Indiana University Bloomington

David Bish

David Bish

Haydn Murray Chair of Applied Clay Mineralogy

Mineralogy

Office:   GY209
Phone:   812-855-2039
Email:   bish@indiana.edu

Educational Background

  • Postdoctoral fellow, 1977-1980, Harvard University
  • Ph.D., 1977, Pennsylvania State University
  • B.S., 1974, Furman University, High honors

Research Interests

I concentrate on the application of crystal chemical and crystal structural fundamentals to geological, materials, and environmental problems. Much of my recent work has focused on understanding the structures, properties, and origins of fine-grained minerals, such as clay minerals and natural zeolites, using a multidisciplinary approach. For example, in a recent study of kaolinite origin, I focused on an analysis of the degree of crystalline order present within samples using computer simulation of powder diffraction patterns, showing that kaolinite order varies greatly as a function of particle size (some samples showing the best order in the finest fractions). I later combined these studies with trace-element (REE) analyses as a function of size fraction to gain a more complete picture of kaolinite genesis (and also showing that the trace-element content of natural kaolins is attributable mostly to their trace mineral content). My recent studies of the surface properties of smectites were similar, including diffraction, spectroscopic, and surface chemistry analyses. Although fundamental in nature, these surface property studies are of great importance in understanding many applied aspects of smectite behavior, from their ability to swell osmotically, to uses in landfills, to predicting new uses of surface-modified smectites as organic adsorbents. Other applied mineralogical studies include my work on the behavior of fluorine in brick raw materials (clay minerals), the measurement of trace erionite in natural zeolite products, and a variety of studies on the importance of clay and zeolite minerals in radioactive waste applications.

My research often involves powder diffraction methods, including the Rietveld method, a powerful technique that facilitates extraction of a tremendous amount of quantitative information from diffraction patterns of solids. I have clarified the structures of a number of important fine-grained minerals using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction methods with spectroscopic techniques. For example, I recently elucidated the nature of the interaction of hydrazine, an environmental pollutant, with the mineral kaolinite using diffraction and spectroscopic methods. I have also been a pioneer in the development of the Rietveld quantitative analysis method. This method provides quantitative mineralogic information on fine-grained rocks, with precision comparable to that obtained in X-ray fluorescence analyses. Although I have concentrated on X-ray powder diffraction methods, I also routinely use neutron powder diffraction methods in my research. Neutron diffraction is uniquely suited to studies of hydrous minerals such as clays and zeolites. Unlike X-ray diffraction that is insensitive to H atoms, neutrons are strongly diffracted by H atoms, allowing determination of quantitative information on the conformation of H, particularly OH, in minerals. This is quite important because OH groups and water molecules determine much about a mineral’s behavior. For example, it is the conformation of interlayer H atoms in kaolinite (and in clay minerals in general) that determines the interlayer stacking and how strongly the layers are held together. I participate in the neutron diffraction community, and I understand that the IU Cyclotron Facility is proposing to build a university-based pulsed neutron source at IU. Such a facility would be quite valuable as both a research tool for the study of minerals and as an educational tool, to illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of materials studies.

I am also particularly interested in the study of minerals under controlled–T, –P(H2O) conditions. Such experiments routinely provide new insights into the structures and behavior of materials that analyses under room conditions do not provide. These experiments are particularly important in understanding and predicting applications of minerals under real-world conditions because many minerals are used under conditions quite distinct from typical laboratory conditions of T and
P(H2O). An example of these studies is my research on the thermal and sorptive behavior of minerals at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work included X-ray diffraction under non-ambient conditions and emphasized the effects of long-term heating of a variety of minerals, including clays and zeolites. I recently combined this research with thermodynamic modeling to provide insights into the coupled effects of temperature and water vapor pressure on mineral stability.

My experience in experimental studies of minerals under non-ambient conditions has recently been expanded to cover studies of potential martian hydrous minerals. This research initially concentrated on whether or not hydrous zeolites and clay minerals could exist on the martian surface in a hydrated state, thereby partially accounting for the water that has been observed heterogeneously distributed on the present-day martian surface. More recently, I have expanded this research to studies of hydrated salt minerals, including magnesium and iron sulfates. Both of these have either been implicated based on spectroscopic or chemical data or have actually been observed on the martian surface. The magnesium sulfates form a fantastic array of hydrated phases, some of which are undoubtedly stable in a hydrated state on the present-day martian surface. The iron sulfates also exist in a wide variety of hydration states and many different structures and our recent data show that they have very low thermal stabilities. Ongoing studies will assess whether or not they might be stable on the martian surface.

