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Occasional Papers

Much of the research work on affiliated scholars and graduate students is captured and disseminated by the Occasional Papers series published by the Center. The papers have been distributed widely and used as texts for several university courses. The range and diversity of the papers clearly demonstrate the Center's commitment to both applied and theoretical research and the benefits of interdisciplinary education.

If you would like to obtain any of the Occasional Papers listed below, please e-mail the Center for the Study of Global Change, fax us at (812) 855-6271, or mail your request to:

Center for the Study of Global Change
201 North Indiana Avenue
Bloomington, IN 47408-4001

Please include shipping address, title, author, and Occasional Paper number. For any other questions concerning ordering, please e-mail the Center for the Study of Global Change.

Baker, Randall. Scale and Administrative Performance: The Governance of Small States and Microstates
. January 1992. Occasional Paper No. 7. 41 pp. ISBN 1-881157-08-3.
While there have been several studies of the economic and political dimensions of smallness and sovereignty, the relationship between size and how the public sector functions has remained relatively unexplored. Generally the administrations of small states are simply scaled-down versions of those of larger areas, yet there is considerable evidence that the nature of social and political relations is sensitive to size. This calls into question the appropriateness of essentially western, large-scale models of rational decision making when these are superimposed on small communities that happen to be sovereign. This paper examines the ways in which size and administrative characteristics interact, and why it may be both contentious and irrational to make the assumptions that underlie the classic model of the structure of public service when these are applied at this scale. In conclusion, the paper offers some avenues of innovation along which the scale dimension may be internalized.

Bullard-Sisken, Daniel S. Small Industries in Development: India's Experience, and Lessons for Other Developing Countries. October 1991. Occasional Paper No. 3. 56 pp. ISBN 1- 881157-01-6.
India's experience with small industries is particularly important because it is one of the few countries that has actively and consistently pursued a program of developing small industries. This study seeks to assess this experience and to shed light on the theoretical debate over small industries' potential. Focus is on the different roles small industries can play in development. Since small industries comprise diverse sets of economic actors, it is recommended these be disaggregated by both social science theorists and policy experts. Although the Indian policy toward small industries has helped alleviate some problems of urban poverty, and thus could be usefully emulated by other developing countries, promotion of small industries alone cannot bring about those fundamental changes required for substantial improvements in the conditions affecting the urban poor as a whole.

Catanese, Anthony V. Rural Poverty and Environmental Degradation in Haiti. November 1991. Occasional Paper No. 5. 40 pp. ISBN 1-881157-07-5.
The dominant and most pressing form of environmental degradation in Haiti is deforestation; it directly and immediately affects the country's vast majority, the rural poor. The population's heavy dependence on agricultural productivity for its economic livelihood makes soil erosion a particularly acute problem for Haiti's poor, who primarily farm small plots of land. In the historical survey, longstanding issues that have befuddled solutions to Haiti's dangerous and advanced deforestation and attendant rural poverty are examined--gradual and persistent centralization of power in one city, racial class tension between both mulatto and non-mulatto blacks, political instability of presidential regimes, and pervasive individualism. In addition, other internal causes of deforestation--dependence on wood as an energy source, equal division of land among heirs, property rights, population growth, and mountainous topography--are discussed. The various ways deforestation causes rural poverty are investigated and detailed. An interrelated mosaic of solutions to the rural poverty and deforestation problem are suggested.

Chatterjee, Choitali. Celebrating Women: International Women's Day in the Soviet Union, 1917-1939. October 1991. Occasional Paper No. 4. 54 pp. ISBN 1-881157-02-4
By exploring the organization, structure, and evolution of the International Women's Day in the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1939, this essay demonstrates how the Bolsheviks, in response to political exigencies during the period, created and reformulated a image of the "New Soviet Woman" and the roles and obligations she was expected to fill. The language of celebration was used by the state to delineate public images of women. Given the limited distribution of media technology in the Soviet Union at the time, the political leadership used holidays instrumentally to familiarize a largely analphabetic population with the goals and visions of the revolution. Women's Day in particular, was used to construct a neutral, public space outside the traditionally private sphere of women's existence. Both ritualistic and recreational activities of the holiday were designed to rescue women from the confines of patriarchal domination and to ensure their participation in the public sphere. In this process of physical and psychological liberation, concepts of femininity and woman's destiny were defined and redefined. But the liberation was not unequivocal. This paper addresses some aspects of the larger question of women's emancipation in the Soviet Union, its successes and its limitations.

