Environmental Literacy and Sustainability InitiativeEnvironmental Literacy & Sustainability Initiative

Undergraduate and Graduate Courses

Anthropology | Biology | Business | Institutions, Population and Global Environmental Change
Central Eurasian Studies | College of Arts and Sciences | Continuing Studies
East Asian Languages and Cultures | Education | Geography | Geological Sciences
Health, Physical Education and Recreation | History and Philosophy of Sciences
Journalism | Law | Philosophy | Physics | Political Science
Public and Environmental Affairs | Religious Studies | Sociology


ANTHROPOLOGY

E101 Ecology and Society (3 cr.) (Eduardo S. Brondízio)
This course aims to introduce contemporary environmental anthropology and human ecology while exposing the student to the study of the history of theoretical perspectives about human environmental interactions; the human impact on the environment and the rise of a global environmental crisis; underlying methodological strategies and research tools in human and ecosystem ecology; and, academic development and professional curriculum in environmental anthropology and the role and demand for anthropologists in the coming century. The problem solving and interdisciplinary orientation of environmental anthropology offers enormous possibilities for academic and professional development, while contributing for a better understanding and solution of environmental problems occurring at all scales, from local level well-being to global sustainability.

E327 Native Amazonians and the Environment (3 cr.) (Emilio Moran)
Study of how native peoples in the Amazon Basin have used the environment from prehistoric times to the present. Examination of archaeological evidence, current pressures from development processes, and indigenous knowledge as the key to balancing conservation and development.

E400 The Amazon In Crisis: Ecology and Development (3 cr.) (a rotating topic under E400)
Covers Amazonian ecology and human use of the area and addresses biodiversity, carbon, indigenous people etc.

E400 Land Use and Land Cover Change (3 cr.) (a rotating topic under E400)
A course on integration of methods of social science and physical science to understand changes in vegetation at landscape level.

E400 The Meaning of Home: Research and Practice in Gerontology (3 cr.) (Phil Stafford)
This course attempts to understand environments of older adults, broadly defined. An explicit attempt is made to incorporate phenomenological approaches to the person/environment interaction, and draw somewhat from the new geography and, especially, cultural anthropology. The students' work will be incorporated into a community wide discussion of place entitled Visions of Place a project now underway with a volunteer organizing committee.

E418/618 Global Consumer Culture (3 cr.) (Richard Wilk)

E420 Economic Anthropology (3 cr.) (Richard Wilk)
This course discusses the basis for understanding the relationship between culture, social organization, and rational choice. We discuss a good deal of common property theory, and explore issues of resource management.

E427 Cultural Ecology (3 cr.) (Emilio Moran)
Goals of the Course: From Greco-Roman times to the present, all societies have developed explanations to try to make sense out of this relationship. The course will review many of these theories, both Western and nonwestern. Students will have the opportunity to examine the role of political and economic context in the development of theories and methods. We will also explore new approaches (political ecology, historical ecology, remote sensing/GIS) in addressing contemporary human ecological issues such as tropical deforestation, global environmental change, urban pollution, and global warming. While the course will not explicitly focus on "global" approaches efforts will be made throughout to link global to local issues in their political and economic context.

E600 Land Use and Land Cover Change (3 cr.)
This course is about integration of methods of social science and physical science to understand changes in vegetation at landscape level.

E600 People and Plants: An Introduction to Ethnobotany (3 cr.) (Prof. Eduardo S. Brondízio)
Ethnobotany is a century old discipline focusing on past and present, dynamic and interactive relationship between people and plants; how plants are used, their social, economic, and cultural values, and technology to manage plants and vegetation are among important questions in ethnobotany. The course will combine classes on the historical and theoretical evolution of the discipline, its intersection with related fields in anthropology and ecology, ethnobotany and intellectual property rights issues, methods including interviews, plant collection, inventory and mapping, and the application of ethnobotany to development problems such as agricultural intensification and conservation.

E600 The Meaning of Home: Research and Practice in Gerontology (3 cr.) (Phil Stafford) This course attempts to understand environments of older adults, broadly defined. I make an explicit attempt to incorporate phenomenological approaches to the person/environment interaction, and draw somewhat from the new geography and, especially, cultural anthropology. The students' work will be incorporated into a community wide discussion of place entitled Visions of Place a project now underway with a volunteer organizing committee.

E620 Seminar in Ecological Anthropology (3 cr.) (Emilio Moran)
Rotating topics in cultural ecology: explores cultural adaptations to specific environments. Emphasis is placed on individual research by students discussion of relevant theoretical and methodological issues, and critical evaluation of research.

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BIOLOGY

L350 Environmental Biology (3 cr.) NMNS
P: junior or senior standing. Not open to biology majors. Interactions of human beings with other elements of the biosphere with emphasis on population, community, and ecosystem levels of ecology.

L472 Microbial Ecology (3 cr.)
P: junior standing in biology. Principles of microbial ecology with emphasis on the population, community, and ecosystem ecology of bacteria and fungi.

L473 Ecology (3 cr.)
P: L111, R: L318. Major concepts of ecology for science majors; relation of individual organisms to their environment, population ecology, structure and function of ecosystems. Credit not given for both L473 and L479.

L474 Field and Laboratory Ecology (2 cr.)
P: L111, R, C: L473. Introduction to research problems and techniques in the ecology of individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

L479 Evolution and Ecology (4 cr.)
P: L311. Evolution and ecology for science majors. Origin of life; physical environment and the individual; population ecology and population genetics; species interactions; community organization; development, structure, and function of ecosystems. Credit given for one of L479 or L473.

L575 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (3 cr.)
P: L473 (or equivalent) or instructor's consent. Does biodiversity matter? Analysis of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Emphasis on current literature, including theoretical and empirical work. Lectures will alternate with class discussion and debate. Greenhouse project and grant proposal developed in special area of interest.

COAS E105 The City as Ecosystem (3 cr.)

Can humans avoid environmental destruction? This course will provide a firm theoretical foundation in ecosystem ecology and explore its applications to the creation of sustainable cities. Topics include global change, biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability. Service-learning with Bloomington community partners is a mandatory component of this course.

BUS Z620 Science and Society (3 cr.)
How can the relationship between science and society be strengthened? In this course, invited speakers and teaching or research service-learning with local government, non-profit or business groups will foster conceptual and practical bridges between graduate student biologists and the local community.

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BUSINESS

L409 Law and the Environment (3 cr.) (Frona Powell)
Problems associated with the environment have become a focus of important public debate in recent decades. A basic knowledge of environmental issues and attempts to address those through government regulation is increasingly important for all disciplines and professions, especially so for those in business. Environmental issues are among the most powerful influences on businesses' profitability and performance today, and corporate America is waging a vigorous battle to control environmental expenses, avoid environmental catastrophes, and maintain credibility with the public. The purpose of this course is to acquaint business students with some important aspects of environmental law and regulation and to encourage discussion about the implications of those laws and regulations for business and society in general.

To that end, the course curriculum introduces economic, ecological, and philosophical perspectives underlying the creation and development of environmental laws and regulations. The next section of the course acquaints students with principles of traditional common law (negligence, trespass, nuisance, and contract law) and their application to environmental issues. The next section of the course introduces the administrative process in general and focuses on some significant administrative law issues in environmental litigationcitizen enforcement provisions and problems of statutory interpretation in the context of administrative proceedings.

The final section of the course should provide students with a basic knowledge of major environmental statutes and regulations. Some topics addressed in this section include legal issues arising under NEPA (The National Environmental Policy Act), the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, the Endangered Species Act, and CERCLA ("the Superfund law.") The course concludes by examining recent criminal enforcement actions against corporations and employees for violation of environmental law and regulations and some international environmental issues. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to discuss the ecological, economic and philosophical implications of cases assigned on various topics. In addition, all students will be required to prepare a paper and presentation on a topical environmental issue affecting business today.