Courses Taught

  • G171, Environmental Geology
  • G221, Mineralogy
  • G427, X-ray Mineralogy
  • G601, Clay Mineralogy

Teaching Philosophy

My teaching philosophy combines traditional geology and mineralogy education with my experiences in the more-applied world of Los Alamos National Laboratory, where I worked for 23 years prior to coming to Indiana University. Thus, I feel it is important to provide students not only with the chemical and mineralogical foundations to geological systems, but also to give an appreciation for and experience with real-world problems involving their use. I am excited by both basic and advanced courses in mineralogy, with a focus on fine-grained minerals such as clays and zeolites and on rock-forming minerals. I also find applied courses such as environmental mineralogy, industrial mineralogy, and extraterrestrial mineralogy to be ideal avenues for putting the fundamental chemical and mineralogical foundations to work. In all of my courses I try to consider what I found to be important throughout my career at Los Alamos and, in this way, my teaching is tempered by my real-world (if one can call Los Alamos National Laboratory “real world”) experiences. I will periodically teach advanced courses related to my fields of interest, including X-ray crystallography, powder diffraction, spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

Recent Research Projects

  • Development of a miniaturized X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument for planetary exploration (CHEMIN).
  • Studies of the stability of possible martian hydrous minerals under simulated Mars surface conditions.
  • Quantification of the surface properties of clay minerals and implications for their use in environmental applications.
  • Use of X-ray powder diffraction in quantifying mineral abundances.
  • Application of the Rietveld method to determining quantitative crystal structural information from fine-grained minerals using X-ray powder diffraction data.

Graduate Student Projects

  • Origin of Terra Rossa from southern Indiana
  • Mineralogy of Pleistocene sediments from Nantucket Island, Massachusetts
  • Dehydration/rehydration-induced structural phase transitions in natrolite.
  • Surface properties of silicate clay minerals and their modification by steam treatment
  • Structural and gravimetric evaluation of the structures of cation-exchanged smectites
  • Behavior of Mars analog hydrated sulfate minerals under simulated martian conditions.
  • Effects of compositional variations on crystal structures minerals in the jarosite-alunite series.
  • Mineralogy of low-temperature evaporite deposits in Antarctica: Natural analogs to martian evaporites?
  • Isotopic and organic geochemistry of Georgia kaolin deposits

Undergraduate Projects and Opportunities

There are many opportunities for research in the X-ray diffraction laboratory, studying the structures of minerals and how they change with temperature and environment. Several students are presently working me on the stability of hydrous minerals under simulated Mars atmospheric conditions. The results of student research projects are often presented at national meetings, usually in the form of a poster presentation.

Funding opportunities include the IU Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity Partnership and there are many opportunities for summer research here and at other universities.

Representative Publications

J.C. Stern, A.C. McAdam, I.L. Ten Kate, D.L. Bish, D. Blake, R.M. Morris, R. Bowden, M. Fogel, M. Glamoclija, P.R. Mahaffy, A. Steele, and H. Amundsen, (2013) Isotopic and Geochemical Investigation of Two Distinct Mars Analog Environments Using Evolved Gas Techniques in Svalbard, Norway. Icarus, 224, 297-308. DOI

M.C. Cheshire and D.L. Bish, (2012) Mineralogical and sulfur isotopic evidence for sulfate reducing and disproportionating bacteria influencing pyrite and marcasite formation in the Georgia kaolins. Clay Minerals, 47, 559-572.

J.L. Bishop, E.B. Rampe, D.L. Bish, Z. Abidin, L.L. Baker, N. Matsue, and T. Henmi (2013) Spectral and Hydration Properties of Allophane and Imogolite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 61, 57-74.