Cohen, Jeffrey H. The Challenge of Grassroots Development: Society, Economy, and Change in Southern Mexico. December 1994. 70 pp. ISBN 1-881157-28-8 Occasional Paper No. 26.
Moving development decisions out of the hands of NGOs and governmental bureaucracies is a goal of many programs for sustainable and grassroots development. However, community-based projects can themselves be problematic. A community does not exist in a peaceful and tranquil vacuum, nor are all villagers equally dedicated to the welfare of their homes. To reach consensus about community needs is no easy task; the definition of projects often becomes embedded in local struggles for power. Success is not guaranteed simply because a project is sanctioned by the majority of villagers. This paper examines community-based development projects in Santa Ana del Valle, Oaxaca, Mexico. Using evidence from Santa Ana, projects are compared; attention is given to how local patterns of association and cooperation are reproduced; and the costs and benefits of state involvement.

Conway, Dennis. Demographic Issues and Policy Options to Ameliorate Caribbean Population-Development Conflicts. September 1991. Occasional Paper No. 2. 67 pp. ISBN 1-881157-06-7.
Two Caribbean population policy domains, international mobility-development linkages and uncontrolled urbanization-development problems, are examined. In both, the focus is on the conflicts in their relationships, where positive and negative consequences and the direct and indirect effects of the two population processes on development, together with feedback effects, present complex equations of gains and losses for Caribbean populations. Both invoke spatial problem-solving, both are contemporary processes where relationships between population needs and development goals are often in opposition, and both are important demographic issues at the core of the Caribbean region's state of "crisis." After introducing the varied nature of population-development friction, the remainder of the paper focuses on policy options that may be brought to bear to ameliorate migration- and urbanization-development conflicts in the situations several Caribbean countries find themselves today.

Conway, Dennis, and Victoria Cuffel, eds. Series on Environment and Development. (The series is comprised of 11 separate Occasional Papers pertaining to aspects of environmental and developmental issues.) June 1992. 579 pp. ISBN 1-881157-15-6.

Conway, Dennis and James C. White II, eds. Global Change: How Vulnerable Are North and South Communities? January 1995. 122 pp. ISBN 1-881157-06-7 Occasional Paper No. 27.

Dion, Robert L. Jr. Complicated Choices, Unacceptable Contracts: The 1992 Referendum in Québec. April 1995. 94 pp. ISBN 1-881157-31-8. Occasional Paper No. 29.
On October 26, 1992, voters in Québec decisively rejected a proposed package of constitutional reforms, the Charlottetown Accord, which was intended to bring Québec more closely into the Canadian confederation. This paper provides an intensive case study of two aspects of this important event in recent Canadian political history. First, print coverage of the referendum campaign is examined through the content analysis of newspaper articles. Although the media did not systematically favor either side, several newsworthy incidents served to hobble the efforts of the Accord's proponents to make their case. The campaign discourse, shaped by members of the political elite, revolved around the twin issues of the merits of the Charlottetown Accord and the place of the sovereignty question in the referendum. Secondly, to determine the level of support for the Charlottetown Accord, Québec sovereignty, and Canadian federalism, the influence of location within a majority or minority French-dominated context is examined through a combination of individual-level survey data and aggregate electoral and demographic data. The results indicate that French Québeckers appear to be somewhat more sensitive to the ethnic character of their surroundings than are non-French Quebeckers. The study concludes with a brief discussion of the suitability of referendums for mass publics, the implications of the failure of the Charlottetown Accord for the future of the Canada, and some speculation about the anticipated 1995 referendum on sovereignty in Québec.

Dugas, John. Structure and Agency in Explaining Democratization: Insights from the Colombian Case. August 1994. 111 pp. ISBN 1-881157-25-3 Occasional Paper No. 23.
The 1991 Colombian constitution represents an effort to inaugurate greater democracy in a traditionally restrictive political regime. The broadening of Colombian democracy provides an opportunity to examine two ways of explaining democratization. Each is narrow and incomplete by itself, although both add significantly to our understanding. The structural approach focuses upon relatively permanent features or patterns that characterize a society and are thought to influence the emergence of democracy. Nonetheless, it is often excessively deterministic in nature and fails to acknowledge the key creative role of individuals and social groups. The agency approach remedies this structural myopia by underscoring the importance of group social pressures and of individual negotiating and pact-making. However, it is often overly voluntaristic in analysis and underestimates the structural constraints under which actors must labor. Both human agency and structural conditions must be integrated into the analysis to achieve a more complete explanation of democratization. The need for this is illustrated by reference to the specific case of Colombian democratization.

