© 1999 ENSI (Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes) www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb
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CLASSROOM CLADOGRAM OF
VERTEBRATE/HUMAN EVOLUTION

KEY: TEAM ASSIGNMENTS & ASSOCIATED TRAITS
One animal group assigned per team.

 NAME OF GROUP 1
Cephalochordates:
Extinct:
Pikaia sp.?
Today:
Amphioxus: Branchiostoma sp.

 FIRST APPEARED:
530 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("BLUE")
head end, tail
notochord
myotomes (muscle bundles)
dorsal nerve cord
gill basket, with "gill slits"

 NAME OF GROUP 2
Agnatha (jawless fishes)
Extinct:
Heterostracans (e.g. Pteraspis)
Today: typical Cyclostomes:
lampreys and hagfishes
 FIRST APPEARED:
500 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("YELLOW")
dermal (skin) bones
skull
paired lateral eyes
pineal ("third") eye
lung

 NAME OF GROUP 3
Gnathostomes (jawed fishes)
Extinct:
Acanthodians: Climatius
Paleoniscoids: Cheirolepis
Today (typical):
salmon, perch, trout, goldfish, etc.
 FIRST APPEARED:
430 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("GREEN")
jaws
teeth
internal skeleton
gill arches
paired appendages

 NAME OF GROUP 4
Crossopterygians (lobe-finned fishes)
Extinct:
Osteolepis
Eusthenopteron

Today: Coelacanth (Latimeria)
 FIRST APPEARED:
400 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("ORANGE")
paired front and hind limbs with
internal bones

 NAME OF GROUP 5
Amphibians
Extinct:
Acanthostega
Ichthyostega

Anthracosaurs (e.g. Seymouria)
Today (typical): salamanders, frogs
 FIRST APPEARED:
360 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("PURPLE")
walking legs
shoulder and pelvic girdles
five fingers and toes
neck

 NAME OF GROUP 6
Reptiles
Extinct (cotylosaurs):
Hylonomus
Paleothyris

Today (typical):
lizards, crocodiles, tortoises, birds
FIRST APPEARED:
300 mya 
 GROUP TRAITS ("RED")
tooth differentiation
embryonic membranes (amnion, etc.)

 NAME OF GROUP 7
Mammal-like Reptiles (Synapsids)
Extinct:
Therapsids (e.g. Cynognathus)
Pelycosaurs (e.g. Dimetrodon)
FIRST APPEARED:
250 mya 
 GROUP TRAITS ("BROWN")
incisor-canine-cheek teeth sequence
legs under body
body temperature regulation

 NAME OF GROUP 8
Mammals:
Extinct:
Sinoconodon
Kuehneotherium

Today (typical):
cats, dogs, bears, cows, horses, etc.
FIRST APPEARED:
200 mya 
 GROUP TRAITS ("BLACK")
complete bony palate
cheek teeth crowned
teeth replaced only once
molars double-rooted
three ear bones
lumbar region rib-frree
double occipital condyle

 NAME OF GROUP 9
Primates:
Extinct:
Plesiadapids (e.g. Palaechthon)
Cantius
Today: typical Prosimians:
tree shrews, lemurs
 FIRST APPEARED:
65 mya
 GROUP TRAITS ("WHITE")
grasping hands
collar bone
closed eye socket
nails (fingers and toes)
eyes in front
muzzle reduction

 NAME OF GROUP 10
Hominoids ("Pre-Apes"):
Extinct:
Aegyptopithecus
Proconsul

Today: Apes:
chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans
FIRST APPEARED:
30 mya 
 GROUP TRAITS ("TAN")
2123 dental formula (upper and lower)
no tail

 NAME OF GROUP 11
Hominins (formerly "Hominids")
Extinct:
Australopithecus spp.
Homo habilis, H. erectus, et al
Today: Home sapiens
FIRST APPEARED:
4 mya 
 GROUP TRAITS ("OLIVE")
small canine teeth
long arms
simple tool making, butchering
precision grip
bipedal (erect posture)
foramen magnum more forward

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