M.S. Rice, E.A. Cloutis, J.F. Bell III, D.L. Bish, B.H. Horgan, S.A. Mertzman, M.A. Craig, R.W. Renaut, B. Gautason, B. Mountain (2013) Reflectance Spectra Diversity of Silica-Rich Materials: Sensitivity to Environment and Implications for Detections on Mars. Icarus, 223, 499-533. DOI

D.F. Blake, R.V. Morris, G. Kocurek, S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, D. Bish, D.W. Ming, K.S. Edgett, D. Rubin, W. Goetz, M.B. Madsen, R. Sullivan, R. Gellert, I. Campbell, A.H. Treiman, S.M. McLennan, A.S. Yen, J. Grotzinger, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera, C.N. Achilles, E.B. Rampe, D. Sumner, P-Y Meslin, S. Maurice, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, M. Fisk, M. Schmidt, P. Mahaffy, L.A. Leshin, D. Glavin, A. Steele, C. Freissinet, R. Navarro-González, R.A. Yingst, L.C. Kah, N. Bridges, K.W. Lewis, T.F. Bristow, J.D. Farmer, J.A. Crisp, E.M. Stolper, D.J. Des Marais, P. Sarrazin and the MSL Science Team (2013) Curiosity at Gale crater, Mars: Characterization and analysis of the Rocknest sand shadow. Science, 341, article 1239505.

D.L. Bish, D.F. Blake, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera, R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, A.H. Treiman, P. Sarrazin, S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, C.N. Achilles, A.S. Yen, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, J.M. Morookian, J.D. Farmer, E.B. Rampe, E.M. Stolper, N. Spanovich, and the MSL Team (2013) X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater. Science, 341. DOI

L.A. Leshin, P.R. Mahaffy, C.R. Webster, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P.G. Conrad, P.D. Archer, S.K. Atreya, A.E. Brunner, A. Buch, and the MSL Sci Team (2013) Volatile, Isotope, and Organic Analysis of Martian Fines with the Mars Curiosity Rover. Science, 341, Article Number: UNSP 1238937. DOI

E.M. Stolper, M.B. Baker, M.E. Newcombe, M.E. Schmidt, A.H. Treiman, A. Cousin, M.D. Dyar, M.R. Fisk, R. Gellert, P.L. King, and the MSL Science Team (2013) The Petrochemistry of Jake_M: A Martian Mugearite. Science, 341, Article Number: 1239463. DOI

R.M.E. Williams, J.P. Grotzinger, W.E. Dietrich, S. Gupta, D.Y. Sumner, R.C. Wiens, N. Mangold, M.C. Malin, K.S. Edgett, S. Maurice, and the MSL Science Team (2013) Martian Fluvial Conglomerates at Gale Crater. Science, 340, 1068-1072. DOI

J.P Grotzinger (2013) Analysis of Surface Materials by the Curiosity Mars Rover. Science 341 27 Abstract | Reprint | Full Text

P.-Y. Meslin, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, Schröder, A. Cousin, G. Berger, S.M. Clegg, J. Lasue, S. Maurice, V. Sautter, S. Le Mouéic, R.C. Wiens, C. Fabre, W. Goetz, D.L. Bish, N. Mangold, B. Ehlmann, N. Lanza, A.-M. Harri, R. Anderson, E. Rampe, T.H. McConnochie, P. Pinet, D. Blaney, R. Léveillé, D. Archer, B. Barraclough, S. Bender, D. Blake, J.G. Blank, N. Bridges, B.C. Clark, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, G. Dromart, M.D. Dyar, M. Fisk, B. Gondet, J. Grotzinger, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, J.-L. Lacour, Y. Langevin, L. Leshin, E. Lewin, M. B. Madsen, N. Melikechi, A. Mezzacappa, M.A. Mischna, J.E. Moores, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, R. Perez, N. Renno, J.-B. Sirven, R. Tokar, M. de la Torre, L. d’Uston, D. Vaniman, A. Yingst, and the MSL Science Team (2013) Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars. Science 341. DOI PDF

D.F. Blake, R.V. Morris, G. Kocurek, S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, D.L. Bish, D.W. Ming, K.S. Edgett, D. Rubin, W. Goetz, M.B. Madsen, R. Sullivan, R. Gellert, I. Campbell, A.H. Treiman, S.M. McLennan, A.S. Yen, J. Grotzinger, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera, C.N. Achilles, E.B. Rampe, D. Sumner, P.-Y. Meslin, S. Maurice, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, M. Fisk, M. Schmidt, P. Mahaffy, L.A. Leshin, D. Glavin, A. Steele, C. Freissinet, R. Navarro-González, R.A. Yingst, L.C. Kah, N. Bridges, K.W. Lewis, T.F. Bristow, J.D. Farmer, J.A. Crisp, E.M. Stolper, D.J. Des Marais, P. Sarrazin, and the MSL Science Team (2013) Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars: Characterization and Analysis of the Rocknest Sand Shadow. Science 341. DOI PDF

D.L. Bish, D.F. Blake, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera, R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, A.H. Treiman, P. Sarrazin, S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, C.N. Achilles, A.S. Yen, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, J.M. Morookian, J.D. Farmer, E.B. Rampe, E.M. Stolper, N. Spanovich, and the MSL Science Team (2013) X-ray Diffraction Results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater. Science 341. DOI PDF.

