Education | Laboratory in Counseling
G523 | 4999 | Dr. Jeff Daniels

All human interactions are complex; counseling interactions are by no
means an exception.  The helper in the counseling interaction is
expected to (1) assist the client in formulating goals for counseling
by (2) discerning relevant information during his or her assessments
of counseling content and process and, often implicity, (3) guide the
helpee toward an understanding of the respective roles of counselor
and client. Under the most optimal conditions, the client
communicates effectively, the counselor capably interprets and
attends to the client=s verbal and nonverbal cues, and resistance or
Ablockages@ that can impede successful therapeutic work (either by
the client or the counselor) are minimal.  These optimal conditions
occur rarely.

The major purpose of this course is to achieve a functional level of
competence in the use of micro-counseling skills ----that is, a
sufficient mastery of these skills to allow you to be effective in
your work with future clients.  A corollary but no less important
goal of this course is for you to develop some basic competence in
conceptualizing client data and attending to appropriate intervention
strategies. During the semester, you will learn some basic Askills@
related to effective counseling as well as acquire some introduction
to integrating theory into your work with (hypothetical) clients.

In my estimation, the most important counseling Atool@ to your
development as counselors is the person of the therapist.  To promote
this end, I have designed a number of specific experiences designed
to engage you in productive self-exploration.  I fully expect that
these experiences will challenge you to clarify and, hopefully,
further stimulate thinking and development of your values and belief
systems.  All of this, I hope, will prove to be foundational to your
development as an effective, ethical, and culturally responsive


Hill, C. E., & O達rien, K. M. (1999). Helping skills: Facilitating
exploration, insight, and action. Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association .

Additional readings will be made available to you over the course of
the semester.

Your full participation in the counseling lab should enable you to
develop competence in five areas: (1)  micro-counseling skills, (2)
integration of counseling skills in simulated counseling situations,
(3) giving feedback to and (4) receiving feedback from your peers and
supervisor, and (5) self-supervision.

Counseling Skills Development.  Skills such as attending behaviors,
reflection of content, reflection of feelings, paraphrasing,
concreteness and others are basic to gathering data to be used in
helping clients define and solve problem situations.  Therefore, a
substantial amount of lab time will be spent on defining,
demonstrating, and practicing basic counseling skills.

Skill integration (Theory to Practice).  Not only must counselors be
able to demonstrate the basic skills but also use them effectively at
appropriate times.  Lab instructional activities will stress
understanding and appropriate use of basic listening/helping skills
and simulated practice sessions with peers will provide opportunities
for establishing proficiency in skill integration. Typescript
notations will allow you opportunity to self-supervise (see below),
as well as try out basic skills in client assessment and
conceptualization.  Basic information concerning case
conceptualizations (i.e., suicide assessment, countertransference and
transference issues, cultural issues, etc.) as well as ethical
considerations will be addressed regularly in class sessions and

Giving Feedback.  To help with the skill acquisition and integration
learning process, some form of evaluation is necessary.  Evaluation
in the lab setting is provided through feedback.  In addition,
feedback from those observing counseling skills in the lab serves
other purposes.  It helps to sharpen observer-attending skills and
provides a means for generating alternative approaches for working
with specific problems and thereby, stimulating exchange of ideas.

Receiving Feedback.  Skills may be refined and improved when feedback
is given, but only if the feedback is utilized.  Therefore, openness
and receptivity to constructive suggestions is essential for this
reason.  Considerable stress will be placed on the utilization of
feedback which is offered.  In other words, one aspect of your
evaluation is your responsiveness to good feedback --- from both your
peers and supervisor (me).  Experience in both giving and receiving
feedback is useful in all kinds of performance situations.

Feedback has three purposes: to identify discrepancies, to offer
support and reinforcement, and to modify behavior.  You are
encouraged to consider the following criteria when giving feedback:

1.Describe observations -- don't evaluate.
2.Be specific -- not general.
3.Consider feedback appropriateness -- Whose needs are being met?
4.Is feedback usable?  Can the behavior be changed?
5.Is feedback accurate?  Allow for the possibility that your feedback
may be off-target.  Explore if this may be the case and why.

