Education | Academic Assessment and Intervention
P592 | 6009 | Dr. Rebecca Martinez
COURSE TEXTS: Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. (Eds.).
(2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II:
Preventive and remedial approaches. Washington, DC: The National
Association of School Psychologists.
Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (2002). Best Practices in School
Psychology-IV. Washington, DC: The National Association of School
READINGS: A packet of readings is available for purchase at Mr. Copy
(501 E 10th St; 334-2679). Each student will need to go to Mr. Copy
and copy his or her own course packet (this is to save you money).
Recommended readings are available at
BULLETIN DESCRIPTION OF COURSE:
Major approaches and procedures for individual assessment and
intervention with students experiencing academic difficulties.
Supervised practice with curriculum-based and norm-referenced
instruments in general achievement areas, adaptive behavior, and
early childhood assessment. Emphasis placed on linking assessment and
classroom intervention for students with disabilities and culturally
This course is designed to introduce major approaches and techniques
for individual assessment and intervention with students experiencing
academic difficulties. Emphasis will be placed on understanding
classroom instructional factors and conducting comprehensive
psychoeducational evaluations that are technically sound and lead to
effective intervention strategies. Course requirements focus on
practicing assessment procedures in the areas of general academic
achievement, reading, mathematics, written language, spelling, oral
language, listening comprehension and adaptive behavior, including
the use of these procedures with students from culturally diverse
backgrounds. The importance of assessing classroom ecology and
linking assessment and intervention will be stressed, along with ways
to effectively communicate results to parents, teachers, and other
professionals that lead to improved interventions and outcomes for
1. Develop a comprehensive assessment plan that utilizes a
problem-solving approach to determine a student’s educational needs
which considers the interaction of student characteristics, classroom
variables, multiple sources of information, positive educational
outcomes, and research-based interventions.
2. Critically evaluate the reliability, validity, norms and
standardization of current and newly-published assessment
3. Administer, score, and interpret frequently used measures of
academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, oral
language, listening comprehension, and adaptive behavior.
4. Identify the critical elements and procedures used in
5. Know the historical progression of the defining
characteristics of a learning disability, including the current
federal and state definitions and future state of the field.
6. Identify pros and cons of the various methods and procedures
used to identify learning disabilities and how the procedures may or
may not address federal and state criteria.
7. Recognize factors that affect the general school performance
and assessment procedures utilized with students from culturally
diverse backgrounds and with students who have sensory impairments
8. Identify and utilize curriculum and instructional adaptations
that meet the needs of students with diverse learning needs.
9. Recognize and evaluate effective instructional variables in
classrooms that produce improved academic achievement outcomes for
students with diverse learning needs.
10. Identify and plan initial stages of individual and group
interventions that are effective with students experiencing
difficulty with reading, math, written language, or other academic
11. Utilize data collected during assessment to help teachers and
parents develop and monitor effective intervention plans.
12. Effectively communicate the results of academic assessment
and intervention in oral and written form that is responsive to the
needs and understanding of parents and teachers.
UNIVERSITY POLICIES AND RESOURCES:
Plagiarism and Academic Honesty
Plagiarism is a serious offense at IU, with very real consequences.
See the Student Code of Conduct for details:
http://www.dsa.indiana.edu/Code/index1.html. There is a very useful
interactive tutorial about what is and what is not plagiarism at
Students with Disabilities
Services for eligible students are based on individual need as
determined by a review of relevant documentation. Academic support
services and auxiliary aids are designed to offset the limitations of
disability and to lessen its impact within the academic environment.
If you have a disability, please go to www.indiana.edu/~iubdss for
more information on obtaining classroom accommodations/modifications.
Attendance and Communication
You are asked to notify me if you are unable to attend a class or
need to miss part of the class (arrive late or leave early). E-mail
is appropriate, when used to schedule an appointment, notify me of an
absence or tardiness, or for short questions clarifying class
assignments or specific items from the lecture/discussion.