F. Poulet, D.W. Beaty, J-P Bibring, D.L. Bish, J.L. Bishop, E. Noe Dobrea, J.F. Mustard, S. Petit, and L.H. Roach (2009) Key science questions and key investigations from the first international conference on Martian phyllosilicates. Astrobiology 9, 257-267.

H. Ma, D.L. Bish, H-W. Wang, and S. Chipera (2009) Determination of the crystal structure of sanderite, MgSO4•2H2O, by X-ray powder diffraction and charge flipping. American Mineralogist 94, 622-625. PDF

E.M. Hausrath, A. Treiman, E. Vicenzi, D.L. Bish, D. Blake, P. Sarrazin, T. Hoehler, I. Midtkandl, A. Steele, and S.L. Brantley (2008) Short- and long-term olivine weathering in Svalbard, and implications for Mars. Astrobiology 8, 1079-1092.

H-W. Wang and D.L. Bish (2008) A PH2O-dependent structural phase transition in the zeolite natrolite. American Mineralogist 93, 1191-1194 (letter).

G.M. Bowers, D.L. Bish, and R.J. Kirkpatrick (2008) H2O and Cation Structure and Dynamics in Expandable Clays: 2H and 39K NMR Investigations of Hectorite. J. Physical Chem. 112, 6430-6438.

C.T. Johnston, J.E. Kogel, D.L. Bish, T. Kogure, and H.H. Murray (2008) Low-temperature FTIR study of kaolin-group minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals 56, 470-485.

G.M. Bowers, D.L. Bish, and R.J. Kirkpatrick (2008) Cation exchange at the mineral-water interface: H3O+/K+ competition at the surface of nano-muscovite. Langmuir 24, 10240-10244.

J. Jänchen, R.V. Morris, D.L. Bish, M. Janssen, and U. Hellwig (2008) The H2O and CO2 adsorption properties of phyllosilicate-free palagonitic dust and smectites under martian environmental conditions. Geophys. Res. Letters. DOI

E.A. Cloutis, M.A. Craig, J.F. Mustard, R.V. Kruzelecky, W.R. Jamroz, A. Scott, D.L. Bish, F. Poulet, J.-P. Bibring, P.L. King (2007) Stability of hydrated minerals on Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L20202. DOI.

J.E. Post, D.L. Bish, and P.J. Heaney (2007) Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction study of the structure and dehydration behavior of sepiolite. American Mineralogist 92, 91-97.

T. Tokano and D.L. Bish (2005) Hydration state and abundance of zeolites on Mars and the water cycle. J. Geophys. Res. 110, E12S08. DOI.

J. Jänchen, D.L. Bish, D.T.F. Möhlmann, and H. Stach (2005) Investigation of the water sorption properties of Mars-relevant micro- and mesoporous minerals. Icarus 180, 353-358.

D.T. Vaniman, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, C.I. Fialips, J.W. Carey, and W. Feldman (2004) Formation and Transformation of Magnesium Sulfate Salts on Mars. Nature 431, 663-665. PDF

W.C. Feldman, T.H. Prettyman, S. Maurice, J.J. Plaut, D.L. Bish, D.T. Vaniman, M.T. Mellon, A.E. Metzger, S.W. Squyres, S. Karunatillake, W.V. Boynton, R.C. Elphic, H.O. Funsten, D.J. Lawrence, and R.L. Tokar (2003) Global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E09006, 13 pp. PDF

D.L. Bish, J.W. Carey, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera (2003) Stability of hydrous minerals on the martian surface. Icarus, 164, 96-103. PDF

C.T. Johnston, S-L. Wang, D.L. Bish, P. Dera, S.F. Agnew, and J.W. Kenney (2002) Novel pressure-induced phase transformations in hydrous layered materials. Geophysical Research Letters. DOI | PDF

Abstracts

2013

R. Socki, T. Sun, R.P. Harvey, D.L. Bish, E. Tonui, H. Bao, and P.B. Niles (2013) Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica and Inferred Sub-glacial Microbial Environments. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

H. Ghanem, M. J. Kunk, A. Ludman, D.L. Bish, and R.P. Wintsch (2013) A Late Devonian age for the Chester shear zone, central Maine; evidence from 40Ar/39Ar age spectra: Geol. Soc. Am. Abst. with Prog. 45, 107.

