What is Vaginitis?
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina and the vulva that may cause pain, itching and discharge. Vaginitis is very common and most women may experience it at least once. Three types of vaginal infections occur most frequently:
- Bacterial Infections
- Yeast (Candida) Infections
- Trichomonal Infections
Although these vaginal infections have many common symptoms, each is caused by a different organism and is treated in different ways. The specific organism is determined through a microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge. This information along with a pelvic exam and medical history will identify the vaginal infection which is present. It is possible for more than one type of vaginal infection to be present at the same time.
It is important to remember that it is normal for women to have some vaginal discharge. The normal vaginal discharge is made of mucus secretions from the cervix and vagina plus discarded vaginal cells. Normal discharge is transparent or cloudy-white and somewhat filmy. When it dries on clothing it is yellowish. Generally, the discharge has little odor and causes no irritation.
The amount of discharge varies according to the time of a woman’s menstrual cycle and her state of sexual arousal.
If the delicate chemical balance in the vagina is upset, organisms normally present in the vagina can multiply at a higher rate than normal. Also, the imbalance may make the vagina more susceptible to “invader” organisms which would normally be controlled as they entered the vagina. The organisms (bacteria, fungi or protozoa) create waste products which can irritate tissue, cause an unpleasant odor, itching and/or swelling.
This condition is also called Bacterial Vaginosis, or BV. It is caused by an overgrowth of vaginal bacteria and a change in the normal acid environment of the vagina. This infection may occur spontaneously. Activities that can upset the balance of natural bacteria can include having a new sexual partner, male ejaculate in vagina, multiple partners, and douching. The discharge associated with this condition may be thick or watery and may have an unpleasant odor, often more noticeable after intercourse. Some women note pain or burning with intercourse or urination but rarely have itching or redness. Some do not report symptoms at all. There are several different treatments now available, including oral or vaginal medications. Treatment of male sex partners is not recommended because it has not been beneficial in preventing the recurrence of BV. Consistent use of condoms may prevent future infections. Women with female sexual partners who have BV are at risk due to vaginal fluid transmission. Women who have BV are more susceptible to other sexually transmitted infections (STI’s).
Yeast (Candida) Infection
This infection may be called by different names: yeast infection, candidiasis, and moniliasis.
This fungal organism is normally present, in small and harmless quantities, in the mouth, digestive tract, and vagina. When the balance in the vagina is upset and yeast overgrows, you may note symptoms. Yeast is not usually sexually transmitted.
Symptoms may include itching, burning, redness or swelling around the vaginal opening. Discharge is usually white and thick with a “cottage cheese” consistency.
Yeast infections are usually treated with vaginal creams or suppositories available “over-the-counter” without a prescription. Sometimes prescription creams or a tablet are prescribed.
This condition is caused by a one-celled organism (trichomonas vaginalis) generally called “trich” (pronounced “trick”). It may be found in both men and women and can be transmitted sexually. Women who have trich may have a thin but foamy discharge which is greenish or grayish in color with an unpleasant odor. Itching, redness, pain and frequent urination may also be noted. An oral antibiotic is the usual treatment. All sex partners should be treated and you should not have sex until treatment is completed. You should be tested for other STI’s.
More on Treatment
It is important to use the medication exactly as it is prescribed. Do not stop using medication when symptoms disappear as some organisms may survive incomplete treatment.
Avoid sexual intercourse during the treatment. This will allow irritated vaginal tissue to heal faster.
If you do have intercourse, use a condom & water based lubricant. However, some vaginal medications may weaken the latex in condoms, causing possible breakage.
Vaginal infections thrive in moisture and warmth. Keep the vaginal area (vulva) as dry as possible. Consider the following suggestions:
• Dry carefully after bathing.
• Wear cotton underwear and don’t use fabric softener on underwear.
• Do not sleep in underwear.
• Do not douche.
• Avoid tight clothing and wearing leggings frequently
• Change out of a wet bathing suit or wet clothing immediately after swimming or exercising.
• Avoid hot tubs or hot baths.
• Avoid deodorant pads or tampons.
• Avoid scented soaps or body wash in genital area; use mild, unscented soaps. Rinse genitals after a bubble bath. *Keep vaginal PH healthy by consuming foods such as yogurt with acidophilus.
Return for follow-up visits if required. If you have questions about vaginitis or other health care concerns call Health and Wellness Education at 855-7338 or call 855-7688 for a medical appointment