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CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF INSTITUTIONS, POPULATION, AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

G513 Topics Seminar in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change (3 cr.)
Topical courses related to the study of institutions, population, and environmental change will be arranged in light of recent scientific developments and student and faculty interests. Analysis of human roles in environmental change is contextualized by attention to biophysical and ecosystematic relationships.

G514 Fieldwork Practicum in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change (12 cr.)
P: approval from directors of the Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change. Gives students the opportunity to practice research methods in an individually designed project. The project must address a specific issue in the study of institutions, populations, and environmental change.

G515 Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (3 cr.) (Emilio Moran)
Examines the research agenda on global environmental change. It aims to facilitate student participation in ongoing and future research through development of research proposed for dissertation work. Topics include deforestation, pollution, population, land use, and remote sensing. Offered spring semester every other year.

G517 The Amazon in Crisis: Ecology and Development (3 cr.) (Emilio Moran)
Provides an introduction to the ecology of the Amazon Basin of South America, focusing on its habitats, the use and conservation of the environment by its native inhabitants, and examining the forces of development that threaten its very existence.

G590 Population Analysis: Concepts, Issues, Problems (3 cr.)
P: graduate status or approval of instructor. Topic varies. Elective status depends on topic and approval by the academic advisors.

G591 Methods of Population Analysis and Their Applications (3 cr.)
P: an undergraduate course in statistics. This is a course about methods of measuring and projecting population dynamics. We focus on describing the three basic demographic processes (mortality, fertility, and migration) and showing how each one affects population size and age structure. An understanding of these basic processes is fundamental for studying behavioral aspects of population change.

G593 International Perspectives on Population Problems (3 cr.)
International trends in population growth, characteristics, and structure with attention to major social, environmental, economic, and political implications. Comparisons between industrially advanced economies and less developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Special emphasis will be placed on local and national circumstances affecting fertility, mortality, migration, and emerging roles of population policies in development planning.

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CENTRAL EURASIAN STUDIES

U320/U520 Environmental Problems and Social Constraints in Northern and Central Eurasia (3 cr.) (Roman Zlotin)
This course provides students, both undergraduate and graduate with an analysis of environmental and social conditions in the immense region of Northern and Central Eurasia. The region is undergoing profound restructuring after thee collapse of the Soviet empire. New geopolitical situations and economies are emerging across the territory of the former USSR. This region has inherited from its soviet past numerous environmental problems, low life expectancy, and high morbidity and mortality rates.

After September 11, 2001 the NIS of Central Asia bordering Afghanistan, and Transcaucasus became a staging ground for the war against terrorism and the area of US national interests. Due to political reasons and richness of mineral resources, the region plays a crucial role in global security and economic stability.

The course is divided into four units. In the first, introductory unit, the major features of the environmental and political situation in the region is presented. The second, general part, is dedicated to the analysis of mechanisms transforming the environment during the period of Soviet rule. The third, regional part, describes a variety of environmental and public health problems which emerged as a result of the soviet economic development. In conclusion, current trends in environmental and social situation is analyzed.

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

E104 Global Consumer Culture (3 cr.) (Richard Wilk)
One section of this course explores the environmental impacts, present and future, of mass consumer society. We discuss the concept of sustainable consumption, and talk about global commodity chains as well.

E105 The City as Ecosystem (3 cr.)
Can humans avoid environmental destruction? This course will provide a firm theoretical foundation in ecosystem ecology and explore its applications to the creation of sustainable cities. Topics include global change, biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability. Service-learning with Bloomington community partners is a mandatory component of this course.

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CONTINUING STUDIES, SCHOOL OF

G107 Geography - Physical Systems of the Environment (3 cr.)
Introduction to the physical principles governing the geographical distribution and interrelationships of Earth's physical features (atmosphere and oceans, landforms, soils, and vegetation). The course provides students with the background necessary to evaluate current environmental issues.

G304 Geography - Physical Meteorology and Climatology (3 cr.)
Fundamental atmospheric properties and interrelationships. Radiation theory, components of energy and moisture balance, atmospheric circulation, upper air-surface relationships, and global weather systems.

G315 Geography - Environmental Conservation (3 cr.)
P: Any introductory science course or consent of instructor. Conservation of natural resources, including soil, water, wildlife, and forests as interrelated components of the environment emphasizing an ecological approach. Current problems relating to environmental quality.

G116 Geology - Our Planet and its Future (3 cr.)
The interaction between geologic and environmental processes in the earth. Special emphasis on how these processes affect public policies and laws. Multimedia exercises and videotape presentations (made specifically for this course) are included. Learning packet includes Learning Guide, video, and lab kit with diluted hydrochloric acid. Text is on CD-ROM. Students must have access to a camera, VCR, and CD-ROM drive. National award winner.

G300 Geology - Environmental and Urban Geology (3 cr.)
P: One course in physical or general geology or physical geography. Significance of regional and local geological features and processes in land use. Use of geologic factors to reduce conflict in utilization of mineral and water resources and damage from geologic hazards.

P110 Physics - Energy (2 cr.)
A scientific approach is used to examine various aspects of energy consumption, including demand, fuel supplies, environmental impact, and alternative fuel sources. Credit given for only one of the following: P110 or P120.

P120 Physics- Energy and Technology (3 cr.)
Provides physical basis for understanding interaction of technology and society, and for the solution of problems, such as energy use and the direction of technological change. Credit given for only one of the following: P110 or P120.

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DEPARTMENT OF EAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES

E256 Land and Society in East Asia (3 cr.)
Land and societies of East Asia, principally China and Japan. Environmental conditions, human use and misuse of the environment, urbanization and its relationship with the building of modern institutions, and future prospects.

E302 Geographic Patterns in China (3 cr.)
Analysis of national and regional patterns in agricultural modernization and collectivization, cities and urbanization, industrialization, social programs, environmental conservation. Focus on emergence of contemporary patterns from traditional society.

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EDUCATION, SCHOOL OF

Q540 Teaching Environmental education (3 cr.)
For elementary and secondary teachers. Basic principles of environmental/conservation education stressed in grades K12. Methods and techniques for integrating these principles into existing curricula. Designed for the development and evaluation of new interdisciplinary teaching materials.

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GEOGRAPHY

G107 Physical Systems of the Environment (3 cr.) N&M
Introduction to the physical principles governing the geographical distribution and interrelationships of the earth's physical features (atmosphere and oceans, landforms, soils and vegetation). The course provides students with the background necessary to evaluate current environmental issues.

G109 Weather and Climate (3 cr.) N&M
Introduction to atmospheric processes responsible for weather. Elements of climatology and their variation in time and space. Weather forecasting, weather modification, and severe weather.

G185 Global Environmental Change (3 cr.) N&M
The scientific basis behind natural and human-induced global environmental changes. Geological perspective of the formation of the earth. Human activities influencing the natural system, including population, deforestation, water usage, acid rain, ozone depletion, smog, and global warming. Subsequent human reactions.

G208 Human Impact on the Environment (3 cr.) N&M
Aspects of the human role in changing the earth's environment. Examples of how expanding use of the physical environment has altered the equilibrium of natural systems or accelerated the rate of natural changes in the environment. Environmental changes from a global or world regional perspective.

G237 Cartography and Geographic Information (3 cr.) N&M
Use of computers in the management of geographic information, including data storage, database construction, creation and production of maps and related representation of geographic data. Computer cartography laboratory, experimentation and interactive experience using GIS and mapping software.