Gieryn, Thomas, and Hollis R. Johnson, eds. Science and Technology in the Developing World: Liberation or Dependence? October 1992. 237 pp. ISBN 1-881157-19-9.

Goss, Benjamin M. I. Economic Diversification and Sustainable Development in Micro-States: Recent Eastern Caribbean Experience. March 1992. Occasional Paper No. 9. 54 pp. ISBN 1-881157-04-0.
In rural France between 1850 and 1914, and in rural Gabon between 1858 and 1940, a sense of space was created that was, respectively, national and colonial in nature. The forces of modernization and the global development of temporal and spatial conceptions that were necessary for the smooth functioning of the capitalist system were imposed on the people of these areas to create the nation-state in rural France and the French colonial state in rural Gabon. The process originated in the shift of the European episteme to projects of ordering and classifying people and space according to eighteenth-century Enlightenment ideas of universal knowledge. The abstracting power of the European "totalizing gaze" and the ability to "write" the world constructed textural space by the use of map and census and revised physical space according to its concepts of order. The application of these constructs fundamentally altered cultural identity. Peasants became Frenchmen. Gabonese, whose primary identification formerly had been through lineage or clan membership, began to think of themselves as part of an ethnic group. The parallels are striking, and the agencies of the change virtually identical. These case studies lead to the conclusion that cultural identity undergoes profound changes in the "spaces" of modernization. An effort to describe the process and the agencies of such change is crucial to an understanding of the cultural ethnic conflicts that plague us today.

Gray, Christopher. Modernization and Cultural Identity: The Creation of National Space in Rural France and Colonial Space in Rural Gabon. February 1994. 91 pp. ISBN 1- 881157-22-9 Occasional Paper No. 21.
In rural France between 1850 and 1914, and in rural Gabon between 1858 and 1940, a sense of space was created that was, respectively, national and colonial in nature. The forces of modernization and the global development of temporal and spatial conceptions that were necessary for the smooth functioning of the capitalist system were imposed on the people of these areas to create the nation-state in rural France and the French colonial state in rural Gabon. The process originated in the shift of the European episteme to projects of ordering and classifying people and space according to eighteenth-century Enlightenment ideas of universal knowledge. The abstracting power of the European "totalizing gaze" and the ability to "write" the world constructed textural space by the use of map and census and revised physical space according to its concepts of order. The application of these constructs fundamentally altered cultural identity. Peasants became Frenchmen. Gabonese, whose primary identification formerly had been through lineage or clan membership, began to think of themselves as part of an ethnic group. The parallels are striking, and the agencies of the change virtually identical. These case studies lead to the conclusion that cultural identity undergoes profound changes in the "spaces" of modernization. An effort to describe the process and the agencies of such change is crucial to an understanding of the cultural ethnic conflicts that plague us today.

Hopkins, Jack W. The Delicate Balance: Conservation and Development in Chile and Costa Rica. June 1992. Occasional Paper No. 13. 62 pp. ISBN 1-881157-13-X.
Ethical and pragmatic conflicts over development and the environment are dramatically visible in Chile and Costa Rica, the countries used as case studies for this paper. Environmental protection and conservation in Chile are viewed in the context of "wide-open" economic development under the Pinochet government. Costa Rica is used as an example of a small country, limited in economic resources, that nevertheless has achieved remarkable progress in building a network of protected areas. The study employs three cases to illustrate environmental problems. In Chile, the Lago Chungará and Chañaral disputes broaded awareness of conservation and opened the way for Chile to find solutions to its many environmental problems. The environmental theme is still fairly novel in Chilean jurisprudence, but as courts there become more familiar with such issues, an environmental doctrine is likely to be developed. In Costa Rica, the Corcovado National Park case forced the government to reexamine its existing environmental policies. Ultimately, the case led to a thorough reorganization of the conservation system.