D.L. Bish, D.F. Blake, D.T. Vaniman, S.J. Chipera, P. Sarrazin, R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, A.H. Treiman, R.T. Downs, C.N. Achilles, S.M. Morrison, A.S. Yen, T.F. Bristow, J.M. Morookian, J.D. Farmer, J.A. Crisp, E.B. Rampe, E.M. Stolper, D.J. Des Marais, N. Spanovich, R.C. Anderson and the MSL team. (2013) First X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest aeolian bedform at Gale Crater. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013, invited presentation.

A.H. Treiman, D.L. Bish, D.W. Ming, R.V. Morris, M. Schmidt, R.T. Downs, E.M. Stolper, D.F. Blake, D.T. Vaniman, C.N. Achilles, S.J. Chipera, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, J.A. Farmer, J.M. Morookian, S.M. Morrison, E.B. Rampe, P. Sarrazin, A.S. Yen, R.C. Anderson, D.J. DesMarais, N. Spanovich and the MSL team. (2013) Basaltic soil of Gale Crater: crystalline component compared to martian basalts & meteorites. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

E.B. Rampe, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, R.V. Morris, C.N. Achilles, D.W. Ming, D.F. Blake, R.C. Anderson, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, D.J. Des Marais, R.T. Downs, J.D. Farmer, J.M. Morookian, S.M. Morrison, P. Sarrazin, N. Spanovich, E.M. Stolper, A.H. Treiman, D.T. Vaniman, A.S. Yen and the MSL team. (2013) Detecting nanophase weathering products with CheMin: Relative Intensity Ratios of allophane, aluminosilicate gel, and ferrihydrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, D.F. Blake, D.T. Vaniman, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, R.T. Downs, R. Gellert, A.H. Treiman, A.S. Yen, C.N. Achilles, R.C. Anderson, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, D.J. Des Marais, J.D. Farmer, J.M. Morookian, S.M. Morrison, E.B. Rampe, P.C Sarrazin, N. Spanovich, E.M. Stolper and the MSL team. (2013) The amorphous component in martian basaltic soil in global perspective from MSL and MER missions. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

D.T. Vaniman, D.F. Blake, J.M. Morookian, A.S. Yen, D.W. Ming, R.V. Morris, C.N. Achilles, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, E.B. Rampe, P.C. Sarrazin, A.H. Treiman, R.C. Anderson, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, D.J. Des Marais, J.D. Farmer, N. Spanovich, E.M. Stolper, M.A. Wilson and the MSL team. (2013) CheMin instrument performance and calibration on Mars. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

D.F. Blake, D.W. Ming, R.V. Morris, A.S. Yen, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, R.T. Downs, A.H. Treiman, D.T. Vaniman, C.N. Achilles, S.M. Morrison, E.B. Rampe, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, P.C. Sarrazin, J.D. Farmer, D.J. Des Marais, E.M. Stolper, J.M. Morookian, M.A. Wilson1, N. Spanovich R.C. Anderson and the MSL team. (2013) Mineralogy and elemental composition of wind drift sand at Rocknest, Gale Crater. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

A.C. McAdam, H.B. Franz, P.D. Archer, Jr., C. Freissinet, B. Sutter, D. Glavin, J. Eigenbrode, H. Bower, J. Stern, P. Mahaffy, R. Morris, D. Ming , E. Rampe, A. Brunner, A. Steele, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, D. Bish, D. Blake, J. Wray, J. Grotzinger and the MSL team. (2013) Insights into the sulfur mineralogy of martian soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater, enabled by evolved gas analyses. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

S.M. Morrison, R.T. Downs, D.F. Blake, D.L. Bish, D.W. Ming, R.V. Morris, A.S. Yen, S.J. Chipera, A.H. Treiman, D.T. Vaniman, R. Gellert, C.N. Achilles, E.B. Rampe, T.F. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, P.C. Sarrazin, J.D. Farmer, D.J. Des Marais, E.M. Stolper, J.M. Morookian, M.A. Wilson, N. Spanovich, R.C. Anderson and the MSL team. (2013) Crystal-chemical analysis of Soil AT Rocknest, Gale Crater. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

K.M. Leftwich, D.L. Bish, and C. H. Chen (2013) Crystal structure of a new Na2Mg(SO4)2·16H2O hydrate phase measured under Mars-relevant conditions. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

K.M. Leftwich and D.L. Bish (2013) Phase stabilities in the Na2Mg(SO4)2–H2O system and hydration/dehydration behavior of a new 16-hydrate phase under Mars-relevant conditions. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2013.