G304 Physical Meteorology and Climatology (3 cr.) N&M
P: any introductory science course or consent of instructor. Fundamental atmospheric properties and interrelationships. Radiation theory, components of energy and moisture balance, atmospheric circulation, upper airsurface relationships, and global weather systems.

G305 Environmental Change Nature and Impact (3 cr.) N&M
P: G107 or G109 or consent of instructor. An integrated systems approach to examining the forcing, system response, and impacts of environmental change. Specific case studies will be presented in addition to methods of documenting change and identifying natural variability versus change due to anthropogenic forcing.

G307 Biogeography: The Distribution of Life (3 cr.) N&M
A survey of the present distributions of the world's plants and animals, emphasizing ecological explanation of species distributions. Topics include evolution and distribution of major plant and animal groups, world vegetation, plant and animal domestication, introduction of plant and animal pests, destruction of natural communities, and extinction.

G315 Environmental Conservation (3 cr.) S&H
P: junior standing or consent of instructor. Conservation of natural resources including soil, water, wildlife and forests as interrelated components of the environment emphasizing an ecological approach. Current problems relating to environmental quality.

G317 Geography of Developing Countries (3 cr.) S&H
Analysis of spatial processes in the Third World with emphasis on the processes of migration, urbanization, and resource development. Examination of alternative theories of the development process.

G320 Population Geography (3 cr.) S&H
P: junior standing or consent of instructor. Study of population growth, compositional change and redistribution at regional, national and global scales. Topics include population pressure, fertility control, aging of societies, AIDS epidemiology, immigration, and population policies.

G336 Environmental Remote Sensing (3 cr.) N&M
P: an introductory course in science or consent of instructor. Principles of remote sensing of the earth and its atmosphere, emphasizing satellite data in visible, infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Emphasis on practical applications and digital image analysis.

G341 Environmental Values and Attitudes (3 cr.) S&H
The course considers environmental values and attitudes as phenomena of human societies which are instrumental along with technological and organizational constructs in shaping society-habitat relationships. Study of western and non-western traditions provides background for understanding recent attempts to develop ideas compatible with globalizing industrial society.

G407 Climate Dynamics (3 cr.)
P: G304 or consent of instructor. Climate and its interannual and longer-term variations from the perspectives of theory, observations, and modeling. Topics include: climate sensitivity, stability and feedback; sea-air-land-ice interactions; teleconnections and their regional expression; drought; climate reconstruction and prediction using numerical models.

G421 Environments of Tropical Lands (3 cr.)
A geographical analysis concerned with developing countries and focusing on issues related to development and the environmental consequences. Concern for the natural environment is expressed with regard to how it is affected by population pressures, economic advancement and urbanization. An understanding of the people and their cultures in these regions is presented.

G434 Air Pollution Meteorology (3 cr.)

P: G304 or consent of instructor. Analysis of the physical laws that govern the transport and transformation of atmospheric pollutants. Primary emphasis will be on physical and chemical processes, although biological impacts will also be considered.

G440 Topics in Environmental Geography (3 cr.)
P: G305 or G315 or consent of instructor. Selected topics focus upon the human dimensions of environmental change/conservation. Example focus topics: population-environment interactions, transport-environment interactions, and urban-environment interactions. May be repeated once for credit with a different topic.

G446 Cultural Biogeography (3 cr.)
P: G107, R:G307. Examines human alterations of natural plant and animal distributions. Topics include deforestation, extinction, plant and animal domestication, and introduction of alien organisms. Seminar format.

G475 Climate Change (3 cr.) N&M
P: G107 or G109 or consent of instructor. Advanced course on the evidence for and theories of climatic change over a range of time scales, focusing on the period before the instrumental record.

G507 Climate Dynamics (3 cr.)
P: G304 or G532 or consent of instructor. Climate and its interannual and longer-term variations from the perspectives of theory, observations, and modeling. Topics include: climate sensitivity, stability and feedback; sea-air-land-ice interactions; teleconnections and their regional expression; drought; climate reconstruction and prediction using numerical models.

G517 Geography of Developing Countries: Critical Perspectives (3 cr.)
Critical examination of development theories and development experiences of the Third World countries in recent times.

G532 Physical Meteorology and Climatology (3 cr.) N&M
Fundamental atmospheric properties and interrelationships. Radiation theory, components of energy and moisture balance, atmospheric circulation, upper airsurface relationships, and global weather systems.

G534 Air Pollution Meteorology (3 cr.)
P: G304 or G532 or consent of instructor. Analysis of the physical laws that govern the transport and transformation of atmospheric pollutants. Primary emphasis will be on physical and chemical processes, although biological impacts will also be considered.

G535 Introduction to Remote Sensing (3 cr.)
Principles of remote sensing of the earth and its atmosphere, emphasizing satellite data in visible, infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Emphasis on practical applications and digital image analysis.

G540 Topics in Environmental Geography (3 cr.)
Selected topics focus upon the human dimensions of environmental change/conservation. Example focus topics: population-environment interactions, transport-environment interactions, and urban-environment interactions. May be repeated four times for credit with a different topic.

G575 Climate Change (3 cr.) NMNS
P: at least two undergraduate courses in physical science or consent of instructor. Advanced course on the evidence for and theories of climatic change over a range of time scales, focusing on the period before the instrumental record.

G604 Topical Seminar in Environmental Geography (3 cr.)
Topics will vary to consider different aspects of environmental geography. May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits.

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GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES

G105 Earth: Our Habitable Planet (3 cr.) NMNS
This is an interdisciplinary science course designed for university students with widely varying backgrounds and intended majors. The course is an appropriate entry point for students interested in pursuing a major or minor in Geological Sciences. Students taking Geology 105 will discover the interactive nature of chemical, physical, and biological processes that have shaped our planetary environment during the past 4 billion years.

G116 Our Planet and Its Future (3 cr.) NMNS
The Earth will be examined as a system in which Man and the environment must coexist. Such topics as plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, environmental concerns, public policy and others will be examined within the context of the Earth system.

G131 Oceans and the Global Environment (3 cr.) NMNS
This introductory science course focuses on exploration of the marine realm. It incorporates aspects of geology, geography, physics, chemistry & biology in an interdisciplinary approach to the fundamentals of oceanography, with an emphasis on the climatic & environmental importance of the oceans.

G141 Earthquakes and Volcanoes (3 cr.) NMNS
This course examines the of the causes and effects of earthquakes and volcanic activity. Impacts of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, including secondary effects such as landslides, mudflows, and tsunamis; climatic effects; energy/mineral resources; and social disruption. Mitigation of effects of natural disasters.

G161 Earth Resources (3 cr.) NMNS
This course will provide a general survey of the origin, distribution, and utilization of earth resources, including coal, petroleum, nuclear materials, nonmetallic industrial minerals, metallic ores, gems, and precious metals. Methods of resource exploration, extraction, processing, and refining will be reviewed. Environmental issues related to the use of natural resources and the development of our national mineral policy will also be discussed.

G171 Environmental Geology (3 cr.) NMNS
Environmental geology is basically applied geology as it relates to the relationship between people and the physical environment. The class will present a general overview of major natural and maninduced hazards: flooding, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and coastal phenomena. The course looks at subjects relating to man's interaction with the environment, such as hydrology, water use, water pollution and channelization. Waste disposal is also an important topic covered (solid, chemical and radioactive waste management, and wastewater treatment).

G300 Environmental and Urban Geology (3 cr.) NMNS
P: one course in physical or general geology or physical geography. Significance of regional and localgeologic features and processes in land use. Use of geologic factors to reduce conflict in utilization of mineral and water resources and damage from geologic hazards. II Sem.

G302 Development of the Global Environment (3 cr.) NMNS
P: one semester of college chemistry, physics, or astronomy; Mathematics M118 or equivalent.