Light, Nathan. Qazaqs in the People's Republic of China: The Local Processes of History. June 1994. Occasional Paper No. 22. 107 pp. ISBN 1-881157-24-5.
This study argues for the importance of understanding cultural factors when analyzing the historical actions of minority groups within states. The history of the minority Qazaq nomads in northwestern China is the result of complex interactions among culture, ecology, and personal action, but historians working in this area have explained Qazaq historical choices by simplistic models. Applying a variety of Chinese, Qazaq, and Western accounts of the modern history of the Qazaqs in the Xinjiang region of China, this study analyzes Qazaq participation in several important political events during the twentieth century. The Qazaq believe that group membership and organized action may not be imposed upon Qazaqs, and that families or individuals must be allowed to make their own decisions about animal and pasture resources. The practical effects of these Qazaq ideas vary according to the context. Chinese government policies have arisen from a prejudiced, limited understanding of how Qazaq cultural principles enabled Qazaqs to live in ecologically-marginal regions. The study concludes with an examination of some recent policies that may facilitate more productive relations between Qazaqs and the Chinese state.

McElroy, Jerome L., and Klaus de Albuquerque. An Integrated Sustainable Ecotourism for Small Caribbean Island. February, 1992. Occasional Paper No. 8. 49 pp. ISBN 1- 881157-09-1.
This paper argues that tourism as practiced in small Caribbean islands (those of less than 500,000 population) is not sustainable in the long-run, because increasing high-density, mass-market penetration inevitably causes destruction of the fragile touristic amenity base and marginalizes domestic agriculture/fishing in the process. A test of R. Butler's 1980 destination life-cycle model reveals three basic tourism development stages: 1) low-impact, emerging areas like Dominica, Saba, and St. Vincent, 2) a large number of intermediate islands such as Antigua, the British Virgins, Caymans, and so on, characterized by rapid visitor growth and hotel construction, and 3) high-impact, mature mass-market areas like Bermuda, Bahamas, the US Virgins, and Aruba. To regulate rising visitor densities in Stage 1 and Stage 2 islands, the following control strategies are briefly discussed: comprehensive planning, ways other than high-volume tourist promotion to maximize net visitor expenditure, creating scenic protected areas, supporting small-holder agriculture and agroforestry, and concerted community participation.

Moran, Emilio F. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. March 1992. Occasional Paper No. 10. 36 pp. ISBN 1-881157-10-5.
Recent settlers to the Amazon Basin are not responsible for the bulk of deforestation in that region. Unlike the Asian and African rain forests, population densities in Amazonia have been low, and immigrants account for less than ten percent of total deforestation. Most of the deforestation is a result of fiscal policies that favor large-scale forest clearing to capture tax holidays. Such fiscal policies account for the deforestation in southern Para state and in Rondonia. Brazilian mining and timber activities have been gaining in significance with the decline of tropical forests in Asia and have now become the second largest recipients of tax holidays. Among the policy interventions that could arrest current exponential trends in forest loss are the outright elimination of tax holidays, elimination of incentives to cattle ranching, collection of the 25 percent capital-gains tax on land sales, collection of progressive property taxes on landholdings, research funds for intensive forms of land management, timber concessions of longer duration, and greater attention and respect to native systems of forest use and conservation.

Peach, Lucinda J. Women at War: The Ethics of Women in Combat. Occasional Paper No. 20. December 1993. 133 pp. ISBN 1-881157-23-7.
The three dominant ethical perspectives in the debate over whether women should participate in military combat are examined. The subject of women in combat had received national scrutiny in the early 1980s in connection with the controversy over whether women should be drafted; these arguments were revived at the time of the Persian Gulf War when media coverage of military women brought the issue once more to public attention. The debate has continued to garner national press coverage since the spring of 1993 when the Secretary of Defense ordered the armed services to open combat assignments aboard aircraft and warships to women. Despite this public attention, the specifically ethical dimensions of the issue have received little attention. This omission is remedied here by discussion and evaluation of the central perspectives implicit in the debate: accountability, justice, and care. These positions correspond roughly to major points of view about the status of women in contemporary society; these attitudes are explored in the course of explicating the significant dimensions of the three ethics. It would appear also that these positions have been distorted by the influence of gender ideology; that is, by prejudices and unfounded assumptions about the nature of men, women, the military, and war. The paper discusses the influence of gender ideology on each of the ethical arguments and suggests gender-neutral approaches to the issues.