Advice to Students
Successful completion of this course requires that you invest
considerable time outside of class (1) practicing test administration
and (2) reading assigned materials. Students who do not devote
necessary time practicing test administration and preparing for
classes by reading ahead of each class meeting will not pass the
course. If you earn an “A” at the end of this course, I view you as
being capable of administering, scoring and interpreting standardized
achievement tests under minimal supervision. If you earn a “B” in
this course, I view you as being qualified to use these tests, but
with additional supervision. Students who earn grades of “C” or
lower are not considered qualified to use these tests without
additional training and close supervision.
Test Security and Responsibility
Testing materials in this course are “secure” tests – sharing the
tests or allowing others (e.g., friends, relatives, or coworkers who
are not in or have not taken this course) to look at, play with,
examine, and so on violates test security and is a violation of
ethical and professional practice! You are responsible for any
damage, loss, or theft that occurs while a test kit is signed out to
you. Follow procedures for checking out test kits from the clinic.
Each time you check out a test kit, you should ensure that all
necessary items are present and intact! Please notify Deborah Lane
immediately if you find a problem with the test kit. Failure to do
so will result in your being charged for the missing item or a new
Each student is expected to attend all class sessions, complete
reading assignments in advance and be prepared to participate in
class discussion and activities. Students are assigned
articles/readings to discuss for designated class sessions throughout
the semester (see Course Outline). Supplemental readings may be
assigned during the semester to address specific issues as they arise
within the course.
ADMINISTRATION OF SIX (6) PRACTICE ASSESSMENTS AND ACCOMPANYING
Each student will conduct practice administrations of three selected
assessment instruments and procedures (for a total of six assessments
and six accompanying reports). One will be a Vineland, two each of a
WIAT-II and WJ-III and one additional administration of your choice
(WIAT-II, WJ-III, or Vineland). A 2-page report will be turned in
with EACH of the protocols presenting background information (i.e.,
school history, records review), test behavior, description of
instrument/tasks, test scores, interpretation of results, and
appropriate interventions. Each practice administration is worth 10
points and each report is worth 10 points. See Handout #1 for
detailed instructions. Due dates: 2/9, 2/23, 3/8, 3/22, 4/5,
ADMINISTRATION OF TWO (2) FULL PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL CASES
As part of the practicum component of this course, each student will
complete two full psychoeducational cases (i.e., assessments and
accompanying reports). These will be supervised by me, the practicum
supervisor (Dr. Cummings) and the site supervisor. Please see your
P595 syllabus for details on the information that must be included in
these reports. Each assessment battery (i.e., all protocols that you
administer) and report is worth 15 points each. You may not count
any of the practice administrations in either of your
psychoeducational cases. Due 3/29 and 4/21.
VIDEO AND SELF-REFLECTION
Make one videotape of yourself administering a practice WIAT-II or WJ-
III. Complete a two-page evaluation of yourself and your
administration of the test. The video will be graded on rapport with
the child and your adherence to the test administration procedures.
The self-evaluation will be graded on your ability to reflect on the
assessment and identify strengths, weaknesses and errors in
administration. Due on 3/8.
You will present one of the two full psychoeducational cases that you
will complete as a joint requirement for this course and the
practicum. This presentation should include (1) background
information about the child, (2) test results, (3) interpretation of
test data and (4) educational recommendations. We will place great
emphasis on the latter piece (educational recommendations). The
presentation should last 15-20 minutes and should be accompanied by
handouts. The case presentation will be graded on thoroughness of
information presented, level of interpretation, ability to integrate
assessment data clearly and quality of the recommendations.
Presentation dates: 4/26 and 4/28.
You will be given one take-home exam on 2/4 that covers WIAT-II & WJ-
III background, administration, scoring and interpretation.
Specifically, you will receive a case study consisting of test scores
and background information. For this exam, you will generate a
complete report, including recommendations. The report/exam will be
graded on thoroughness and accuracy of information presented, level
of interpretation, clarity and writing style. Due on 2/9.