Origin of the chemical elements, formation of the solar system and planets, development of the terrestrial atmosphere and rise of atmospheric oxygen, evolution of complex life, and prospects for the future of our planet.

G316 Mineral Fuels and Materials (3 cr.) NMNS
P: one course in general geology. Origin of petroleum, coal, industrial minerals, and ore deposits; reserves, resources, and future needs; history, economic and environmental considerations, national minerals policy, and international aspects of energy and raw materials distribution.

G329 Introductory Field Experience in Environmental Science (5 cr.) NMNS
P: one course in environmental science, and G225. Introduction to field-based scientific investigations. Experience in various environmental sciences including ecology, environmental chemistry, geology, hydrology, and meteorology. Field exercises are carried out within an instrumented demonstration watershed close to the IU Geologic Field Station in Montana. Course includes visits to several Superfund sites.

G585 Environmental Geochemistry (3 cr.)
P: G205, G221, G406. Discussion of the geochemical cycle and natural dissolved constituents of waters. Interaction of pollutants with the geochemical cycle and its perturbations. Application of geochemical methods to environmental problems.

G596 Topics in Applied Environmental Geology (3 cr.)
P: consent of instructor. Application of geologic principles to common environmental problems. Topics covered include data collection for site investigations, soil and rock mechanics, seismology, and hydrogeology. Application of principles to problems such as soil foundations, slope stability, earthquake-resistant design, and design of landfills.

G700 Environmental and Applied Geophysics (Rudman/Mackie)
A survey of geophysical techniques used for studying the shallow subsurface with an emphasis on applications to environmental contamination problems. The principal topics covered include ground-penetrating radar, electrical and electromagnetic methods, seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, and magnetics. For each topic, the physics governing the technique will be introduced, data collection, processing, and interpretation will be discussed, and case histories will be studied. The weekly laboratory will often involve computer based exercises. There will be four (4) days of field work at nearby locations to demonstrate the use of the techniques at actual field sites. Each field day will concentrate on a specific topic and will include ground-penetrating radar, seismic refraction/reflection, electrical methods, and gravity/magnetics. Laboratories and homework will concentrate on interpretational methods using simple computer programs.

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HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND RECREATION (HPER)

R241 Wildflowers and Edible Insects (2 cr.)
Identification of wildflowers and wild edible plants. Activities include a weekend field trip, a chance to improve skills in identifying local plants, as well as a culinary experience in wild edibles.

R271 Dynamics of Outdoor Recreation (3 cr.)
P: R160. Philosophical orientation to the field of outdoor recreation; camping, outdoor/environmental education, and natural resource management, with emphasis on programs, trends, resources, and values.

R280 Natural History (3 cr.)
Investigation of general natural history and field ecology concepts in a laboratory setting. Weekly field trips.

R281 Landscape Horticulture (3 cr.)
Provides basic information and skills that are fundamental in managing horticultural resources, with an emphasis on plants and the circumstances under which they grow well. Basic information about plant growth, reproduction, and propagation techniques in the greenhouse and outdoor setting.

R317 Ecohumanism: Exploring New Environmental Attitudes (3 cr.) (Lucille Bertuccio)
This class is offered in the Fall. In this class we explore, through readings, discussion and guest speakers, how culture shapes the ideas that humans entertain about the Earth. From Mother Earth to the Gaia Hypothesis students will examine how new ideas emerging from science, ecology, environmental philosophy and spirituality empower the individual to affect positive change in the interdependent and interconnected relationship that exists between our planet and us.

R317 Environmental Education in the Outdoors (3 cr.) (Lucille Bertuccio)
This is offered in the Spring for the second eight weeks. Classes meet on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 3:30 5:30 at Hilltop Garden and Nature Center. We use games, activities and Native American stories to teach about environmental concepts and issues. Local environmental educators are invited to provide expertise and demonstrate how to teach using a variety of activities. During the last week of the term (April) the students will schedule an outdoor environmental education experience for local elementary school children.

R320 Therapeutic Horticulture (3 cr.)
For students of adjunct therapies to understand the use of horticulture for therapy and rehabilitation. Methods and techniques are presented with an interdisciplinary approach. The student will gain a basic knowledge of horticulture therapy and develop a working knowledge of program planning.

R338 Recreation Resource Management (3 cr.)
An understanding of the ecological concepts, practices, and resource policies of parks and recreation services. Focus on allocations, carrying capacity, preservation and environmental impact, and dispersed and intensive recreation use.

R372 Interpretive Resources and Techniques (3 cr.)
P: R271. Basic principles, philosophies, and methodologies of interpretation, outdoor education, and environmental education.

R425 Ecosystem Management (3 cr.)
Exploration of the principles, theories, concepts, and practical realities of ecosystem management. Enables students to design, initiate, and coordinate to completion complex projects of ecological nature.

R540 Policy Studies in Outdoor Recreation/Environmental Management (3 cr.)
A critical analysis of the historic development, current status, and changing patterns of public policy in outdoor recreation and related environmental management in the United States. Intensive examination of selected public policy issues (including those affecting the private/commercial sector) through small group seminars and individual research.

R542 Recreation Resource Management (3 cr.)
Examination of resource management approaches to recreation resource administration. The resource management aspects will take an ecological and sociological approach to understanding complex problems and issues, management practices, resource policies, and allocation of resources. Special focus on legal and ethical aspects of resource management, environmental protection, personnel management, and budget formulation.

R543 Principles of Outdoor/Environmental Education
Basic principles, philosophies, and methodologies of both outdoor education and environmental education. Enables students to associate characteristics that relate to each field as well as aspects that differentiate both. Monthly field trips.

R545 Advanced Ecosystem Management in Outdoor Recreation (3 cr.)
Exploration of the principles, theories, concepts, and practical realities of ecosystem management. Enables students to design, initiate and coordinate to completion, complex projects on an ecological nature.

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HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

X220 Earth's Body: The Environment in Context (3 cr.) (James Capshew)
Everyone is concerned about the environment. It affects everything we do both as individuals and as a society. But how are we to understand it? Is it something "out there" that provides a physical setting for human activities? Is it an awareness that resides in human consciousness? Or is it something else? This seminar will be a place to explore questions about the meaning of Earth's body. We will start our inquiry by studying creation myths in various cultures around the world and examine them for their philosophical and moral messages. We range throughout the global history of humankind, exploring such topics as the invention of fire and the development of agriculture. Closer to the present, we will take up the history of the environmental movement in the United States and recent debates over, for instance, the health effects of toxic chemicals, sustainable development, and biodiversity. We will utilize historical accounts as well as materials drawn from journalism, literature, folklore, and art. A special feature of the course will be field trips to local sites in order to put our knowledge in context.

Special topic: "Trees: Biology, History, Culture." This course is an exploration of the wonderful world of trees - their natural history as well as their relationship to human culture. We will begin with fundamental facts about the native species in our bioregion. You will learn to identify some common species, get a basic understanding of plant physiology and photosynthesis, and learn how trees fit into the ecology. Next the course will consider the social and economic impact of forestry practices in different cultures, ranging from the Druids in ancient Britain to modern America. Special attention will be paid to recent forest protection efforts in the United States. Finally, we will consider the symbolic significance of trees in various cultures. The roots of "dendrophilia" will be investigated by means of anthropological and literary perspectives. Field trips will be encouraged, guest presenters will present different points of view about the politics of trees, and students will be urged to reconsider their attitudes toward these ubiquitous living things.

JOURNALISM, SCHOOL OF

J460/560 Reporting Nature (3 cr.)
A onetime topics course, offered in the summer of 1999, this course will explore the various genres journalists use to write about and in nature. Works to be explored include Richard Manning's Last Stand, an autobiographical account of one reporter's efforts to write honestly about timber issues; Our Stolen Future, a speculative essay by two scientists and a journalist about how synthetic chemicals may be disrupting the endocrine systems of animals and humans; The Hot Zone, a journalistic thriller about infectious diseases; and The Heat is On, an investigative journalist's report on the economic interests at work in the global climate change debate. Other books and articles, representing personal and critical essay writing, will also be included.