Petersen, Antje C. The First Berlin Border Guard Trial. December 1992. Occasional Paper No. 15. 39 pp. ISBN 1-881157-18-0.
The Border Guard Trial, from its inception, took on overtones of a trial with precedential value for the presumably many trials to follow against functionaries and henchmen of the GDR regime. At the same time, it seemed to provide the opportunity of dealing through the means provided by a fair legal system with the injustices committed by the GDR against its own citizens. Thus, less than fifty years after the Nazi regime ended, Germany found itself again faced with the task of adjudicating the individual guilt of citizens of a state charged with violating fundamental norms of justice. This investigation situates the trial in the context of other, historical German attempts to deal with the past; in doing so, it surveys some of the jurisprudential problems that the trial involved and which distinguish this trial sharply from historical precedent. Finally, this essay attempts to capture the wide array of public opinion which ranged from condemning the proceedings to welcoming their institution. It is therefore based largely on press accounts of the Border Guard Trial between August 31, 1992 and March 15, 1992. This essay tries to underscore that the trial is a link in a chain of similar attempts at Vergangenheitsbewältigung in Germany's past, and thus serves as an opportunity to demonstrate the functioning of Germany as a Rechtsstaat, both for domestic and international purposes.

Pohl, Michaela. Ideologies of Identity: Volk and Narod in Nazi and Stalinist Folkloristics. February 1995. 109 pp. ISBN 1-881157-30-X. Occasional Paper No. 28.
Folklore was important in Nazi Germany and in Stalinist Russia. The Communist and Nazi parties initiated and funded rapid institutional expansions in folklore; they supported and directed a flood of publications, performances, media events, expeditions, and fieldwork. Nazi Volkskunde promoted exclusive racist theories that centered on a mythical, prehistoric peasantry that was fabricated to fit the political leaders' definition of the ideal folk community. Stalinists engaged in massive production of fraudulent folkloric evidence to legitimize their government's hostility to the independent peasantry of the Kulaks in order to "prove" that the Russian people demanded their exclusion from the true narod. The folklore discourses of the Nazis and Communists functioned as ideologies of identity that reinforced totalitarian attempts to construct new national realities appropriate to their purposes. This paper investigates their manipulations of time, race, and class as central components of identity. Totalitarian folk ideologies were characterized above all else by the explicit and vindictive exclusions from the realities the Stalinists and Nazis sought to produce. These governments were driven by a deep fear of "racial" mixture and of fluid, contested, or multiple interpretations of human identity. The study concludes by raising the question of the continued significance of totalitarian ideologies of identity in light of the most recent attempts to think beyond nationalism.

Rassam, A. Yasmine. Women in the Domicile: The Treatment of Women's Work in International Law. October 1994. 67 pp. ISBN 1-881157-26-1 Occasional Paper No. 24.
n recent years, feminist lawyers began to examine public international law issues critically from a gender-specific perspective. One issue identified as particularly problematic concerns legal norms defining productive "workers" as those men and women who labor only in formal "workplaces." These norms, embodied in human-rights law and International Labor Organization conventions, tacitly exclude from the definition of "work," maintenance of a household, child care, chores, agriculture, or labor in the informal economy. Much of the labor explicitly or implicitly excluded from the definition under international law is considered by most of the world as "women's work." Millions of women perform unpaid labor in the home and the fields; yet the international community fails to take into account their economic productivity or their political and social relevance. In view of this failure to recognize formally "women's work" as "work" by the international community, this paper analyzes international human-rights law and international labor legislation to see what impact, if any, these have on the lives of working women in the domestic and informal sectors. Subsequently, it offers feminist critiques of these international legal norms. In conclusion, the paper argues that the International Labor Organization should ratify a convention recognizing "women's work" as "work."

Schanker, David R. The Reality Gap: Global Access to Health Care and the Legislative Impact of the World Health Organization's "HFA2000." Occasional Paper No. 19. October 1993. 141 pp. ISBN 1-881157-16-4.
Lack of access to health care is a global problem of immense proportions. In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) created a program called "Health for All by the Year 2000" (HFA2000) in an attempt to encourage the world's nations to expand their health-care systems to provide coverage for all of their citizens. One of the chief purposes of the program is to convince nations of the necessity of enacting legislation supporting the concept of "health for all," both as an expression of political will, which expedites and regulates the allocation of resources, and as an essential tool in the development and implementation of health-care policy. This paper evaluates the success of WHO in influencing countries toward these goals; it surveys public laws in the context of the development of national health systems of selected countries in each of the WHO's six regions. Despite a continuing trend toward legislating health for all, the reality gap between legislated goals and the actual provision of health care is widening, rather than narrowing, in most countries of the world.