Each of you will be responsible for leading two class discussions.
You will be graded partly on your organization, partly on your
presentation of the material and in your ability to lead discussion.
You are responsible for presenting the information in some form to
your classmates. You may include a handout for your classmates and
have a group discussion. The class will evaluate each discussion
leader once. If needed, I will help you prepare your discussion.
However, you should view this as an opportunity to be creative. At
the very least, you should prepare an outline of how and where you
want the discussion to proceed as well as a list of issues or
questions you want the class to
Your grade will be based on the following:
Assignment Points Due Dates
6 test administrations 80 points 2/9, 2/23, 3/8, 3/22,
6 reports 80 points Same as above
Exam 10 points 2/9
Video and self-reflection 5 points 3/8
Psychoeducational cases 60 points 3/29, 4/21
Case presentation 10 points 4/26, 4/28
Discussion leader/moderator 5 points Will vary for each
Grade Percentages Points
A 94-100 187-200
A- 90-93 179-186
B+ 87-89 173-178
B 83-86 165-172
B- 80-82 159-164
C+ 77-79 153-158
C 73-76 145-152
C- 70-72 139-144
Overview of course content and requirements
Jan 14 Introduction to Academic Assessment
READING: NASP Codes of Ethics (BP Appendix I); Jacob (2002 – BP5);
Power (Interventions II: Ch. 38)
Jan 19 MLK Day-No class
RECOMMENDED: Berninger (2002 – BP54); Guy & Norcross (1998)
Jan 21 Background, Administration and Scoring: Wechsler Individual
Achievement Test – 2nd Edition (WIAT-II)
READING: WIAT-II Examiner’s Manual, Ch. 1-6 (skim and take notes)
Jan 26 Interpretation: WIAT-II
READING: WIAT-II Examiner’s Manual, Ch. 7
Jan 28 Background, Administration and Scoring: Woodcock-Johnson
Tests of Achievement – 3rd Edition (WJ-III)
READING: WJ-III Examiner’s Manual, Ch. 1-4 (skim and take notes); WJ-
III Examiner Training Workbook (read all)
Feb 2 Interpretation: WJ-III
READING: WJ-III Examiner’s Manual, Ch. 5
Feb 4 Report Writing
READING: Sattler (Ch. 21)
• Receive take home exam over administration, scoring and
interpretation of WJ-III and WIAT-II
Feb 9 Written and Oral Communication of Results and
Recommendations; Collaborating with Parents
READING: Fish (2002 – BP26);
Protocol and Report # 1 Due
Take home exam due
Feb 11 Current Conceptualizations of LD
READING: Fuchs, et al (2003); Speece et al (2003); Fuchs & Fuchs
RECOMMENDED: Sattler & Weyandt (Ch. 12)
Feb 16 Current Conceptualizations of MR/Cognitive Disability;
READING: Mulhern (2003); Sattler (Ch. 13-14)
Feb 18 Assessing Adaptive Behavior
READING: Harrison & Boney (2002 – BP73); Vineland Adaptive Behavior
Scales Examiner’s Manual; Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS)
Examiner’s Manual (tentative).
Feb 23 Reading Instruction, Assessment & Intervention
READING: Simmons et al (Interventions II: Ch. 20); Vaughn, et al
RECOMMENDED: Foorman (1995)
Protocol and Report # 2 Due
Feb 25 Mathematics Instruction, Assessment, & Interventions
READING: Browder (2001) Functional Math; Harris, Stein, & Carnine
(Interventions II: Ch. 21); Kroesbergen & Van Luit (2003)
RECOMMENDED: Miller & Mercer (1997)
Mar 1 Assessing Reading Skills: Norm-Referenced Measures, CBA and
READING: Browder (2001) Functional Reading; Gravois & Gickling (2002 –
BP56); Howell et al. (2002 – BP48); Shinn et al. (Interventions II:
RECOMMENDED: Scott & Weishaar (2003)
Mar 3 Written Language/Spelling Instruction, Assessment, &
READING: Baker & Hubbard (2002 – BP55); Graham & Harris
(Interventions II: Ch. 22)
RECOMMENDED: Edwards (2003); Keller (2002)
Mar 8 Reading Interventions: Early Literacy & Phonological Awareness
READING: Joseph (2002 – BP51); Sindelar et al. (Interventions II: Ch.