J544 Science, Society, and Media (3 cr.)
A readings, discussion, and research course devoted to science in society, and the role of the news media in conveying science to the public. In the fall 1998 class, we devoted most of our attention to gaps gaps in communication and understanding between scientists and the literati (C. P. Snow's the two cultures), between scientists and social scientists and others who study science (the science wars) , between scientists and the public (conflicting claims about the public's understanding of science), and between scientists and journalists (more conflicting claims). Environmental science topics considered this particular semester included global climate change, biotechnologies in the food chain, and (briefly) native and exotic species. Students acquire an awareness of the diverse and often competing claims about science in society and an understanding of the role of the media in promoting and framing those claims. Offered annually.

J554 Science Writing (3 cr.) A reporting and writing workshop for those interested in exploring how to cover science for the general public. Medical and environmental science topics, including communication of risk, are a regular feature of the course. Offered annually.

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LAW, SCHOOL OF

B615 Land Use Controls (3 cr.) (Stake)
This course studies the development and nature of the law of public regulation of land use, including analysis of the major tools for regulation, zoning, comprehensive planning, and subdivision controls. The course studies land use regulation as it relates to issues of municipal services and finance.

B622 Law and Economics (3 cr.) (DauSchmidt, Heidt)
This course emphasizes the arguments that economic analysis offers lawyers. This kind of analysis is extremely influential in environmental policy. The course teaches economic skills relevant to the litigator, the judge, the legal planner, the lobbyist, the legislator, and the administrator.

B675 Public Natural Resources Law (2-3 cr.) (Fischman)
This course examines the tension between public control of and private interests in natural resources. The course addresses the development of legal doctrines and the patterns of resource ownership; federalism in resource regulation; proprietary federalism in management models; separation of powers; judicial review; and public participation. The course considers these issues in the context of the laws and policies governing mineral, timber, range, recreation, wildlife, and preservation resources.

B704 Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control (3 cr.) (Applegate)
This advanced course considers the regulation of risk in the modern regulatory state and the corresponding ethical and jurisprudential problems, such as the valuation of lives, the distribution of risk in society, and the eclipsing of common law thought, that it raises for lawyers and the law. The course surveys the treatment of hazardous and toxic substances under a variety of federal statutes, with special emphasis on CERCLA (Superfund) and RCRA.

B713 Administrative Law (2-3 cr.) (Craig, Fischman)
This course examines the constitutional justification for administrative agencies and their relationship to the legislature, the executive branch, and, in significant detail, the courts; administrative discretion to formulate policy and the manner in which policies are made; and specific topics including the constitutional basis of administrative procedure, the scope of judicial review, the difference between rule making and adjudication, the limits of procedural due process, and the Administrative Procedure Act.

B763 Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes (3 cr.) (John Applegate)
This course covers the environmental laws that regulate toxic substances, that is, chemicals and wastes, which have long-term deleterious health effects even at very low levels of exposure. It includes the basic science of toxic substances and their effects, and the fundamentals of risk-based regulation. It examines the various approaches to toxics regulation that are found in statutes whose primary target is conventional pollutants, and the emerging trends in toxics regulation.

B768 Water Law (3 cr.) (Fischman)
This course examines the legal control of water resources, focusing on water's special status as partially public and partially private property. Topics include riparian water rights, prior appropriation, the historical evolution of water rights, federal water rights, and groundwater use.

B773 Environmental Litigation (2 cr.) (Simmons)
The course examines how enforcement action and rule-making challenges under the air, water, and solid waste laws shape the legal landscape. The course also deals with toxic tort litigation and citizen suits. Students hone their skills by writing briefs on relevant issues.

B774 Environmental Issues in Business Transactions (2 cr.) (Spalding)
This course offers a practical introduction to the environmental problems a diligent attorney must identify in contract, corporations, and real estate law. Students work through problems illustrating the liabilities that arise from a number of environmental laws.

B782 Introduction to Environmental Law (3 cr.) (Applegate, Barnes, Fischman)
This survey course introduces students to the structures of environmental law and to the intellectual tools needed by effective environmental lawyers. Statutes covered include the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, NEPA, Superfund (CERCLA), and RCRA, among others. The course also includes material on economic analysis of law, regulatory theory, rights of nature, valuation of lives, and risk assessment.

B783 International Environmental Law (3 cr.) (Applegate)
International environmental law examines the legal standards that apply to environmental effects arising in one nation and causing harm in one or more other nations. These range from relatively simple transboundary effects to environmental concerns of a regional or global character. We examine a variety of environmental harms, including air and water pollution, hazardous waste disposal, and protection of endangered species. We will also consider the relationship between environmental protection and international trade. Following an introduction to international law, classes will be based on simulated negotiations of the case studies in the textbook. In addition to preparatory materials for the negotiations, students will write (and, if time permits, briefly present to the class) a research paper. No exam at the end of the course.

L740 Seminar in Advanced Environmental Law (2-3 cr.) (Fischman)
This course concentrates on a variety of subjects that changes from time to time depending on the interest of the students and faculty. The hallmark of the seminar remains the same, however: students conduct and present original research under the supervision of the professor. One recent advanced seminar has addressed environmental theory through readings dealing with the historic development of environmental ethics, the efficiency criterion in environmental law, and ethical challenges to economic approaches. Another recent seminar topic is law and the conservation of biological diversity. In that seminar, students by considering the definition and value of biological diversity and then discussed the principal legal tools used to address concerns about biological diversity in both natural resource management and pollution control.

L740 Seminar: Environmental Justice (3 cr.) (John Applegate)
This course concentrates on the emerging understanding of the unequal distribution of environmental risk and of the benefits of environmental regulation among different populations in the United States and the world. As a matter of administrative policy, EPA and numerous other agencies consider and seek to achieve justice or equity in their environmental decisions; however, like other areas of the law that deal with discrimination and inequality, claims are vigorously contested on factual, legal, and policy grounds. The Environmental Justice course examines, in turn, the contending positions on environmental justice, the factual basis for the broader claims of injustice, representative settings in which environmental justice claims arise, a selection of groups on behalf such claims are made, and potential remedies.

Seminar: International Environmental Law (every other year) (John Applegate)
This course is an overview of the areas in which international law regulates the environment, and includes a general introduction to international law. The first half of the course focuses on the context and basic principles of international law. In the second half, students debate the merits of a number of important multilateral treaties that regulate sectors of the global environment. A major focus of the course is the relationship between industrialized and developing nations.

PHILOSOPHY

P140 Elementary Ethics (3 cr.)
Survey of contemporary moral problems, including (in some versions) problems related to the environment and human/environment interaction.

P242 Applied Ethics - Philosophy of Environmentalism (3 cr.)
Is tree spiking justified? At what cost should we protect endangered species? Are the aggressive tactics of the Sea Shepherds, Earth First!, and other similar groups the terrorist activity of outlaws, or are they desperate measures of justified civil disobedience? In this course we will consider these questions by examining environmental justifications for such activism. We will review basic theories of philosophical ethics and social philosophy, and then consider different theories of environmental ethics We shall also, while doing so, read about and watch documentaries about environmental activism, and (as much as possible) have some activists in as speakers. Weather permitting, we will have some outings.

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PHYSICS

P110 Energy (2 cr.)
A scientific approach is used to examine various aspects of energy consumption, including demand, fuel supplies, environmental impact, and alternative fuel sources. Credit given for only one of the following: P110 or P120.