Schönfeld, Martin. Justifications of Environmental Protection. April 1992. Occasional Paper No. 11. 86 pp. ISBN 1-881157-11-3.
If environmental protection is justifiable in a pre-legal, foundational sense, then theory must identify those positive values associated with nature that proceed from rationally defensible premises. This paper examines various justificatory approaches to environmental protection from the vantage point of the following questions: Is the approach logically consistent? Are the basic assumptions of it defensible? Is the approach methodologically efficacious? Do conclusions entail the undesirability of paradigmatic cases of environmental degradation? "Common-sense" and "ecological," as well as pragmatic, aesthetic, and theological justifications are examined and rejected. The ethical-normative approach is then shown to be feasible and applicable. Contrary to current popular theories in environmental ethics, it is not asserted that the environment has moral standing nor that obligations toward sentient beings are to be analyzed in terms of the negativity of inflicting pain. Instead, it is argued that nonhuman vertebrates possess the same features that qualify humans as moral agents; therefore, a normative ethics that is not arbitrary must recognize the obligation to respect the continued existence of nonhuman vertebrates. This obligation entails the duty to conserve their habitats and constitutes the ethical justification of environmental protection.

Seel, Peter Benjamin. Television Wars: Local Effects of Competition Between Multinational Telecommunication Corporations. Occasional Paper No. 18. July 1993. 59 pp. ISBN 1- 881157-21-0.
The international television manufacturing strategies of Thomson Consumer Electronics and Zenith Electronics Corporation are compared together with the effect of these strategies on three communities: Springfield Missouri; Bloomington, Indiana; and Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The demise of the United States consumer electronics industry is analyzed in the context of the growth of electronics manufacturing in Asian factories and Mexican maquiladora facilities. Zenith and Thomson have become multinational television manufacturers with linked North American operations in both Mexico and the United States. This paper examines the labor and environmental issues that not only have influenced the growth of maquiladora electronic manufacturing but will have significant effects on the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement.

Shaaban, Marian, and Robert Goehlert. UN Documentation: A Basic Guide. January 1993. Occasional Paper No. 16. 96 pp. ISBN 1-881157-17-2.
The aim of UN Documentation: A Basic Guide is to provide an overview of the documentation of the United Nations and a basic introduction to the bibliographic reference tools used for researching the UN. The guide briefly describes the major publications and indexes of the UN and lists those bibliographies, indexes, handbooks, and manuals that can be used to identify secondary source materials about the UN in particular, and international affairs in general. This concise guide begins with a short explanation of UN documentation, including the types of UN publications, the classification system used in assigning a document number to a publication, and what publications are available in microform. The authors then discuss the indexes, bibliographic guides, and reference tools to UN documentation, including treaties. There are two sections that briefly review selected UN periodicals and series and statistical series. The guide concludes with a section identifying the major catalogs and indexes used for finding publications of the specialized agencies and autonomous organizations within the UN system. The guide also includes five appendices: finding General Assembly resolutions and voting records; finding Security Council resolutions and voting records; important document series symbols for Model UN sessions; and useful publications for Model UN sessions.

Shrestha, Nanda R., and Dennis Conway. Forest Land, the State, and the Rural Poor: Conflicts Over Frontier Settlement in Contemporary Nepal. May 1992. Occasional Paper No. 12. 67 pp. ISBN 1-881157-12-1.
This paper investigates the conflictual situation at the Tarai frontier of Nepal, where the ecopolitics of forested public lands pit state agents, privileged classes, and settlers against one another in conflicts over forest utilization. The lowland Tarai region of Central-Western Nepal was opened in the mid-195Os for resettlement. Our investigation discloses the process of land encroachment by impoverished, spontaneous settlers in this area. The investigation explains how and why land encroachment is taking place, and reveals how the power and interests of state agencies and of the privileged classes are sometimes countered by communal action. A further objective is to demonstrate why such conflict over forested frontier resources is intensifying in recent times.

