In this course we will begin by looking at contemporary biolinguistic diversity, what the future prospects of this diversity appear to be, and what implications these facts may have for linguists. We will examine the various social, political, and historical factors which contribute to language endangerment, as well as the structural consequences of language death. Then we will examine approaches to language maintenance and revitalization, including Fishman’s theory of Reversing Language Shift (RLS), and we will examine some current models of language planning such as those in Quebec, Catalonia, the Basque Country, and Wales. Case studies on endangered minority languages will be drawn from around the world but will include some important Western European examples (such as Breton and Occitan in France; Basque and Catalan in France and Spain; and Welsh and Irish in the British Isles) and North American examples (e.g. French in Ontario, the Maritime Provinces and Louisiana, and the indigenous languages of the Americas).