New Text Supplement
Teaching the Nature of Science
Reflecting the ENSI Approach

Science Surprises:
Exploring the Nature of Science


e-Text Supplement for
Secondary Science Students

This unique text supplement is available as an eBook at Smashwords (see below). If you're looking for a unit to effectively teach the nature of science (NOS), with lessons for practicing scientific argumentation, critical and skeptical thinking, THIS IS IT! And this is for students to use (8th grade reading level), along with doing ENSI NOS lessons.

Meet The Author in Podcast
NSTA-Sponsored "Lab Out Loud" Nov. 17, 2014
Background and Focus of Science Surprises

This new 80-page text supplement (in 5 short chapters) is intended for students in any science class, grades 7-10. The 2015 version available online now is basically the 2014 version that has been greatly revised and improved in several areas. If you used the 2014 version, you should get the latest 2015 version, and read the "What's New in This Edition?" to see just what has changed. Corresponding changes are also included in the latest teaching guide, TEACH..

Science Surprises can replace (or supplement) the usual Ch.1 in any secondary science textbook with an updated and more accurate treatment of how science works, what it can and cannot do, and why science is so effective for increasing our understanding of the natural world. The book particularly addresses the many misconceptions about NOS, e.g., the myth of the "Scientific Method." [Read the short passage about this being a myth, from the Framework for K-12 Science Education, p. 78 (NRC 2012)].It also satisfies virtually ALL of the new NOS standards (in NGSS and Common Core).

Many teachers just assume that students will “absorb” NOS by “osmosis” while doing inquiry- or hands-on investigations - but current research shows that very little, if anything about NOS, is learned and retained that way. In fact, the research tells us clearly that NOS must be taught and experienced explicitly, like any other basic subject content in science [see research paper summary on this]. It must be explicit, and integrated throughout your course if you expect the concepts to be understood and retained. Most of the science illiteracy in our country stems from massive misunderstanding about the culture and processes of science: the nature of science.

The NGSS contains many Learning Objectives for NOS, but you might miss them.  You can find them in the NGSS APPENDIX H*, which includes a two-page matrix of those NOS Learning Objectives (LOs) by grade band and by the 8 Basic Understandings (Categories or Themes) selected for NOS. There are 26 LOs for middle school science, and 32 LOs for high school science. Most are not listed on the main Standards pages. Therefore, be sure to read all of Appendix H, then, as you look over those many LOs, jot down ideas about when and where you think each LO would fit best in your curriculum. Then select appropriate NOS lessons from the ENSI site to insert into your curriculum for explicit instruction. OR, get Science Surprises, which does all of that for you.

Science Surprises is designed to be tightly integrated with several of the free student-centered, interactive NOS lessons on the ENSI site. Teaching strategies are based on research pointing to those that are most effective, e.g., the 5-E Learning Cycle approach, student interactive discussion, teaching NOS explicitly, and effectively debunking misconceptions.

Pre-publication versions of Science Surprises have been peer-reviewed, and field-tested with about 760 students (by 4 middle school and 4 high school science teachers across the country and in urban, suburban and rural schools). Positive results of that testing have been applied to the current published version. Every paragraph of the text is adjusted to 8th grade reading level. With some selective scaffolding and adaptations, this unit could be effectively used in any secondary science course, grades 6-12.


There is also a comprehensive 130 page guidebook (TEACH) to help you do this most effectively. You can get TEACH from author (and ENSI webmaster) Larry Flammer. It was free for several months in 2014, but now a greatly updated version is for sale as an eBook. To get it, send an e-mail message using your school e-mail address. Give your name, subjects and grade level in which you want to use the material, the name and address of your school (including city and state), and the school phone number. This is a" For Teachers Only" book, priced rather high online to discourage students, but available to documented teachers at only 16% of the posted price if they request the discount Coupon Code from the author, providing the above information. When you get the Coupon Code, you should order the PDF version (primarily for use on laptop or desktop computers) as there are a number of 8.5x11 pages you will want to copy directly as master sheets for running off handouts for students. If you also want a version (or a portion) in Word (.doc or .docx) for easier modifying of certain items, just send the Coupon Code you got to the author requesting same. No extra charge. Be sure to specify which section(s) or page(s) you want, and in which format (.doc or .docx).

BY THE WAY...When you do this, please tell me where you first heard of Science Surprises.

The TEACH guidebook includes worksheets, additional activities and information, suggested unit schedules, how new science standards are met, assessment materials, and many useful strategies to effectively implement the Science Surprises NOS materials. If you don't have the time to do the complete book in your introductory unit, just do the first 2-3 chapters, and insert the remaining chapters later in your course (preferably before dealing with any topic that might be considered “controversial,” e.g., climate change or evolution).

