SCIENCE AS WAY OF KNOWING
The Foundations of Modern Biology
by JOHN A. MOORE
by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1993
ISBN 0-674-79480-X

Deduction 1: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, the species that lived in the remote past must be different from the species alive today.

Deduction 2: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, the older the sedimentary strata, the less the chance of finding fossils of contemporary species.

Deduction 3: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, then we would expect to find only the simplest organisms in the very oldest strata and the more complex ones in more recent strata.

Deductlon 4: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, it must be possible to demonstrate the slow change of one species into another.

Deduction 5: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, which assumes that all of today's species are the descendants of a few original forms, there should have been connecting forms between the major groups (phyla, classes, orders).

Deduction 6: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, the age of the earth must be very great, possibly millions of years old.

Deduction 7: There must be variation among organisms if the hypothesis of evolution is true.

Deduction 8: Natural selection can be operative only if more offspring are born than survive.

Deduction 9: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, there must be differences between the offspring that survive and reproduce and those that do not.

Deduction 10: If the hypothesis of evolution is true, only those variations that are inherited will be important.

Deduction 11: If the members of a taxonomic unit, such as the phylum chordata, share a common ancestry, that fact should be reflected in their structure.

Deduction 12: If the members of a taxonomic unit share a common ancestry, that fact should be reflected in their embryonic development.

Deduction 13: If evolutionary divergence is the basis of organic diversity, that fact should be reflected in the system of classification.

Deduction 14: If there is a unity of life based on descent from a common ancestor, this should be reflected in the structure of cells.

Deduction 15: If there is a unity of life based on evolution, that fact should be reflected in the molecular processes of organisms.

Give and evaluate evidence for the following deduction:

"Deduction 16: If the idea (hypothesis) of evolution is to be established as true, we must be able to obtain information on organisms that lived in the past."

 Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes (ENSI/SENSI) Lesson

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