1200s - 1400s Genoa and Venice develop plantation slavery in Eastern Europe and Middle East              
1400s Portugal becomes involved in slavery in Africa and Atlantic islands
1501 First slaves carried from Africa to the Americas.
  Spanish, Portuguese, English and Dutch all become involved with Indian slavery and the African slave trade during the sixteenth-century
Martin Luther posts Ninety-Five Theses on Wittenburg Church, inaugurating the
Protestant Reformation.
1565     St. Augustine (Florida) colonized by Spanish
1603 James I becomes King of England.
1607 Virginia Company founds Jamestown.

Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec.

  John Smith, True Relation
1609 Henry Hudson sails into Hudson River valley.
  Virginia receives sea-to-sea charter.
  Santa Fe (New Mexico) colony established by Spanish
1613–1614 John Rolfe grows tobacco, marries Pocahontas.
1616-1619 Epidemic devastates native Algonquian populations of New England
1619 Jamestown makes transition from outpost to settlement when:
  Virginia House of Burgesses meets for first time.
  Women are transported to Virginia to make wives for former tenants.
  First documented arrival of Africans in Virginia.
1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth in the Mayflower
1623 Richard Frethorne, Letter to his Parents
1624 New Amsterdam (New York City) established by Dutch
1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony established by English

John Winthrop, “Reasons to be considered for justifying....”

1630 John Winthrop, “A Model of Christian Charity”
1634 Maryland established by English
  Virginia establishes county system, now a colony rather settlement, land English rather than Indian
1636-38 Unrest in New England: Roger Williams exiled, founds Rhode Island; other Puritan leaders to Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut; Pequot War; Antinomian Controversy & Ann Hutchison
1638 New Sweden (Wilmington, Delaware) established by Swedish
1640s The sugar revolution and the rise of racial slavery in Barbados.
  English Civil War
1642 William Bradford, Journal
1643 Virginia laws of servitude and slavery
1650s England is a "Common Wealth"
  300 slaves in Virginia
1660–1688 Restoration era / Chartering of "Restoration Colonies" of Carolina, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
1660 Charles II becomes King of England.
1660s Royal African Company established.
1672 Thomas Shephard, letter to his son at college
1675 Metacom’s (King Philip’s) War begins in New England.
Lords of Trade created.
1676 Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia
1680s Racial slavery replaces indentured servitude as basic labor structure in the Chesapeake (tobacco)
1684 Increase Mather, An Arrow Against Profane and Promiscuous Dancing
1685 James the II becomes King of England
1688 Glorious Revolution in England
1690s Racial slavery replaces indentured servitude as basic labor structure in the Carolinas (rice)
1692 Salem Witch Trials
1700 13,000 slaves in Virginia
1703 Nicholas Noyes, “Reasons against Wearing of Periwiggs” (ca. 1703)
1705 Virginia adopts comprehensive slave code.
  Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia
1709-1712 William Byrd Diary, selections