RECOMMENDED: Silva & Martins (2003)
Protocol and Report # 3 Due
Video and self-reflection due
Mar 10 Reading Interventions: Comprehension and Fluency
READING: Baker et al.(Interventions II: Ch. 27); Chard, Vaughn, &
Tyler (2002); Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz (2003)
RECOMMENDED: Jenkins, et al (2003)
Mar 15/17 Spring Break—No classes
SECTION III: SPECIAL
Mar 22 Adapting Assessment to Accommodate Disabilities; Assistive
READING: Fuchs (2002 – BP57); McGivern & McKevitt (2002 – BP97)
RECOMMENDED: Long, et al (2003)
Protocol and Report # 4 Due
Mar 24 Grading & Homework Practices, Study Skills; Test Anxiety
READING: Gleason, Archer, & Colvin (Interventions II: Ch. 24); Harvey
(2002 – BP53); Keith & DeGraff (1997)
RECOMMENDED: Strein (1997)
Mar 29 Grade Retention; High Stakes Testing; School Drop-Out
READING: Braden (2002 – BP22); Rafoth (2002 – BP50); Vess (2002 –
o First psychoeducational case assessment and report due
Mar 31 NASP Convention-No class
Apr 5 Peer Tutoring; Assessing Classroom Ecology
READING: Greenwood, Maheady, & Delquadri (Interventions II: Ch. 23);
RECOMMENDED: Fulk & King (2001)
Protocol and Report # 5 Due
Apr 7 Language Minority Children & Special Education
READING: Gersten & Woodward (1994); Gopaul-McNicol & Thomas-Presswood
(1998); RECOMMENDED: Sattler (Ch. 20)
SECTION IV: ASSESSMENT OF SPECIAL
Apr 12 Autism
READING: Hintze (Interventions II: Ch. 34); Ikeda (2002 – BP94);
Olley (1999); Sattler (Ch. 17)
RECOMMENDED: Fogt, Miller, & Zirkel (2003)
Apr 14 Emotional Disturbance
READING: Mooney, et al (2003); Popkin & Skinner (2003)
Apr 19 Vision and Hearing Impairments
READING: Bradley-Johnson & Morgan (2002 – BP87); López (2002 – BP88);
Lukomski (2002 – BP86)
RECOMMENDED: Ertmer, Strong, & Sadagopan (2003)
Protocol and Report # 6 Due
Apr 21 ADHD, Physical Disability, and Traumatic Brain Injury
READING: Barry, et al (2002); DuPaul & Stoner (Interventions II: Ch.
RECOMMENDED: HaileMariam, Bradley-Johnson, & Johnson (2002)
o Second psychoeducational case assessment and report due
Apr 26 Case Presentations
Apr 28 Case Presentations
May 1 End-of-course celebration cookout at Dr. Martinez’s house!
KEEP TRACK OF YOUR GRADE
Assignment Date Possible Points Actual Points
WIAT-II Administration #1 10
WIAT-II Report #1 10
WIAT-II Administration #2 10
WIAT-II Report #2 10
WJ-III Administration #3 10
WJ-III Report #3 10
WJ-III Administration #4 10
WJ-III Report #4 10
Vineland Administration #5 10
Vineland Report #5 10
Free choice Administration #6 10
Report #6 10
Psychoeducational Case #1 3/29 30
Psychoeducational Case #2 4/21 30
Video and Self-Reflection 3/8 5
Case Presentation 4/26 or 4/28 10
Exam 2/9 10
Discussion Leader (two times) 5
Barry, T. DeShazo, Lyman, R. D., & Klinger, L. (2002). Academic
underachievement and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The
negative impact of symptom severity on school performance. Journal of
School Psychology, 40(3), 259-284.
