interpretation,
-theory/concepts,
-logic of inference, generalization, generalizability,
-validity, trustworthiness, credibility,
-objectivity/subjectivity

1/23 Research Questions, Literature Review
[Krathwohl Chapters 5 & 6]

Key concepts:- argument, assumption
- theory/concepts, perspective
- interest, impact
- problem development

Assignment 1 will be explained and a full description posted on
Oncourse.
Assignment 1 will be due on Tuesday, February 4th.


Week of 1/28

1/28 NO CLASS


1/30 Ethics and Researcher's Role and Responsibility
[Krathwohl Chapter 10]
[AERA Ethical Standards -
http://www.aera.net/about/policy/ethics.htm]

What are the researcher's ethical responsibilities?
Key concepts:	-informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality
-respect for participants, no harm, assessment of risk and benefits


Week of 2/4 Designing Research Studies
I. Experimental (and quasi-experimental) Designs - Sampling
[Krathwohl Chapters 7, 8 & 20]
Chapter 7:  pp.127-133 and from bottom of p. 136 to p. 140
Chapter 8:  pp. 158-165 (up to and including sampling unit)
bottom of p. 166 to middle of 167
middle pf p. 171 to p.172
middle of p. 174 to p.181
Chapter 20: pp. 498-503
pp. 509-511
pp. 512-524 (cursive reading - focus on main ideas not details)

Gandara and Fish (1994). Year-round schooling as an avenue to major
structural reform.

Assignment 1 Due

How do we design a study? Who and what do we observe?
Key concepts:	-Experimental manipulation, treatment condition
-Experimental group, control group, pre-test, post-test
-dependent and independent variables, operationalization
-randomization, random assignment
-external validity, generalizability
-population, sample, probability sample, purposeful (purposive)
sample,
convenience sample
-causality
	
Assignment 2 will be explained and a full description will be posted
on Oncourse.
Assignment 2 will be due on Thursday, February 20th.

2/6 NO CLASS

Week of 2/11 Designing Research Studies (cont.)


Week of 2/18 Designing Research Studies (cont.)

2/18 II. Survey Research - Sampling
[Krathwohl Chapters 16]
Archbald & Porter, (1996).Curriculum control and Teachers' perceptions
of autonomy and satisfaction.

How do we design a study? Who and what do we observe?
Key concepts:-sampling cases, cases (critical, extreme), purposeful
sampling
-conceptual framework, research question, analytic generalization

2/20 Assignment 2 Due
Week of 2/25 Designing Research Studies (cont.)
III. Qualitative Strategies
[Krathwohl Chapter 11]
Eisenhart, M. (1990). Learning to romance: Cultural acquisition in
college. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 21(1): 19-40.


Week of 3/4 Methods of Data Collection
Interview, Observation, Fieldwork, Questionnaire and Test Measurement,
Document Analysis
[Krathwohl Chapters 12, 13, 18]
Archbald & Porter, (1996).
Curriculum control and Teachers' perceptions of autonomy and
satisfaction.

How do we collect data?  How do we observe?
Key concepts:-participant observation, structured observation
-observer role, effects, bias
-structured and unstructured interviews
-psychometric testing, score validity, score reliability
-inter-observer agreement consistency

Assignment 3 will be explained and a full description will be posted
on Oncourse.
Assignment 3 will be due on Tuesday, March 25th.

Week of 3/11 Methods of Data Collection  (cont.)


Week of 3/18 SPRING BREAK


Week of 3/25 Data Analysis
Analyzing Quantitative Data - Descriptive & Summary Statistics
[Krathwohl Chapter 17]
Archbald & Porter, (1996).	
Curriculum control and Teachers' perceptions of autonomy and
satisfaction.
Dykeman, et al. (1996). Psychological predictors of school-based
violence 

Assignment 3 Due

How do we analyze, present and interpret quantitative data?
Key concepts:-frequency distribution, measures of central tendency
-measures of variability, normal distribution
-cross-tabulation, correlation - scatterplot


Week of 4/1 Data Analysis (cont.)
Analyzing Quantitative Data - Inferential Statistics
[Krathwohl Chapter 19] additional notes
Tomchin & Impara, (1992).	
Unraveling teachers' belief about grade retention.

How do we analyze, and interpret quantitative data?
Key concepts:-probability and chance, null hypothesis, test of
statistical significance
-sampling distribution, statistical inferences, practical significance
-differences between groups (e.g., t-test, ANOVA)

Assignment 4 will be explained and a full description will be posted
on Oncourse.
Assignment 4 will be due on Tuesday, April 14th.

