Citation in History: Endnotes/Footnotes and Bibliography

Why is citation necessary?

 As historians we are expected to learn from and build on the works of others. We must acknowledge when we borrow someone else’s ideas and/or words to help us reach our own conclusions. Citation is an issue of honesty and integrity – plagiarism is a serious offense that can lead to disciplinary action – but it also is helpful to your readers in their own work. They can use your citations to find books that might interest them or help them in their research.

The Chicago Manual of Style

 There are two ways to cite material using the Chicago Manual of Style, the “Author-Date Citations and Reference List” style and the more in-depth “Notes and Bibliographies” style. Both are presented below. According to page 649 of The Chicago Manual of Style, as long as the style used is consistent, complete and clear to the reader, variations and combinations of these styles is permissible.

How do I use the Chicago Manual of Style to cite in short papers?
How do I use the Chicago Manual of Style to cite in longer research papers?
How do I use the Chicago Manual of Style to cite primary sources?

For Shorter Papers: Author-Date Style and Reference List

This style is best used in smaller papers in which full citations would appear redundant.

Citation in the text: Author-Date Style

Author-Date Style is a simple citation style for shorter papers. When you need to cite any information gained from an outside source, you simply place the author’s last name and the year the work was published in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. You use the same style throughout the work, no matter how many times you cite that source.

For example: The core of Eric Williams’ thesis in Capitalism and Slavery is that declining economic profits led to the abolition of the slave trade in early nineteenth century Britain (Williams 1994).

Other things to remember about citations within a text:

  • When using a direct quotation or information from specific pages, you must include the page number after the year of publication, separating the two with a comma. For example, (Smith 1996, 42).
  • For two or three authors, all names are included, i.e. (Jackson and Jones 1998) or (Warner, Brown and Rack 1987). For more than three authors, use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” For example (Sears et al. 2001).
  • If you cite multiple sources in one note, separate sources by using a semi-colon. For example, (Smith 1996; Jackson and Jones 1998; Manning 2003).

At the End of the Paper: Reference List

If you have cited in the text using the Author-Date Style, you will need to include a reference list at the end of the paper. A reference list is necessary when using the Author-Date Style of citation because it provides the reader with enough information to find the materials you have cited in the text. It is like an abbreviated bibliography that includes only those sources cited in the text (not all sources consulted) and uses a shorter citation format. It is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. In the list it is important to remember that:

  • Only the author’s first and (if applicable) middle initials are given
  • The publication year is placed directly after the author’s name
  • Only the first word in the title is capitalized, along with any proper nouns or adjectives. The first word in the subtitle is also usually capitalized.
  • Quotation marks are not used to enclose the title of an article, book chapter, piece of short literature, episode, etc.

Examples of reference list entries:

Book:

Stoller, P. and C. Oakes, 1987. Sorcery’s shadow. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Edited volume :

Joseph, G.M. and T.J. Henderson, eds. 2002. The Mexico reader: History, culture, politics. Durham: Duke University Press.*

*”eds.” is an abbreviation for “editors.”

Article in a journal:

Scott, J. W. 1989. History in crisis: The others’ side of the story. The American Historical Review 94, no. 3 (June): 680-692.

If you refer to more than one book by the same author, after the fist item, you replace the author’s name with a long dash (made of six hyphens) and order the entries chronologically. For example:

Vaughan , M.K. 1982. The state, education, and social class in Mexico, 1880-1928. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

------. 1987. Primary schooling in the city of Puebla, 1821-60. The Hispanic American Historical Review 67, no. 1 (February): 39-62

------. 1997. Cultural politics in revolution: Teachers, peasants, and schools in Mexico, 1930-1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

For Longer Papers: Notes and Bibliography Style

Citation in the text: Footnotes or Endnotes

  • First citation in a work
    • Journal article
    • Book review
    • Newspaper article
    • Website
    • Citation taken from a secondary source
    • Books
  • Subsequent references

At the end of the paper: Bibliography

  • Journal article
  • Book review
  • Newspaper article
  • Website
  • Citation taken from a secondary source
  • Books

Citations: Footnotes and Endnotes

This form of citation is used for longer papers, dissertations, and books. It includes much more detail, especially in the notes. In addition, these notes provide the writer with the opportunity to further enhance the evidence given from a source. The reason for this style’s use in these types of works is simple: in a longer project it makes it easier for the reader to simply look at the note and receive all the information on a source.