Browder, D. (2001). Curriculum and assessment for students with
moderate and severe disabilities (pp. 179-243). New York: Guilford
Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. (2002). A synthesis of research
on effective interventions for building reading fluency with
elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 35(5), 386-407.
Edwards, L. (2003). Writing instruction in kindergarten: Examining an
emerging area of research for children with writing and reading
difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 136-148.
Ertmer, D. J., Strong, L. M., & Sadagopan, N. (2003). Beginning to
communicate after cochlear implantation: Oral language development in
a young child. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 46(2),
Fogt, J. B., Miller, D. N., & Zirkel, P. A. (2003). Defining autism:
professional best practices and published case law. Journal of School
Psychology, 41(3), 201-217.
Foorman, B.R. (1995). Research on “The Great Debate”: Code-oriented
versus whole language approaches to reading instruction. School
Psychology Review, 24, 376-392.
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L.., & Young, C. L. (2003).
Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and
implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning
Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157-172.
Fulk, B. M., & King, K. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring at work.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(2), 49-54.
Gersten, R. & Woodward, J. (1994). The language minority student and
special education: Issues, trends, and paradoxes. Exceptional
Children, 60, 310-322.
HaileMariam, A., Bradley-Johnson, S., & Johnson, C. M. (2002).
Pediatricians' preferences for ADHD information from schools. School
Psychology Review, 31(1), 94-106.
Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., van den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno,
S. L. (2003). Sources of individual differences in reading
comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology,
Keith, T.Z., & DeGraff, M. (1997). Homework. In G. Bear, K. Minke, &
A. Thomas (Eds.), Children’s needs II: Development, problems, and
alternatives (pp.477-487). Washington, DC: The National Association
of School Psychologists.
Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. (2003). Mathematics
interventions for children with special educational needs. Remedial &
Special Education, 24(2), 97-115.
Long, T., Huang, L., Woodbridge, M., Woolverton, M., & Minkel, J.
(2003). Integrating assistive technology into an outcome-driven model
of service delivery. Infants & Young Children: An Interdisciplinary
Journal of Special Care Practices, 16(4), 272-284.
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Graetz, J. E. (2003). Reading
comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for
struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26
Miller, S.P., & Mercer, C.D. (1997). Educational aspects of
mathematics disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 47-56.
Mooney, P., Epstein, M. H., Reid, R., & Nelson, J. R. (2003). Status
of and trends in academic intervention research for students with
emotional disturbance. Remedial & Special Education, 24(5), 273-288.
Mulhern, J.D. (2003). The gifted child in the regular classroom.
Roeper Review , 25(3), 112-117.
Olley, J. G. (1999). Curriculum for students with autism. School
Psychology Review, 28(4), 595-608.
Popkin, J., & Skinner, C. H. (2003). Enhancing academic performance
in a classroom serving students with serious emotional disturbance:
Interdependent group contingencies with randomly selected
components. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 282-296.
Scott, V. G., & Weishaar, M. K. (2003). Curriculum-based measurement
for reading progress. Intervention in School & Clinic, 38(3), 153-160.
Silva, C., & Martins, M. A. (2003). Relations Between Children's
Invented Spelling and the Development of Phonological Awareness.
Educational Psychology, 23(1), 3-17.
Speece, D. L., Case, L. P., & Molloy, D. E. (2003). Responsiveness
to general education instruction as the first gate to learning
disabilities identification. Learning Disabilities Research &
Practice, 18(3), 147-157.
Strein, W. (1997). Grades and grading practices. In G. Bear, K. Minke
& A. Thomas (Eds.), Children’s needs II: Development, problems, and
alternatives (pp. 467-475). Washington, DC: The National Association
of School Psychologists.
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Kouzekanani, K., Bryant, D. P.,
Dickson, S., & Blozis, S. A. (2003). Reading instruction grouping
for students with reading difficulties. Remedial & Special Education,