History And Philosophy Of Science | X308 History of Biology (3 cr.)
X308 | 2715 | Churchill

X308 History of Biology (3 cr.)
Time and Day: 11:15a-12:05p MWF
Place: SE140
Section: 2715
Frederick B. Churchill
Biology traces it roots back to antiquity.  Many contemporary controversies over the origin of
life, the meaning of species, the nature of heredity, taxonomic relationships and the very nature
of the fine structure of each organism find their first articulations in works by Aristotle, Harvey,
Descartes, and Linnaeus.  In the nineteenth century the term "BIOLOGY" came into vogue and
the study of life entered into a self-conscious phase of sorting out its subject from philosophical
and religious discourse, on the one hand, and from the physical sciences, on the other.  Students
of nature, such as Lamarck, Darwin, Schwann, Bernard, Driesch and de Vries developed
controversial ways of observing and comprehending life.  The works of twentieth century
biologists, such as Morgan, Spemann, Dobzhansky, and Muller, built on the restructured
nineteenth century conceptions to fit twentieth century information and ideals.  These nineteenth
and early twentieth century concerns will form the principal focus of the course.  The course will
include both the cognitive, and the institutional dimensions of biology.
BIOLOGY MAJORS may take this course for Biology Credit.  All undergraduates, majors and
otherwise, should sign up under the rubric of X308.  GRADUATE STUDENTS may enroll
under the rubric of X508.  They may take the option of writing a term paper (25pp) on a subject
cleared with the instructor in lieu of the exams and shorter paper.