P120 Energy and Technology (3 cr.) NMNS
Provides physical basis for understanding interaction of technology and society, and for the solution of problems, such as energy use and the direction of technological change. Credit given for only one of the following: P120 or P110.

P125 Physics in the Next Century (3 cr.) (A. Bacher)
We will begin with an overview of the role of energy in our lives and an introduction to the physics principles that will guide our study of energy issues. Since we live in an era of fossil fuels, we will consider their use in electric energy generation and transportation. Environmental issues, such as acid rain and global warming, will arise naturally as we examine the measured effects and projected impacts of our dependence on fossil fuels as our energy source. Options for the future that we will consider include nuclear energy (fission and fusion), solar energy (space heating and electric energy generation), and other renewable energy resources (hydro, wind and biomass). The last part of the course will be devoted to developing an energy plan for the future which starts with conservation and energy-efficiency issues and concludes with a consideration of the technological advances that might impact the long-term future.

P211(SPEA E200) Global Energy Problems: Technological Options and Policy Choices (3 cr.) NMNS
The science of energy; energy resources and uses; conservation; the health and environmental effects of energy conversion. Existing energy policy and its consequences; a comparative look at energy policy; the principles and practice of sound energy management and policy.

P310 Environmental Physics (3 cr.) (Ben Brabson)
The goals of the course are two. It should provide a critical look at human activity from the standpoint of energy and it should describe much of the underlying physics critical to the environmental sciences. The 1992 Uruguay Conference on the global environment focused the world's attention on energy shortages and on the ongoing degradation of the world environment. With increases in both population and in per capita energy use, we must understand the consequences of our use of energy, now. Serious problems both at the global level, such as global warming and acid rain, and similar problems at the local level, such as urban air and water pollution, place great demands on all of us. Solving environmental problems is essentially always an interdisciplinary effort. The discipline of physics is a major player in this effort. As with most problems of science, a quantitative understanding is essential to their resolution. Environmental Physics (P310) is designed to give us such a quantitative understanding. While this course focuses on the subject of energy, it will also address much of the basic physics used in such interdisciplinary disciplines as meteorology, geophysics, and environmental science.

P510 Environmental Physics (3 cr.) (B. Brabson)
P: Either P201 or P221, M211 or equivalent. For biological and physical science majors. Relationship of physics to current environmental problems. Energy production, comparison of sources and byproducts; nature of and possible solutions to problems of noise, particulate matter in atmosphere. 

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POLITICAL SCIENCE

Y313 Environmental Policy (3 cr.) SHSI
Examines the processes of social decision reconciling human demands on the natural world with the ability of nature to sustain life and living standards. Analyzes the implications for public policies in complex sequential interactions among technical, economic, social, and political systems and considers the consequences of alternative courses of action.

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PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS, SCHOOL OF (SPEA)

E100 Environmental Topics (3 cr.)
Study of selected issues in environmental affairs. Topics vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit.

E162 Environment and People: Reconciling Nature and Humanity (3cr.)
An interdisciplinary examination of the problems of population, pollution, and natural resources and their implications for society. Credit not given for both SPEA E162 and E262.

E262 Environment:Problems and Prospects (3 cr.)
An integrated approach to understanding and solving environmental problems. Topics may include ecosystem restoration, surface water and groundwater contamination, air pollution, and global environmental change. This course is intended primarily for majors in the B.S.E.S. degree program.

E272 Introduction to Environmental Sciences (3 cr.)
(3 cr.) P: a statistics course. Application of principles from life and physical sciences to the understanding and management of the environment. Emphasis will be placed on (1) the physical and biological restraints on resource availability and use, and (2) the technological and scientific options to solving environmental problems.

E311 Introduction to Risk Assessment and Risk Communication (3 cr.)
This course will cover basic human health and risk assessment procedures, as outlined by the various regulatory agencies (especially EPA) and standards settings groups. Because risk communication is an integral part of any risk management process, risk communication techniques and applications will be integrated into the course material.

E325 Computing for Environmental Scientists (1-3 cr.)
P: MATH M118 or M119; K300 or equivalent; SPEA E272. Survey of computing applications to environmental issues. Personal computing emphasized. Application of spreadsheets, graphics, simple statistics, and BASIC programming to environmental science issues. Manipulation and interpretation of real data, case studies, and projects. Many software packages used.

E326 Mathematical Methods in Environmental Science (3 cr.)
P: MATH M119 or M211 CSCI C211 or BUS K201; and K300. Mathematical modeling in environmental science. Expressing problems as equations. Applications and numerical evaluation of derivatives and integrals. Derivation and solution of differential equations. Use of package FORTRAN subroutines in problem solving. Statistics applied to environmental science.

E340 Environmental Economics and Finance (3 cr.)
This course familiarizes students with the principles of environmental economics, finance, and cost benefit analysis. The incentive effects of environmental policy design are assessed. Policy instruments include tradeable permits, emissions taxes, deposit refund systems, pollution prevention programs, and voluntary agreements. Project appraisal techniques are then developed and applied to specific case evaluations.

E355 Introduction to Limnology (3 cr.)
Limnology is the integrated science of inland waters. Principles of physics, chemistry, geology, and biology combine to form the basis for understanding how lakes and streams function as aquatic ecosystems. The course will highlight the effects of human activity on lake and stream ecosystems.

E360 Introduction to Biological Resources (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272; any biology course. This course provides the necessary background for students interested in fisheries, wildlife, or forest management who have had little course work or experience with the taxonomy, ecology, or natural history of plants or animals.

E363 Environmental Management (3 cr.)
Introductory course in environmental management. Subjects covered include current issues and trends, total quality environment management, managing scientific and technical personnel, managing contracts and grants, nontraditional approaches to regulation, environmental conflict resolution, working with the media, risk communication, and working with communities.

E400 Topics in Environmental Studies (2-3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272. An interdisciplinary consideration of specific environmental topics. May be repeated for credit.

E410 Introduction to Environmental Toxicology (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; any biology course. Study of toxic mechanisms, pathology, and disease development resulting from exposure to biological and chemical agents in the environment.

E411 Introduction to Groundwater Hydrology (3 cr.)
An overview is presented of the theory and practice of groundwater movement, groundwater contamination, and aquifer testing and remediation, as well as policy issues such as groundwater management. The formal lectures are supplemented by several guest speakers, who are professionals working in different areas of groundwater hydrology.

E412 Risk Communications (3 cr.)
Risk communication is the means by which technical information is communicated to others (the public included), especially in the context of making decisions about environmentally related policy (such as siting of a landfill). The course emphasizes both theory (in lectures) and practical experience through developing and acting in role-play scenarios.

E418 Vector-Based Geographic Information Systems (3 cr.)
Introduction to geographic information systems using vector data structure Vector GIS capabilities and uses. Data structure and file management of spatial data. Laboratory exercises using ARC/INFO software.

E419 Applied Remote Sensing of the Environment (3 cr.)
Applications of remotely sensed data and raster geographic information systems in environmental research. Concepts of remote sensing. Image acquisition from different sensors ranging from aerial photography to various types of satellite imagery. Image processing and analysis. Raster geographic information systems. Raster vector integration. Concepts of spatial analysis.

E431 Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316, CHEM C101 or equivalent; MATH Mll9 or equivalent. Health and ecological premises for water and wastewater treatment; principles of water supply; treatment, distribution, and construction; basis for water standards and laboratory examinations; wastewater disposal methods and construction for private installations, institutions, municipalities, and industries; water quality control with respect to wastewater pollution.

E440 Wetlands: Biology and Regulation (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; any biology course. This course trains students to evaluate wetlands to comply with federal, state, and local regulations. It examines the principles that inspired these regulations and assesses the consequences. It seeks to relate the breadth and strength of available scientific knowledge to public policy goals.