Self-Supervision: The feedback processes serve as guides by which
individuals may evaluate their own performance.  A skill necessary
for professional growth involves recognizing areas of strengths and
weakness, therefore, several written self-evaluations based on
feedback and self-observation will be required during the term.

Counseling lab assignments are briefly described below.  The relative
contribution for each area (number of points) is also indicated.

Counseling Laboratory Performance/Self-Supervision Critiques (85

Clearly, competent performance in the counseling lab has to be your
major objective and preoccupation.  It is intended that the various
assignments in this course are each designed to contribute to this
major objective.


Critiques of your counseling laboratory performance should be turned
in every Wednesday, beginning July 2. To structure your weekly
critiques, use the following subheadings:

(1) Nature of the Problem.  Describe what your client talked about.

(2) Skills Utilized.  Describe the skills you utilized during the
session and why you used them.  For example, you may write that you
first employed minimal encouragers (uh-huhs, head nods, yes) because
the client had little difficulty talking about the issue, then used
some closed and open questions to seek clarification on issues.
Write this section with the goal of taking the reader along on a
journey.  Begin at the beginning of the session, then proceed through
until the end.

(3) Performance Assessment. Provide a ten-minute typescript-critique
of your session at any segment of the tape from which you believe you
would benefit from receiving feedback.  Over time, you may choose a
segment that reflects improvement in some area.  You may also choose
to divide this segment in two: dividing perhaps five minutes from one
portion of the tape and another five minutes from a different
portion. I would suggest you do this after you have completed at
least 4 of the typescript-critiques.

An example of how to provide effective critiques in the typescript is
attached to the back of this syllabus.  Remember to provide positive
feedback of your performance and be very specific.  In other words,
instead of writing, AI believed I listened very well and was
generally effective with the client,@ write, AThe client nodded
affirmatively when I rephrased what she said; I considered this a
good indication that I was able to truly >hear= what she was
saying.@    Also make sure to give an assessment of the responses you
were not satisfied with, why you believe you made them (e.g., AI was
distracted,@ AI felt stuck, didn=t know what to do,@ AI found myself
making judgments about what was being said and this prevented me from
being attentive,@ etc.), and ways you could have stated your
responses differently.   Make sure to give feedback not only of your
verbalizations, but also of your non-verbal communications (e.g.,
posture, eye contact, headnods).

(4) Future Plans.  Imagine that you were to see this client beyond
this session.  How might you go forward in gathering more information
and establishing a preliminary plan of counseling?  This section will
help invoke some thinking about ongoing counseling.

You should purchase at least one videotape to record your sessions
(extended long play should allow plenty room for a total of 6
sessions to record).  You may also want to audiotape these sessions
to make transcribing easier.  Media Services, located on the first
floor of the School of Education, has tape recorders available on a
loan basis.	

B.  Professional Self-Portrait/My Personal Philosophy (15 points)
The professional self-portrait is considered to be an invaluable
exercise in self-study as you move forward in the process of becoming
a counselor.  Most fundamentally, the portrait is a kind of
intellectual history. It is meant to provide you with a structure and
vehicle for examining yourself as a person and a professional -----
your world view, your personal values, your evolving beliefs about
counseling and other forms of helping, your natural strengths and
possible liabilities as a developing counselor, and other issues that
relate to the process of becoming a helper.  This assignment is due
on Wednesday, July 30 in class.

One key way to monitor your development is by keeping a journal and
writing in an entry each week. A useful way to center this journal is
by writing about your experiences with the service learning project,
then adding on how your experiences in laboratory (especially through
the self-reflection exercises).  For the paper, you will be asked to
summarize the journal and highlight those events or times of self-
reflection that proved to be turning points to your development.  See
below for further information about this assignment.

Counseling Lab Performance 85 points:
Micro-counseling skills - 20
Integration of skills in roleplays - 10
Giving feedback - 5
Receiving supervision- 20
Self-supervision - 30

Professional Self-Portrait - 15 points

Total Possible Points - 100

Final Grades and Points

95-100 points  A
90-94   points  A-
85-89   points  B
80-84   points  B-
75-79   points	C
70-74   points  C-
65-60   points  D
60-64   points  D-
59- 0    points  F

A+, B+, C+, D+, and F+s are given when points accumulated are
respectively, 98-100, 88-89, 78-79, 68-69, and 58-59.

