L103 Discussion: Week 12

L103 Discussion, Week 12:
Review of compositionality
Semantic and syntactic roles

Compositionality and idiomaticity

What aspects of the meaning of these phrases are derivable just by composition? What aspects are not, and, if so, where do they come from?

  • pothead, email junkie, egghead, doo-doo head
  • redeye, pink eye, black eye, purple eye
  • dark alley, dark hair, dark room, darkroom

Semantic roles

  • Semantic roles as prototypes
    • Good AGENTs and bad AGENTs
    • Good PATIENTs and bad PATIENTs
    • PATIENT vs. EXPERIENCER
    • Combinations of roles: AGENT and EXPERIENCER, AGENT and PATIENT

Syntactic roles

  • Different languages' solutions to the problem of how to convey semantic roles
  • Subject and direct object as ways to refer to multiple roles
  • How syntactic roles are identified
    • Position (word order)
    • Case
    • Agreement on verb
  • Differences in how languages map semantic roles onto syntactic roles
    • DO_TO
    • EXPERIENCE
    • BE/HAPPEN

Transitive and intransitive sentences again

  • Accusative languages
  • Ergative languages