E441 Controversies in Environmental Health (3 cr.)
A skills course in a debate format. Skills are developed by researching, preparing arguments for, and debating topics related to environmental health and health of the environment. Clear writing skills are also emphasized, as the students write up debate evaluations which are critically graded for content, form and style.

E442 Habitat Analysis Terrestrial (3 cr.)
This is an experiential field methods course. Students work as teams collecting field data to test hypotheses about forest habitats. Students will learn new methods and field skills in local parks and forests, then prepare scientific reports that incorporate statistical analysis to be presented in a class symposium.

E443 Habitat Analysis Aquatic (3 cr.)
This is an experiential field methods course. Students work in teams, collecting field data to test hypotheses about aquatic habitats. Students will learn new methods and field skills in local creeks, lakes, and wetlands, then prepare scientific reports that incorporate statistical analysis to be presented in a class symposium.

E451 Air Pollution and Control (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; CHEM C101 or equivalent; MATH M119 or equivalent. Type, sources, and behavior of air contaminants economic, social, and health hazard aspect of air pollutants; principles of evaluation; indices of pollution and their worth; control measures, organization, and administration of community control programs.

E452 Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316. Types and sources of solid waste; collection methods; disposal techniques: sanitary landfill, incineration, composting, reclaiming or recycling; advantages and disadvantages of each; special and hazardous waste handling; operation and management of solid and hazardous waste programs.

E455 Limnology (4 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; CHEM C101 or equivalent. Limnology is the ecology of inland lakes and streams, combining the principles of biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to understand how they function. The effects of human perturbation on aquatic systems will be highlighted in both lectures and laboratory work to aid student understanding of the concepts involved.

E456 Lake and Watershed Management (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; CHEM C101 or equivalent. Students will learn to apply basic limnological principles to diagnose lake and watershed problems, to understand lake response to pollution, to identify appropriate management solutions, and to predict lake response to management.

E457 Introduction to Conservation Biology (3 cr.)
P: An ecology course. Ecological principles associated with rare species and with biodiversity, laws and statutes used to conserve biodiversity, and land and species management practices. The aim is to understand scientific and political complexities of conservation biology, and to study different methods used to conserve living resources and to resolve conflicts associated with conservation.

E460 Fisheries and Wildlife Management (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; any biology course. This course first reviews taxonomy, vertebrate biology, and population ecology, then introduces the student top variety of conflicts concerning fisheries and wildlife. Cases examine endangered species, over harvesting, maximum sustained yield, habitat evaluation, and recreational use.

E461 Fisheries and Wildlife Management Laboratory (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316; any biology course; and SPEA E460 (can be concurrent). Practical experience course in which students identify fish and wildlife in the field for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of and making recommendations for change to existing wildlife plans.

E465 Environmental Management in the Tropics (3 cr.)
Historical examination of land use in tropical, nonwestern cultures. Resource use in physical and cultural settings is explored through an interface with ecology, economics and policy analysis. Common principles of analysis are used to help the students understand the cultural and historical dimensions of how people relate to their environment.

E466 International and Comparative Environmental Policy (3 cr.)
This course explores how stakeholders manage environmental problems that extend beyond national borders. Key questions consider include the following: How do nations resolve environmental conflict? Is environmental diplomacy in a state of crisis? How can we improve international environmental management? Historical, contemporary, and emerging institutions for international environmental protection are examined.

E470 Elements of Fluid Mechanics (3 cr.)
P: E272 or H316; MATH M119 or equivalent. Introduction to fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics which relate to environmental science. Topics are selected from three disciplines. From hydraulics: hydrostatics, flow through pipes, and open channels. From water surface hydrology: water balances stream flow measurements, and calculations. From groundwater hydrology: Darcy's Law, flow nets, and pumping tests.

E475 Techniques of Environmental Science (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E272 or H316. Principles and methods of sampling, collection, measurement, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data concerning environmental science. Through lab demonstrations and field work, students will become familiar with instrumentation and analytical methods currently used in environmental analysis. Team instruction will be used to demonstrate techniques.

E476 Environmental Law and Regulation (3 cr.)
Introductory course in environmental law and regulation. Subjects covered include command and control regulation, air quality, water quality, toxics, waste management, energy, natural resources, international environmental law, and alternative dispute resolution.

E490 Directed Field Research in Environmental Science (1-4 cr.)
Individualized laboratory or field based research in any field of environmental science, under the direction of an advising professor. Students are expected to write a report on their research at the end of each semester. May be used to fulfill laboratory course requirement with the permission of the appropriate science department.

E491 Honors Research in Environmental Science (1-4 cr.)
Individualized laboratory or field-based honors research in any field of environmental science, under direction of an advising professor. Students are expected to write a report on their research at the end of each semester. May be used to fulfill laboratory course requirement with permission of the appropriate science department.

E510 Hazardous Materials Regulation (3 cr.)
The course provides an in-depth study of federal, state, and local regulations and requirements pertaining to the management of hazardous materials.

E512 Risk Communication (3 cr.)
Risk communication is the means by which technical information is communicated to others (the public included), especially in the context of making decisions about environmentally related policy, such as siting of a landfill. The course emphasizes both theory (in lectures and practical experience through developing and acting in role-play scenarios.

E515 Fundamentals of Air Pollution (3 cr.)
The purpose of the course is to provide the student with an understanding of the field of air pollution, including the behavior of the atmosphere and pollutants in the atmosphere, effects of air pollution, regulatory programs, engineering controls, and air quality management programs.

E518 Vecor-based Geographic Information Systems (3 cr.)
Geographic information systems using vector data structure. Vector GIs capabilities and uses. Data structure and file management of spatial data. Laboratory exercises using ARC/INFO software.

E519 Applied Remote Sensing of the Environment (3 cr.)
Applications of remotely sensed data and raster geographic information systems in environmental research. Concepts of remote sensing. Image acquisition from different sensors ranging from aerial photography to various types of satellite imagery. Image processing analysis. Raster geographic information systems. Raster vector integration. Concepts of spatial analysis.

E520 Environmental Toxicology (3 cr.)
An examination of the principles of toxicology and the toxicity resulting from environmental exposure to chemical substances.

E526 Applied Mathematics for Environmental Science (2-3 cr.)
P: differential and integral calculus. Applications of mathematics to modeling environmental processes. Applied calculus, numerical analysis, differential equations.

E527 Applied Ecology (3 cr.)
P: One introductory level ecology course. Ecosystem concepts in natural resource management. Techniques of ecosystem analysis. Principles and practices of ecological natural resource management.

E528 Forest Ecology and Management (3 cr.)
P or C: E538 or V506. Field and laboratory exercises in quantitative analysis of forest ecosystems. Sampling and data collection methodologies. Data analysis and interpretation. Concepts in forest ecology and forest management.

E529 Application of Geographic Information Systems (3 cr.)
Conceptual and technical overview of geographic information systems (GIs). Applications in various fields of public affairs and environmental science.

E533 Environmental Management Systems: ISO 14001 Based (3 cr.)
This course provides students with the knowledge and skills to establish or improve an environmental management system that is compatible with ISO (International Organizations for Standardization) 14001, an international, voluntary standard that is emerging as a best-management practice for environment.

E535 International Environmental Policy (3 cr.)
This course examines the forces in society alternately promoting and impeding cooperation in the environmental realm. Our inquiry is guided by four, interrelated course units: (1) international environmental law; (2) international political order; (3) the environmental and global markets; and (4) sustainable development.

E536 Environmental Chemistry (3 cr.)
P: One course in Chemistry with lab. Gas law calculations, stoichiometry, steady and nonsteady state box models, stratospheric ozone, chemical kinetics, photochemical smog, greenhouse effect, CO2 equilibria, chemodynamics, pesticides, and toxic metals.

