The PBIS Indiana Resource Center was a statewide network of Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports that infused culturally responsive practice into the evidence-based PBIS framework.
This center worked with emerging model sites and school districts addressing issues of disproportionality, as well as provided on-site and web-based professional development opportunities throughout the state.
School Disciplinary Climate & Educational Outcomes for African American Students
The over-representation of African American students in suspension and expulsion has serious ramifications for academic achievement and youth development. This was the second phase of an investigation that explored 1) How setting variables contribute to school exclusion and racial disparities in discipline, and 2) How school disciplinary climates predict key outcomes for African American students. Intensive case studies of schools varying in racial disproportionality in discipline and achievement outcomes explored how school discipline climates contributed to racial disproportionality in discipline and achievement outcomes. Follow-up quantitative analyses further explored the relationship between school disciplinary practices and academic outcomes, especially for African American students. The rich database generated by this study provided a deeper understanding of this important issue and ensured culturally valid and practical recommendations for improving practice.
Skiba, R., Chung, C. G., Trachok, M., Baker, T.L., Sheya A., & Hughs R.L. (2014). Parsing Disciplinary Disproportionality: Contributions of Infraction, Student, and School Characteristics to Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion. American Educational Research Journal, 51(4), 640-670.
Safe and Responsive Schools
The Safe and Responsive Schools Framework is an approach to improve the behavior of students at school, and to prevent school violence. It is a structure that permits schools to engage in actions or strategies addressing three levels.
- Creating a Positive Climate
- Early Identification and Intervention
- Effective Responses
School teams can use these three levels to assess current programs and activities in a school, to identify promising practices and programs that might be considered to supplement existing programs, and to prioritize actions needed.
See featured articles on this topic from our websites:
- Skiba, R.J., Ritter, S., Simmons, A.B., Peterson, R., & Miller, C. (2006). The Safe and Responsive Schools Project: A school reform model for implementing best practices in violence prevention. In S.R. Jimerson & M.J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice(pp. 631-650). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Skiba, R.J., Simmons, A.B., Peterson, R., & Forde, S. (2006). The SRS safe schools survey: A broader perspective on school violence. In S.R. Jimerson & M.J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 157-170). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Skiba, R.J., Simmons, A.B., Peterson, R., McKelvey, J., Forde, S., & Gallini, S. (2004). Beyond guns, drugs and gangs: The structure of student perceptions of school safety. Journal of School Violence, 3, 149-171.
- Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review, 34(4), 317-342.
- Skiba, R. J., & Knesting, K. (2001). Zero tolerance, zero evidence: An analysis of school disciplinary practice. New directions for youth development, (92) Winter, 17-43.