D. Vaniman, D. Blake, T. Bristow, D. Des Marais, C. Achilles, R. Anderson, J. Crisp, J.M. Morookian, N. Spanovich, A. Vasavada, A. Yen, D. Bish, S. Chipera, R. Downs, S. Morrison, J. Farmer, J. Grotzinger, E. Stolper, D. Ming, R. Morris, E. Rampe, A. Treiman, P. Sarrazin, and The MSL Science Team (2013) Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF instrument. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2013, Vienna, Austria, April 7-12, 2013.

D. Bish and the CheMin team (2013) The First X-ray Diffraction Results from the Mars Science Laboratory. Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV, April 22-25, 2013, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, invited plenary lecture.

D. Bish (2013) The Mars Science Laboratory Experience. Alfred University Sam Scholes Memorial Lecture, April 23, 2013, invited plenary lecture.

D. Bish (2013) The Mars Science Laboratory Experience. International Centre for Diffraction Data Annual Meeting, March 10-13, 2013, invited plenary lecture.

P. Sarrazin, D. Blake, D. Bish, D. Vaniman, S. Chipera, D. Ming, R. Morris, R.T. Downs, A. Treiman, S. Morrison, A. Yen, J. Grotzinger, J. Crisp, C. Achilles, E. Rampe, T. Bristow, J. Farmer, D. Des Marais, E. Stolper, J.M. Morookian, M. Wilson, N. Spanovich, R. Anderson, M. Gailhanou, and the MSL Science Team (2013) CHEMIN, the XRD instrument onboard the Curiosity rover - design and first results from Mars. 62nd Annual Denver X-ray Conference, August 5-9, 2013.

M. Cesarano, D.L. Bish, P. Cappelletti, C. Belviso, F. Cavalcante, S. Fiore, P. De Vita, A. Langella, and M. de Gennaro (2013) Understanding slope instability mechanisms through mineralogical characterization: the case history of the slow-moving Termini Nerano (Southern Italy) Landslide. XV International Clay Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 7-11, 2013.

D.L. Bish (2013) The First X-ray Diffraction Results from Mars Science Laboratory. XV International Clay Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 7-11, 2013, invited plenary lecture.

D.L. Bish (2013) George W. Brindley, a physicist who changed the clay mineralogical world. Clay Minerals Society 50th Annual Meeting, Urbana, IL, October 6-10, 2013, invited presentation.

A. Kadakia and D. Bish (2013) The effects of steam on the surface properties of palygorskite: implications for palygorskite-water interactions. Clay Minerals Society 50th Annual Meeting, Urbana, IL, October 6-10, 2013.

E.C. Cola, D.L. Bish, and R.P. Wintsch (2013) Deformation-induced development of kyanite and fibrolitic sillimanite in monzodiorite orthogneiss, southwest Connecticut. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting abstracts with program, 45, 129, abstract 11-12.

K. Leftwich and D.L. Bish (2013) Dehydration behavior of kainite: Crystal structure of KCl*Mg(SO4)*2H2O. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting abstracts with program, abstract 11-12.

H. Ghanem, M. Kunk, A. Ludman, D. Bish, and R. Wintsch (2013) Multiple deformation and cleavage development by dissolution-precipitation in the metasedimentary rocks of the Chester shear zone, central Maine, USA. GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 45, 893, abstract 404-3.

H. Ghanem and D.L. Bish (2014) An early Triassic ductile shear zone near Claremont, NH: evidence from 40Ar/39Ar dating of white mica. Geological Society of America Northeastern Section - 49th Annual Meeting, March 23-25, 2014.

Not in 2013 FSR:

R.P. Wintsch, D.L. Bish, R. Meyer (2013) IODP Expedition 345: Bulk Mineralogy From Lower Oceanic Crustal Rocks of the Hess Deep.