There are two types of notes: footnotes (which appear at the bottom of the page on which the note number occurs) and endnotes (which are all placed on one or more pages at the end of a work). Both forms of notes use the same style of citation. Be sure to find out whether your instructor has a preference.

When you first cite a work in your paper, you must provide a full accounting of the source you are using. To use our first example above:

The core of Eric Williams’ thesis in Capitalism and Slavery is that declining economic profits led to the abolition of the slave trade in early nineteenth century Britain. 1

At the bottom of the page, for footnotes, or at the end of the paper, for endnotes, the following citation would be required:

1. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944, 14.

In the first note, you would be required to give all of the information on this source. Below is a list of how to cite the first reference from various types of materials.

Journal article:

1. Eric Van Young. “Recent Anglophone Scholarship on Mexico and Central America in the Age of Revolution (1750-1850)," The Hispanic American Historical Review 65, no. 4 (Nov., 1985): 730.

Book review:

5. Robert L. Breckenridge, review of The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85, by Thomas E. Skidmore, Church History 58, no. 4 (Dec., 1989): 549.

Newspaper Article:

2. Brent Staples, “On the Sidelines of the Most Important Civil Rights Battle Since ‘Brown’,” The New York Times, 18 April 2005, sec. A, p. 18.*

*p. is used here to emphasize the difference between the page number and the section number.

Website:

10. W. Caleb McDaniel, “Blogging in the Early Republic: Why Bloggers Belong in the History of Reading,” Common-Place 5, no. 4, (July 1995), http://www.common-place.org/vol-05/no-04/mcdaniel/index.shtml (accessed August 4, 2005).

Citation taken from a secondary source*:

6. Harriet Monroe, A Poet’s Life: Seventy Years in a Changing World (New York: Macmillan, 1938); quoted in Erik Larson, Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America ( New York: Crown Publishers, 2003) 22.

*This format is used when you wish to cite a work quoted in another author’s text. It should be used sparingly; in ideal cases writers will read the original text, rather than relying on the fragment selected by another author.

Books

  • Single author, first edition:

4. Philip Berryman, The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984), 10.

  • Single author, later edition:

6. Richard W. Barber, King Arthur: Hero and Legend, 2nd ed. (Wopodbridge: Boydell, 1990), 23.

  • 2 or 3 authors:

3. Larissa Adler Lomnitz and Marisol Pérez-Lizaur, A Mexican Elite Family, 1820-1980: Kinship, Class, and Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), 201.

  • More than 3 authors:

2. Barbara Allen Babcock et al., Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes and Remedies (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 24.

  • Unknown author :

7. Kaplan GRE Exam ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000), 1.

  • Author and an editor or translator:

9. Adolfo Venturi, A Short History of Italian Art, trans. Edward Hutton (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926), 12.

  • Reprint:

8. John Cleland, Memoirs of a Coxcomb (London: R. Griffiths, 1751; reprint, New York: Garland Publishers, 1974), 4.

  • Anthology:

5. Hour of Freedom: American History in Poetry, ed. Milton Meltzer (Honesdale: Wordsong / Boyds Mill Press, 2003), 7.*

*”ed.” is an abbreviation for “edited by.”

Chapter in an edited collection

3. Jane Beilke, “Nineteenth Century Traditions of Benevolence and Education: Toward a Conceptual Framework of Black Philanthropy,” in Uplifting a People: African American Philanthropy and Education, ed. Marybeth Gasman and Katherine Sedgwick ( New York: Peter Lang, 2005), 14.

  • Subsequent references in the notes

When you cite from a work a second time, the format used changes, in order to prevent needless repetition. Here is a guide for how to make subsequent references to a work previously cited.

 

 
First reference

 

 

Subsequent reference

 

Same work and author; only source by that author.

 

Philip Berryman, The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984), 10.

 

 

Berryman, 12.

(author’s last name, page number.)

 

Two or more works by the same author.

 

Eric Van Young, The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence and Ideology in Mexico, 1810-1821 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 53.

 

 

Van Young , Mexico ’s Regions , 21.

 

(author’s last name, shortened title, page number)

 

Two authors with the same last name.

 

 

Sally Jones, 54.

