Effects Devices (Reverb, Delays, etc.)
- I can't remember how to send a signal to an
- Find the Effects (Aux) Send number of
your device in the studio patchbook (Aux
Send #1, 2, 3, etc.). Some mixers label
them as Effects Sends, Aux Sends, Echo
Sends, or Foldback.
- On the INPUT CHANNELS you wish to send
signal from, turn up the Effects (Aux)
Send sub-master about half-way for
starters. On some boards, 12 O'Clock is
off, turning to the left is pre-fader, to
the right is post-fader (seeMixing Console Basics).
- Find the EFFECTS (AUX) SEND Masters,
usually a group of knobs on the right
side of the mixing console. Turn the
Master for your device up, again about
half-way for starters.
- Turn up faders for Effects Device return
to the board. Some studios use the
Effects Returns, some, like the CECM
studios, use additional board INPUT
CHANNELS. Find them in the Patchbook.
- Turn INPUT knob on Effects Device up
about half-way and select desired effect.
- Send some signal to the board channels
and listen for your effect. If you hear
nothing, or not the desired effect from
the effects device, procede below.
- No sound from effects device.
- Is it getting signal? Check the meter on
the front of the effects device--it
should be registering some signal. If
not, double-check the INPUT CHANNEL send
and the EFFECTS (AUX) SEND MASTER. Make
sure neither is muted.
- Check the Effect. On some models, the
RECALL button must be pressed before an
Effect takes effect (so to speak). Some
effects may be very subtle and not
- I get a painful sqeal out of the speakers when I
turn up the Effects Return faders.
- Chances are you have created a feedback
loop. Make certain the Effects (Aux) Send
sub-masters for a particular device are
TURNED DOWN on the Effects Return INPUT
CHANNELS. Otherwise you are rerouting any
returning signal back into the device. A
little deliberate feedback is OK for
enhancing delays and pitch shifts with
delay, but will produce painful results
with reverb. Most effects devices now
come with ample feedback parameters
- If you have a live mike in the room being
routed to the studio monitor speakers,
you may have given the signal a new path
to feedback from through the effects
device. Turn down the studio monitor
level (usually the CR knob on the mixer).
- I hear a great deal of hiss from the effects
- Effects are very sensitive to level. Some
are also very noisy. Chances are, you
need to send more signal to the device so
the Effects Returns can be lowered.
Increase either the sub-master on the
channels, the Effects Send Masters, or
the Inpu t know on the device itself
until the peaks of your sound just hit
the red of the Effects Device Input
- I hear a great deal of distortion from the Effect
- Again, effect's Input Levels are very
sensitive. Try turning down the amount of
signal from the input channel sends, the
Effects Send Master, or the Effects
device itself. You may just need to
readjust all three, in case you are
overloading one particular stage.
- I can't remember how to send the return from one
effects device into another effects device.
- You can route any returning effect into
another device for a second effect simply
by turning up the Effects (Aux) Send knob
corresponding to the second device on the
Input Channel of the first device. For
example, if I had an SPX90 on Aux Send 1,
and a Lexicon PCM70 on Aux Send 2 I would
turn up the Aux Send 2 knobs on the SPX
90 return channels to send my SPX return
to the Lexicon. Again, I would check that
both Aux Send Masters were up as well.
This can get rather convoluted, since you
can th en take the Lexicon return and
send it back to the SPX by turn Aux Send
1 up on the Lexicon return channels. This
works best with time-shifted (i.e.
This document prepared
by Prof. Jeffrey Hass, Indiana University School of
Music, Center for Electronic and Computer Music, last
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