© 1999 ENSI (Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes) www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb
This material may be copied only for noncommercial classroom teaching purposes, and only if this source is clearly cited.
CLASSROOM CLADOGRAM OF
VERTEBRATE/HUMAN EVOLUTION

ILLUSTRATION RESOURCES
Pictures for Big Cladogram of Vertebrate Evolution

The letters A-H below are used to reference the sources for the illustrations, 1-11
Click on links (in blue); To return to this page, click on "Back" button of your browser.

A. Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. Wonderful Life. Norton & Co. pp. 321-323
B. Moorehead, Alan. 1969. Darwin and the Beagle. Harper & Row
C. Schmalhausen, L.L. 1968. The Origin of Terrestrial Vertebrates. Academic Press
D. Stahl, Barbara J. 1974. Vertebrate History: Problems in Evolution. McGraw-Hill
E. Strahler, Arthur N. 1987. Science and Earth History..The Evolution/Creation Controversy. Prometheus
F. Strickberger, Monroe W. 1990. Evolution. Jones & Bartlett
G. Time-Life Books. The Emergence of Man - The First Men. 1973. Time Inc. Pp. 12-13
H. Johnson, Elden, & E. Hatcher. Manual for Introductory Anthropology. 1965. Burgess. p. 15
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1a. Pikaia - A. page 322; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.pikaia.html

1b. Amphioxus (Branchiostoma)
- E. page 405, fig. 42.3; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.amphio.html

2a. Agnatha (jawless fishes): Heterostracan (Pteraspis); Coelolepid (Phlebolepis)
- F. page 325, fig. 16-7 a,b; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.agnath.html

2b. Cyclostomes: Lamprey (Petromyzon); Hagfish (Bdellostoma)
- F. page 325, fig. 16-7 e,f; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.cyclo.html

3a. Gnathostomes (jawed fishes): Climatius sp.
- F. page 327, fig. 16-8; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.climat.html

3b. Modern jawed fish (Sea Perch): B. page 253; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.perch.html

4a. Crossopterygian (lobe-fin fishes): Eusthenopteron sp.
- E. page 409, fig. 43.2 A; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.cross.html

4b. Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae)
- F. page 47, fig. 3-14 b; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.coel.html

5a. Amphibian: Ichthyostega
- C. page 61, fig. 35; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.ichthy.html

5b. Salamander (Ranodon sibiricus)
- C. page 262, fig. 156; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.salam.html

6a. Reptiles (Cotylosaurs): Captorhinus sp.; Hylonomus sp.
- E. page 420, fig. 43.13 A F. page 339, fig. 17-7 c
- Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.cotylo.html

6b. Modern reptile: Galapagos Land Iguana (Amblyrhynchus demarlii)
- B. page 194; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.iguana.html

6c. Birds: Archaeopteryx and Pigeon
- E. page 425, fig. 44.3; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.birds.html

7a1. Synapsid: Pelycosaur (Dimetrodon sp.): - Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.dimet.html
- D. page 298, fig. 7.20 b Skull: E, page 420, fig. 43.13 C

7a2. Synapsid: Therapsid (Cynognathus sp.): - Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.cyno.html
- D. page 302, fig. 7.21 b Skull: E. page 420, fig. 431.13 D

8a. Early Mammals: Sinoconodon sp.; Megazostrodon sp:
- E. page 420, fig. 43.13 F F. page 369, fig. 18-4
- Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.sinoc.html

8b. Mod. Mammal: Dog (from web source: http://www.geocities.com/~kidsanddogs/skeleton2.html)
- Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.dog.html

9a. Early Primate: Plesiadapid (Palaechthon sp.)
- F. page 388, fig. 19-4 b; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.palaec.html

9b. Modern Prosimians: Ring-Tailed Lemur, Tarsier, Gray Loris
- D. page 472, fig. 9.31; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.prosim.html

10a. Early Hominids ("Pre-Apes"): Proconsul sp., Aegyptopithecus sp.
- F. page 388, fig. 19-4 d,e; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.aegypt.html

10b. Modern Apes (all 4): F. page 387, fig. 19-2; - Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.apes.html

11 Hominids (A. africanus, H. erectus, H. sapiens, side views); +Gorilla skeleton for comparison
- G. pages 12-13; H. page 15; Onsite: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/c.homin.html

Web Sources for Useful Cladogram Illustrations:

1a Pikaia: http://ibis.nott.ac.uk/~plzkjc/pikaia.html

1b Amphioxus: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chordata/cephalo.html

2a Pteraspis: http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/courses/EEB182/Lecture11/lect11.html

2b Lampreys: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/basalfish/petro.html

2b Hagfishes: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/basalfish/myxini.html

3a Climatius: http://ibis.nott.ac.uk/~plzkjc/acanth.html

4a Crossopt. Eusthenopteron(2): http://nettl.usyd.edu.au/bio2animals/images/sem2/wk8/064.JPG

4a Crossopt. Eusthenopteron painting: http://nettl.usyd.edu.au/bio2animals/images/sem2/wk8/368.jpg

4a Crossopt. Stepsodus: http://www.sghms.ac.uk/depts/anatomy/webpages/andrews.jpg

4b Coelacanth: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/coelacanth/coelacanths.html

4b Lungfish: http://www.museum.siu.edu/Lincoln_Middle/Transition%20From%20Sea%20To%20Land

5a Ichthyostega(2): http://nettl.usyd.edu.au/bio2animals/images/sem2/wk8/065.JPG

5a Ichthyostega: http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/ENTO/tree/eukaryotes/animals/chordata/ichthyostega/ichthyostega.html

6a Captorhinus photos: http://www.island.net/~jackwhit/reptiles.htm

7a2 Dimetrodon: http://www.amnh.org/Exhibition/Expedition/Fossils/Specimens/dimetrodon.html

7a2 Dimetrodon: http://www.prehistory.com/dimetrod.htm

7a1 Cynognathus: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/1636/synapsida/therapsida.html

8b Dog Skeleton (line drawing): http://www.geocities.com/~kidsanddogs/skeleton2.html

8b Cat Skeleton: http://courses.ncsu.edu:8020/classes/zo370001/AppenMus/TextImages/Catskelcp.htm

10a Aegyptopithecus: http://erasmus.biol.csufresno.edu/he/25-36.html

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