You will be graded, in part, on the basis of how well you progress in
developing competencies over the course of the semester.  However,
attending to constructive feedback in role-plays and adeptly
critiquing your performance over time are important indices of this
progression and therefore, are worth more in terms of your overall
evaluation in this course.  Another aspect of grading will be an
assessment of your overall level of counseling competence relative to
other practicum students at this beginning level of training.


The application of counseling theories and techniques is, in large
measure, a function of the intrapersonal traits, values, and
operating system of the individual who is applying them.  This
assignment is oriented towards beginning a self-examination.

Although techniques and theories of counseling can certainly be
viewed as Atools,@ it is presumptuous to expect every helper to be
equally as comfortable, or effective, with all the techniques or
theories.  How, then, does the counselor-trainee go about selecting
his or her tools?  Certainly a broad exposure to a variety of the
prevailing ideas in these areas provides a sound basis for
understanding human behavior and effective helping strategies, but to
which theory, or set of theories does the developing professional
become aligned?  The rationale of this assignment is that a sense of
self is a necessary component in the selection of theories and
techniques to be used in the counseling enterprise.

This paper should address the following topics/questions:

1.What is my view of Ahuman nature@?  Why do people do what they do?
It is okay to cite others whose views have been important to you, but
please don=t let this section become a book report.

2.Based on the above section, what is my theory on Ahelping@ and my
beliefs about the ultimate goals of counseling?  What do I believe
are the essential components of effective helping; what actually goes
into the process of one person Ahelping@ another?

3.What is my professional future?  What kind of environment will I be
working in?  What is the Agoodness of fit@ between counseling
training and my professional goals?  How will counseling theories and
goals be useful and relevant; how will I use personal and outside
resources?  How will it fit and/or not fit with the above categories?

4.What about counseling do I think will provide me with the most
gratification?  What frightens me most about the prospect of being a
counselor?  How would I like my clients to describe me?

5.How might I evoke certain feelings among certain clients, more
specifically, those clients who are different from or similar to me
in age, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and gender? In what ways
do certain people evoke feelings in me?  Can I dispense therapy
equally, or will I find myself becoming constrained or, conversely,
rather care-free and relaxed, depending on client characteristics?

6.In reading through your journal of experiences with the service
learning project, in what ways have you changed over the semester?
Summarize this journal by highlighting those events or self-
reflections that were pivotal in the way you perceive yourself, the
helping relationship, or the people with which you interacted.


June 20	
Introduction and Overview
Ethical Issues
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 1 & 4
Lab:Why Counseling?
June 25	
Three Stage Model
The Helping Process
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 2 & 3
Lab:Interactional Sequence

June 27	
Introduction to the Exploration Stage
Attending & Listening
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 5 & 6
Lab:Attending & Listening

July 2		
Open Questions
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 7 & 8
Lab:Restatements & Open Questions
July 4		
No Class  Independence Day

July 9		
Reflection of Feelings
Additional Skills
Integrating the Skills of the Exploration Stage
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 9, 10, 11
Lab:Integration of Exploration Skills

July 11		
Introduction to the Insight Stage
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 12 & 13
Lab:Challenging the Client

July 16		
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 14 & 15
Lab:Interpretation & Self-Disclosure

July 18		
Integration of Insight Skills
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 16 & 17
Lab:Immediacy & Integration of Insight Stage Skills

July 23		
Introduction to the Action Stage
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 18 & 19
Lab:	Information

July 25		
Direct Guidance
Integrating the Action Stage Skills
Hill & O達rien, Chapters 20 & 21
Lab:Steps of the Action Stage
Integration of Action Stage

July 30		
Putting it all Together
Hill & O達rien, Chapter 22
Lab:Integration of the Stages
Conceptualizing Clients
Professional Self-Portrait is Due
August 1	
Last Day of Class