A.H. Treiman, R.V. Morris, T. Bristow, D.W. Ming, C. Achilles, D.L. Bish, D. Blake, D. Vaniman, S. Chipera, MSL Science (2013) Team Terrestrial Analogs for Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars.

T. Bristow, D. Blake, D.L. Bish, D. Vaniman, D.W. Ming, R.V. Morris, S. Chipera, E.B. Rampe, J.D. Farmer, A.H. Treiman, R. Downs, S. Morrison, C. Achilles, D.J. Des Marais, J.A. Crisp, P. Sarrazin, J.M. Morookian, J.P. Grotzinger, MSL Science Team (2013) The First X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Clay Minerals from Gale Crater.

E.B. Rampe, R.V. Morris, S. Chipera, D.L. Bish, T. Bristow, P.D. Archer, D. Blake, C. Achilles, D.W. Ming, D. Vaniman, J.A. Crisp, D.J. Des Marais, R. Downs, J.D. Farmer, J.M. Morookian, S. Morrison, P. Sarrazin, N. Spanovich, A.H. Treiman, A.S. Yen, MSL Science Team (2013) Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials. (Invited)

R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, D. Blake, D. Vaniman, D.L. Bish, S. Chipera, R. Downs, S. Morrison, R. Gellert, I. Campbell, A.H. Treiman, C. Achilles, T. Bristow, J.A. Crisp, A. McAdam, P.D. Archer, B. Sutter, E.B. Rampe, MSL Science Team (2013) The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars.

D.F. Blake, D. Vaniman, J.P. Grotzinger, P.G. Conrad, D.W. Ming, D.L. Bish, J.D. Farmer, and T. Bristow (2013) The Mineralogical and Chemical Case for Habitability at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

D.L. Bish and the CheMin Team (2014) The first X-ray diffraction results from another planet. IYCr, International Year of Crystallography inaugural ceremony, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France, invited plenary lecture.

D.L. Bish and the CheMin Team (2014) The Mars Science Laboratory Experience. Australian X-ray Analytical Association Triennial Meeting, Perth, Australia, February, 2014, invited public lecture.

D.L. Bish and the CheMin Team (2014) The first X-ray powder diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory. Australian X-ray Analytical Association Triennial Meeting, Perth, Australia, February, 2014, invited plenary lecture.

R.E. Milliken and D.L. Bish (2014) Distinguishing hisingerite from other clays and its importance for Mars. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, March, 2014.

H.-W. Wang, K. Page, R. Neder, M.C. Cheshire, D.L. Bish (2014) Local structure of opal. Annual Meeting of the American Crystallographic Association.

D.L. Bish (2014) The First X-ray Diffraction Results From Mars. Denver X-ray Conference, Big Sky Resort, Big Sky, Montana, July 28-August 1, 2014, invited plenary lecture.

D.L. Bish (2014) The First X-ray Powder Diffraction Measurements on Mars. 23rd Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography, August 5-12, Montreal, Quebec, invited plenary lecture.

D.F. Blake, D. Vaniman, T. Bristow, D.L. Bish, E. Rampe, R. Morris, A. Treiman, D. Ming, S. Chipera, S. Morrison, R.T. Downs, J.D. Farmer, J. Crisp, C.N. Achilles, J.M.M. Morookian, and the CheMin team (2014) Mineralogical analysis of drilled mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Proceedings of Goldschmidt 2014, June, 2014.

E.B. Rampe, R.V. Morris, D.W. Ming, D.T. Vaniman, D.F. Blake, P.Niles, D.L. Bish, S.J. Chipera, T.F. Bristow, J.D. Farmer, A.H. Treiman, C.N. Achilles, J.A. Crisp, R.T. Downs, D.J. Des Marais, J.M. Morookian, S.M. Morrison, P. Sarrazin, and A.S. Yen (2014) Evidence for local-scale cation exchange reactions in phyllosilicates at Gale Crater, Mars. Clay Minerals Society Annual Meeting, College Station, TX, May, 2014.

D.T. Vaniman, T.F. Bristow, D.L. Bish, D.W. Ming, D.F. Blake, R.V. Morris, E.B. Rampe, S.J. Chipera, A.H. Treiman, S.M. Morrison, C.N. Achilles, R.T. Downs, J.D. Farmer, J.A. Crisp, J.M. Morookian, D.J. Des Marais, J.P. Grotzinger, P. Sarrazin, and A.S. Yen. The first X-ray diffraction analyses of clay minerals on Mars. Clay Minerals Society Annual Meeting, College Station, TX, May, 2014.