E537 Environmental Chemistry Laboratory (3 cr.)
P or C: E536 or consent of instructor. Experimental work in environmental chemical analysis to demonstrate analytical methods and instrumentation used in environmental laboratories, having reference to air, water, and soil quality.

E538 Statistics for Environmental Science (3 cr.)
P: Calculus, introductory statistics. Data analysis and statistics for environmental research and policy making. Logic and illogic hypothesis testing with emphasis on power. Sampling and design of experiments. Group comparisons, analysis of variance, regression.

E539 Aquatic Chemistry (3 cr.)
The distribution and cycling of chemical components in natural and engineered systems. Emphasis is on practical aspects of aquatic chemistry. Graphical and computational methods, as well as chemical equilibrium modeling, will be used to solve applied problems in water chemistry.

E541 Controversies in Environmental Health (3 cr.)
Research, presentation, writing, and argumentation skills will be developed using a debate format. The course focuses on topics related to environmental health and the health of the environment.

E542 Hazardous Materials Control (3 cr.)
Topics of discussion include properties and chemistry of hazardous materials; recognition of potential hazards associated with the use, storage, and transport of these materials; emergency and spill response; health effects of hazardous materials; hazard communication and personal protection; and case studies related to the management of hazardous materials.

E544 Subsurface Microbiology and Bioremediation (3 cr.)
P: BIOL M310 or BIOL M350; CHEM C126. This course explores how microorganisms and microbial processes affect the degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants in the subsurface. Topics include measurements of subsurface microbial activity, thermodynamics and biochemistry of degradation processes, degradation kinetics, and the control and enhancement of these processes in environmental matrices.

E545 Lake and Watershed Management (3 cr.)
Students will learn to apply basic limnological principles to diagnose lake and watershed problems, to understand lake response to pollution, to identify appropriate management solutions, and to predict lake response to management.

E546 Stream Ecology (3 cr.)
P: SPEA E455. Advanced limnology course that explores patterns and processes characterizing stream ecosystems. Takes a holistic approach that includes: physical, chemical and biological stream characteristics; watershed patterns; and stream processes (trophic dynamics, colonization and dispersal, community dynamics, and responses to change). A four-hour weekly lab and group project develop necessary analytical skills.

E547 Applied Earth Science (3 cr.)
Principles of the earth sciences and their applications to environmental analysis and management. Identification, quantification, and analysis of critical components of watershed systems. Interaction of human activities with the physical environment.

E548 Applied Earth Science Laboratory (3 cr.)
Principles and methods of sampling, collection, measurement, analysis, and interpretation of data concerning processes and features of the physical environment. Students will become familiar with field and laboratory equipment within the context of research projects. Emphasis is placed on practical application of basic techniques to real problems.

E549 Environmental Planning (3 cr.)
Concepts and methodologies in environmental planning. The planning process. Topics may include environmental impact assessment, economic approaches to environmental decision making, use of computer models in environmental planning, geographic information systems in environmental planning, environmental perception, and construction of environmental indices. Team projects with planning agencies.

E552 Environmental Engineering (3 cr.)
Concerned with biological, chemical, physical, and engineering knowledge essential to the achievement of environmental quality objectives. Theory and design of unit operations and processes for air, water, and land pollution abatement. Emphasis on water quality control, industrial waste water treatment, and solid waste management.

E553 Creation and Solution of Environmental Models (3 cr.)
Description of the environmental system in terms of steady state and nonsteady state material and energy balances. Formulation of the balances as differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions, solution techniques.

E554 Groundwater Flow Modeling (3 cr.)
Fundamentals of groundwater flow modeling demonstrated through exercises in one-dimensional and radial flow. Two-dimensional flow is treated by use of a semianalytic approach. Alternative modeling techniques, such as finite elements and finite differences, are discussed. Streamline tracing is discussed to study spreading of contaminants.

E555 Topics in Environmental Science (23 cr.)
Selected research and discussion topics in environmental science. Usually organized in a seminar format.

E557 Conservation Biology (3 cr.)
P: An ecology course. Ecological principles associated with rare species and with biodiversity, laws and statutes used to conserve biodiversity, and land and species management practices. Our aim is to understand scientific and political complexities of conservation biology, and to study different methods used to conserve living resources and resolve conflicts associated with conservation.

E560 Environmental Risk Analysis (3 cr.)
P: E538 or V506, or consent of instructor. Methods of probabilistic risk analysis applied to environmental situations. Event trees, fault trees, toxicological estimation, ecological risk analysis. Social and psychological aspects of risk. Individual and group projects assessing some real environmental risk are an important part.

E562 Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (3 cr.)
The purpose of this course is to provide the student with a technical foundation in the areas of solid and hazardous waste management that can be applied to the examination of policy options. Topics include characterization of the waste stream, regulations, health and environmental risks, liability issues, management technologies, and treatment and disposal options.

E570 Soil Mechanics and Science (3 cr.)
A multidisciplinary approach to soils. Discussions on the properties and mechanics of soils are given from the perspective of the engineer, the agronomist, and the geologist. Topics include physical and chemical properties, soil nutrients, stress analysis, slope failure, and soil erosion.

E579 Readings in Environmental Science (1-3 cr.)
Readings on selected topics in environmental science to be arranged with the individual instructor.

E589 Practicum in Environmental Science (1-6 cr.)
Professional experience in environmental science with public agencies or private sector firms or organizations. Usually arranged through the Placement and Internship Office.

E620 Environmental Analysis Workshop (3 cr.)
Projects in environmental analysis.

E625 Research in Environmental Science (1-12 cr.)
Research on selected topics in environmental science to be arranged wit the individual instructor.

E680 Seminar in Environmental Science and Policy (1 cr.)
A seminar series on current topics in environmental science and policy. This course can be repeated for credit for a maximum of 8 credit hours.

E710 Advanced Topics in Environmental Science (1-3 cr.)
For advanced students. Topics will vary and will cover subjects not available in other courses. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credit hours.

E890 Ph.D. Thesis: Environmental Science (cr. arr.)
(S/F option available)

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RELIGIOUS STUDIES

R170 Religion, Ethics and Public Life (3 cr.) AHTI
Western religious convictions and their consequences for judgments about personal and social morality, including such issues as sexual morality, medical ethics, questions of socioeconomic organization, and moral judgments about warfare. Often contains a course component dealing with Environmental Ethics.

R236 Religion, Ecology, and the Self (3 cr.)
Deep Ecology seeks fundamental transformations in views of world and self. It claims that there is no ontological divide in the forms of life, and aims for an environmentally sustainable and spiritually rich way of life. This course is an introductory examination of Deep Ecology from a religious studies perspective.

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SOCIOLOGY

S101 Social Problems & Policies (3 cr.) (Leah Van Wey)
Topic: Population and the Environment. This course serves three purposes. First, as an introductory-level sociology class, it will introduce you to some of the ways sociologists view the world. In particular, we will consider the importance of social structure in understanding the relationship between population change and environmental change. Second, this course will serve as a partial introduction to the field of population studies (or demography). Population studies is an interdisciplinary field, including sociologists, anthropologists, economists, geographers, public health researchers, and others. Demographers also have a particular way of viewing the world, and this view will inform this course. Third, this course will introduce you to the specific field of population and environment. We will cover basic theories and findings from this field. In addition, we will read about and discuss the public policy discussions that have come out of the population and environment field.

S305 Population(3 cr.) SHSI
P: 3 credit hours of sociology or consent of instructor. Population composition, fertility, mortality, natural increase, migration; historical growth and change of populations; population theories and policies; techniques in manipulation and use of population data; and the spatial organization of populations.