Stolnitz, George J. Population and Environment: Patterns, Problems, Some Pathways to Solutions. August 1991. Occasional Paper No. 1. 21 pp. ISBN 1-881157-05-9.
Population-environment linkages have become global and regional concerns of prime importance, while demographic magnitudes and structure unprecedented in human history continue to place ever mounting demands upon environmental capacities. Simultaneously, environmental limitations and hazards are being perceived as similarly embracing dimension and diversity: depletion of land resources, fuel and nonfuel minerals, forests; pollution of air, water, and food; extinction of plant and animal species; inadequate disposal of toxic and non-toxic wastes; global greenhouse or warming effects; ozone thinning, acid rain, and much else. The purpose of this paper is to document the nature and some of the international dimensions of the foremost demographic threats to the environment; to identify some linkage aspects central for guiding social response to such threats; and to suggest some possible methods for moderating the social costs of adverse demographic-environmental interaction.

Sullivan, R. Todd. Getting Intentions Right in War. May 1993. Occasional Paper No. 17. 55 pp. ISBN 1-881157-20-2.
Traditional just war theory has insisted that a state's intentions in warfare fall within a certain limited range. A substantial literature exists describing which intentions are permissible within war. Yet very little has been written providing criteria to discern whether agents of the state are reporting state intentions accurately. Following a careful reading of arguments for and against the Persian Gulf War of 1991, this paper attempts to provide two criteria and one methodological principle toward this end. The criteria are consistency and means/ends rationality; the methodological principle is that state intentions and state motivations be viewed holistically. Using these criteria, the Bush Administration's statements of its intentions in the Persian Gulf War are examined and found wanting.

Wagoner, Paula L. Ambivalent Identities: Processes of Marginalization and Exclusion. November 1994. 125 pp. ISBN 1-881157-27-X Occasional Paper No. 25.
Groups whose value orientations differ from those of the dominant society are often viewed as "incompetent," "underdeveloped," and "powerless." This study examines the relevance of one historically situated ethnographic case study to the present global context, in order to illuminate those processes by which indigenous peoples are marginalized and excluded. An exploration of the differences in perceptions of two fundamentally important cultural conceptions, social relations within groups and notions of relationship to land, establishes the foundation for the case study. An ethnohistorical investigation of three social categories in Bennett County, South Dakota, "fullblood," "mixedblood," and "white," reveals processes by which an elite class emerged as a result of federal policies of the United States designed to assimilate Lakotas. The categories are expressed in terms of race and competence, where no such politically loaded categories previously had existed in Lakota culture. This paper argues that structural inadequacies within local and global political structures that are rooted in Western traditions continue to exclude the voices of peoples with differing worldviews. It concludes by offering some suggestions for imagining a more egalitarian global network.

Walker, Juliet E. K. War, Peace, and Structural Violence: Peace Activism and the African- American Historic Experience. Occasional Paper No. 14. July 1992. 91 pp. ISBN 1- 881157-14-8.
Structural violence distinguishes the African-American experience. Since 1619, countless injuries and an incalculable number of deaths from slavery and racism have had devastating consequences for blacks in America. Yet, despite pervasive societal injustices and economic inequalities, African-Americans, in their opposition to structural violence in American life, have been active, historically and presently, in the cause of peace. After almost four centuries, blacks in America still find it necessary to challenge the economic inequities of structural violence and the persistent racial contradictions of a society professing legality, equality, and promotion of human rights. Ironically, socioeconomic gains made by African-Americans have been achieved primarily as a consequence of this nations' wars or internal conflicts. Paradoxically, the gains stemming from periods of contention have eroded during times of peace, thus illuminating yet another unresolved "American Dilemma." Establishing the historic efforts made by African-Americans to secure a positive peace from the structural violence in American life provides the focus of this analysis.

Willnat, Lars. The East German Press During the Political Transformation of East Germany. December 1991. Occasional Paper No. 6. 61 pp. ISBN 1-881157-03-2
This study presents a first look at the degree of journalistic change that took place in the former East Germany during the autumn of 1989. Specifically, it is asked whether, affected as it was by glasnost and sweeping political reforms, East German journalism did indeed change or whether it simply continued to embrace the socialist journalistic news values during the last months of 1989. To what extent did former control mechanisms still exist in the East German print media during 1989? How did journalists cope with the new political situation and sudden journalistic freedom? The findings suggest that although newspapers were initially kept in tight rein during 1989, political changes forced the East German government to allow the media to do more realistic reporting. However, it appears that most of these changes were directed by the government and the Socialist Unity Party. Newspapers reacted to political demands from the party; they were never at the forefront of political change.

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