A.C. McAdam, P.R. Mahaffy, D.W. Ming, A.E. Brunner, P.D. Archer, J.C. Stern, C.R. Webster, H.V. Graham, H.B. Franz, B. Sutter, R.V. Morris, D.L. Bish, S.K. Atreya, L.A. Leshin. Analysis of H2O evolved during pyrolysis of clay-mineral bearing rocks on Mars. Clay Minerals Society Annual Meeting, College Station, TX, May, 2014.

Awards and Honors

  • Secretary-Treasurer, International Natural Zeolite Association, 2014-
  • UNESCO and IUCr International Year of Crystallography-2014 inaugural session plenary lecturer, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France, January, 2014
  • Vice-president, Mineralogical Society of America, 2009-2010
  • Participating Scientist, Mars Phoenix Lander, 2008-
  • George Brown Lecture Award of the Clay Minerals Group, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain, 2007
  • Ralph Grim Lecturer, University of Illinois, March, 2007
  • President, International Association for the Study of Clays (AIPEA), 2005-2009
  • Brindley Lecture Award, The Clay Minerals Society, 2002.
  • Co-recipient of a 1999 R&D100 Award for "CHEMIN: A Miniaturized X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Fluorescence Instrument"
  • Jackson Clay Scientist Award, The Clay Minerals Society, 1995
  • Fellow, Mineralogical Society of America, 1990-present

Service

  • Graduate Studies Committee, Indiana University Department of Geological Sciences
  • Member, Policy Committee, Indiana University Department of Geological Sciences
  • Member, Undergraduate Honors Advisor, Indiana University Department of Geological Sciences
  • President, International Natural Zeolite Association, 2002-2006
  • President, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, 2002-2006
  • Member of Council, Mineralogical Society of America, 1999-2002
  • President, The Clay Minerals Society, 1998-1999
  • Vice-president, The Clay Minerals Society, 1997-1998
  • Board Member, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, 1997-present
  • Mineralogical Society of America National University Lecturer, 1997-1998
  • Associate Editor, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 1996-1999
  • Associate Editor, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993-1996, 2002-2003
  • Associate Editor, American Mineralogist, 1987-1991, 2002

Laboratory Facilities

The mineralogy facilities at IU consist of several laboratories including an X-ray diffraction laboratory, a thermal analysis laboratory, and a clay mineral and sample preparation laboratory.

The X-ray diffraction laboratory is equipped with two automated Bruker D8 Advance diffractometers. One instrument, with a SolX energy-dispersive detector, is equipped with an ambient-temperature environmental stage capable of controlling gas composition or humidity (from 0 to 95%). The other instrument, with a Vantec position-sensitive detector, is equipped with an Anton-Parr TTK450 heating/cooling stage. This instrument allows examination of specimens under conditions of controlled temperature (from 77 to 723K) and atmosphere (vacuum, selected gas atmospheres, controlled relative humidity, 0-95%). A full complement of crystallographic and data analysis software is available, including several Rietveld refinement packages (GSAS, DBW, Topas), quantitative analysis routines (Fullpat, Diffrac), profile refinement packages (Topas), and structure solution (Topas-A).

The thermal analysis laboratory is equipped with several programmable furnaces for mineral equilibria studies up to 1000°C. Teflon-lined Parr vessels can be used for hydrothermal studies up to 250°C. A TA Instruments Simultaneous TGA/DSC instrument can be used to study the weight-loss behavior of solids and can simultaneously measure the enthalpic effects associated with thermal reactions. A new IGASorp-CT instrument was operational in 2007 and allows measurement of water-vapor adsorption isotherms from 57°C to 350°C, using partial pressures of water up to at least 500 mbar.

Our laboratory also includes a Quantachrome NOVA 1000 BET surface area analyzer and an ATS Reologica Viscoanalyser, capable of a wide variety of rheological measurements on suspensions.

The sample preparation laboratory contains a full complement of sample preparation equipment, including a Retsch Micro-Rapid mill with agate grinding set, a variety of mortars and pestles, a ultrasonic probe and bath and a Waring blender for sample disaggregation, a Sorvall high-speed centrifuge, and a variety of specialized specimen holders.