If you like what you see in the Science Surprises materials, please pass the word along to your colleagues and science teacher organizations that might be interested in using the materials. Share it at conferences and workshops. Contact the author for handout materials to distribute at such occasions.


NSTA Recommends 
To read the NSTA review, go to (May need to be member of NSTA)
Enter For Title: Science Surprises
Enter For Author: Lawrence Flammer

I have already started using Chapter One! I have been a fan of ENSI for years! I have been working with Achieve since 2011 as a Lead State Reviewer (IL) for NGSS and many of the ENSI lessons are a natural fit. Once again, thanks!
Teacher Norm D. 8/27/2014 High School, IL

I have recently downloaded your Science Surprises, via smashwords. I will have five students in Science this year (4 in grade 7 and 1 in grade 8), and your book, combined with the ENSI resources will get us off to a fabulous start. Your writing style is down-to-earth, engaging, and informative. Fantastic stuff!
Teacher Maggie K. 8/13/2014 Middle School, Ohio

See more Reviews at <> (scroll to Reviews).

When you have some time to sample Science Surprises, especially after you use it with your classes, please let the author know what you think. In fact, it would be very much appreciated if you would write a brief review of the book (and the unit), and post it as a REVIEW on the Smashwords site (or other venues). If you have any constructive suggestions (e.g., corrections, changes or additions), please let the author know directly by email. A nice feature about e-Books is that they can be modified and new editions uploaded easily.

The Science Surprises student eBook is currently available for $3.99 from Smashwords (see below). Suggestions for how to make this eBook available to your students, in your classroom and at their homes, are in the TEACH guidebook (see TEACH section 1). The author can arrange to provide a group discount “Coupon Code” for all of your students so it would only cost them (or your school budget) $0.99 each.

If you prefer a printed version of Science Surprises, contact the author. Costs of printing and shipping are prohibitive, so we have a digital version for printing (with page numbers). With it, you can print it yourself, have your district print it, or have it commercially printed, any of which would probably be much cheaper than shipping you commercially printed copies.

These Science Surprises (SS) materials were developed by the ENSI/SENSI webmaster to facilitate the efficient and effective classroom use of ENSI/SENSI NOS lessons. They were co-published by the author and his publishing company, ENSIWEB, LLC, and the e-Books are distributed by Smashwords. Those SS materials coordinate and enhance the effective presentation of selected NOS lessons, following research-supported pedagogy. They clarify and reinforce the concepts introduced by those NOS lessons on the ENSI/SENSI website. They show how using the SS materials with selected lessons meet all the new science standards (NGSS) for the NOS concepts. Information for obtaining those SS materials is provided on the ENSI/SENSI website as a convenience for educators to obtain and try them in their classrooms.

ENSIWEB, LLC is not affiliated with Indiana University, its faculty, its servers or the ENSI/SENSI website: <>. Science Surprises: Exploring the Nature of Science (as an eBook and a printed book) and TEACH (the Science Surprises Teaching Guide) are not required for freely using the nature of science (NOS) lessons on the ENSI/SENSI website.


You can sample and/or purchase the student eBook at
The eBook is available for download in the following formats:
EPUB: to your desktop/laptop computer, iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch.
(You may need to download the free Adobe Digital Editions, for desktop and laptop computers, to read this eBook).

For Android devices, download Aldiko, a free reading app.

(for Kindle). You may need to download Kindle for PC (reads .mobi), Kindle for Mac (reads .mobi) or the popular FBReader (reads .epub, .txt, .mobi and multiple other formats). IF these don't work, download the PDF version.

and RTF formats should be directly readable on your desktop or laptop computer, or tablet

format can be read via your Web browser on your PC or tablet.

Smashword eBooks are also readable in Barnes & Noble's Nook.

Let the author know if you have any problems downloading the entire book, or accessing the sampling of Science Surprises. For the sample, you should be able to read most of the first chapter.

For the teaching guide TEACH, send your requested teaching information to the author to get the discount coupon so you can order the eBook from

Click here for a review of Douglas Allchin’s book: Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives & Resources. These materials nicely extend the Science Surprises NOS focus (or theme) throughout your course. Allchin explains and provides examples and resources for using authentic science historical narratives to effectively engage students. Strategies are easily applicable throughout your course.

All of the ENSI lessons are designed to engage students with active learning. iBiology tutorials (free online) will help you to learn this most effective teaching skill. So, click here for these excellent interactive tutorial video clips for teaching with student-centered interactive materials. For example, the tips and strategies for using Think-Pair-Share (TPS) are helpfully demonstrated.