Week of 4/7 Data Analysis (cont.)
Analyzing Qualitative Data
[Krathwohl Chapter 14]
Oakes and Guiton, (1995).Matchmaking: The dynamics of high school
tracking decisions.

How do we analyze, and interpret quantitative data?
Key concepts:-organization, description, interpretation
-coding categories, schemes, typology
-constant comparison, analytic induction
-theoretical propositions, empirical assertions
-narrative structuring

Week of 4/14 Reporting Research - Judging Quality
[Krathwohl Chapter 15]
What is good research?

Assignment 4 Due

Key concepts:-methods and procedures, triangulation, member checking
-internal and external validity, generalizability, transferability
-reliability, dependability,objectivity, confirmability, credibility


Week of 4/21 Reporting Research - Judging Quality (cont.)


Final Project is due on the final day of class.
Y520 Readings

Quantitative readings:

Archbald, D. A. & Porter, A. C.  (1994).  Curriculum control and
teachers' Perceptions of autonomy and satisfaction.  Educational
Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16(1):  21-39.

Crosser, S. L.  (1991).  Summer birth date children:  Kindergarten
entrance age and academic achievement.  Journal of Educational
Research, 84(3), 140-146.

Dykeman, C., Daehlin, W., Doyle, S. & Flamer, H. (1996).
Psychological predictors of school -based violence:  Implications for
school counselors.  The School Counselor, 44, 35-47.

Gandara, P. & Fish, J. (1994).  Year-round schooling as an avenue to
major structural reform.  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
16(1):  67-85.

Oakes, J. & Guiton, G.  (1995).  Matchmaking:  The dynamics of high
school tracking decisions. American Educational Research Journal,
32(1):  3-33.

Tomchin, E. M. & Impara, J. C. (1992).  Unraveling teachers' beliefs
about grade retention. American Educational Research Journal, 29(1):
199-223.


Qualitative readings:

Eisenhart, M. (1990). Learning to romance: Cultural acquisition in
college. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 21(1): 19-40.

Kuh, G. & Arnold, J. (1993).  Liquid bonding:  A cultural analysis of
the role of alcohol in fraternity pledgeship.  Journal of College
Student Development, 34,
327-334.

Peshkin, A. (1984).  Odd man out:  The participant observer in an
absolutist setting.  Sociology of Education, 57, 245-264.

Peshkin, A. (1988).  In search of subjectivity--one's own. Educational
Researcher, 17(7), 17-21.

Peshkin, A. (1988).  Understanding complexity:  A gift of qualitative
inquiry.  Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 19(4), 416-424.

Peshkin, A. (2000).  The nature of interpretation in qualitative
research.  Educational Researcher, 29(9), --5-9.



Articles for Critique Assignments

Quantitative:

Brush, T. (1997).  The effects on student achievement and attitudes
when using integrated learning systems with cooperative pairs.
Educational Technology
Research & Development, 45(1), 51-64.

Cashwell, S. & Vacc, N. (1996). Family functioning and risk behaviors:
Influences on adolescent delinquency. The School Counselor, 44,
105-113.

Griffith, J. (1996).  Relation of parental involvement, empowerment,
and school traits to school academic performance.  Journal of
Educational Research, 90(1),
33-41.

King, J. & Cooley, E. (1995).  Achievement orientation and the
impostor phenomenon among college students.  Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 20,
304-312.

Matthew, K. (1997).  A comparison of interactive CD-ROM storybooks and
traditional print storybooks on reading comprehension.  Journal of
Research on
Computing in Education, 29(3), 263-275.

Qualitative:

Lipman, P. (1997).  Restructuring in context:  A case study of teacher
participation and the dynamics of ideology, race, and power. American
Educational
Research Journal, 34(1), 3-37.

Phelan, P., Yu, H. & Davidson, A. (1994).  Navigating the psychosocial
pressures of adolescence:  The voices and experiences of high school
youth.  American
Educational Research Journal, 31(2), 415-447.

Saye, J. (1997).  Technology and educational empowerment:  Students'
perspectives.  Educational Technology Research & Development, 45(2),
5-25.

Schempp, P., Sparkes, A. & Templin, T.  (1993).  The micropolitics of
teacher induction. American Educational Research Journal, 30(3),
447-472.

Schofield, J., Eurich-Fulcer, R. & Britt, C. (1994).  Teachers,
computer tutors, and teaching:  The artificially intelligent tutor as
an agent for classroom change.
American Educational Research Journal, 31(3), 579-607.