 

(author’s full name, page number)

 

 

At the End of the Paper: Bibliography

At the end of your work it is required that you provide a full accounting of your source material. This allows for the reader to see all the sources in one neatly organized location. It may also include sources that you have consulted, but did not footnote. Sources are placed in alphabetical order, as discussed above with the reference list. Here is how to include a variety of works in a bibliography. Note that entries are similar to those used for footnotes or endnotes, with most commas replaced with periods and abbreviations replaced for the long form of the words. Authors’ names are given last name first to provide a convenient alphabetical list for the reader.

Journal article:

Van Young, Eric. “Recent Anglophone Scholarship on Mexico and Central America in the Age of Revolution (1750-1850). The Hispanic American Historical Review 65, no. 4 (Nov., 1985): 725-743.

Book review:

Breckenridge, Robert L. Review of The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85, by Thomas E. Skidmore. Church History 58, no. 4 (Dec., 1989): 549

Newspaper article:

Staples, Brent. “On the Sidelines of the Most Important Civil Rights Battle Since ‘Brown’.” The New York Times, 18 April 2005, sec. A, p. 18.

Website:

McDaniel, W. Caleb. “Blogging in the Early Republic: Why Bloggers Belong in the History of Reading.” Common-Place 5, no. 4, (July 1995), http://www.common-place.org/vol-05/no-04/mcdaniel/index.shtml (accessed August 4, 2005).

Citation from a secondary source:

Monroe, Harriet. A Poet’s Life: Seventy Years in a Changing World, 42. New York: Macmillan, 1938. Quoted in Erik Larson, Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America ( New York: Crown Publishers, 2003) 22.

Books:

  • Single author, first edition:

Berryman, Philip. The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984.

  • Single author, later edition:

Barber, Richard W. King Arthur: Hero and Legend. 2 nd ed. Wopodbridge: Boydell, 1990.

  • 2 or 3 authors:

Lomnitz, Larissa Adler and Marisol Pérez-Lizaur. A Mexican Elite Family, 1820-1980: Kinship, Class, and Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

  • More than 3 authors:

Babcock, Barbara Allen, et al. Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes and Remedies. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

  • Unknown author:

Kaplan GRE Exam. New York : Simon and Schuster, 2000.

  • Author and an editor or translator:

Venturi, Adolfo. A Short History of Italian Art. Translated by Edward Hutton. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926.

  • Reprint:

Cleland, John. Memoirs of a Coxcomb. London: R. Griffiths, 1751. Reprint, New York: Garland Publishers, 1974.

  • Anthology:

Hour of Freedom: American History in Poetry . Edited by Milton Meltzer. Honesdale, PA: Wordsong / Boyds Mill Press, 2003.

  • Edited volume:

Joseph, Gilbert and David Nugent, editors. Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994.

Chapter in an edited collection:

Beilke, Jane. “Nineteenth Century Traditions of Benevolence and Education: Toward a Conceptual Framework of Black Philanthropy.” In Uplifting a People: African American Philanthropy and Education. Edited by Marybeth Gasman and Katherine Sedgwick. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.

  • More than one book by the same author:

Vaughan, Mary Kay. The State, Education, and Social Class in Mexico, 1880-1928. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1982.

------. “Primary Schooling in the City of Puebla, 1821-60.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 67, no. 1 (February): 39-62

------. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Primary sources

Your research papers may require you to consult primary sources, that is, sources produced by the people who acted in or witnessed the events you plan to write about. For published primary sources, follow citation guidelines for the format in which the account is published. An autobiography, for instance, should be cited as a book. Newspapers articles should also be cited according to the guidelines discussed above. For unpublished primary sources – interviews you conduct or archival materials – follow the citation guidelines below.

Formal interviews
Personal communications (letters, emails, etc.)
Manuscript collections
Government documents

Formal interviews
Unpublished interviews
Notes
:

  • First citation
    • An interview you did:

2. Julian Lloret (Central American Mission), in discussion with the author, 5 March 1985.

  • An unpublished interview conducted by someone else:

5. Charles “Bud” Dant, interview by Christopher Dant, March 1999, tape recording, Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN.

  • Subsequent citations
  • Lloret, discussion.
  • Charles “Bud” Dant, interview.

Reference list:

Dant, Charles. 1999. Interview by Christopher Dant. Tape recording. March. Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington.

Unattributed interviews

In cases where interviewees wish to remain anonymous, citations should give relevant information about the interviewee and the date. The absence of names should be explained. If all interviews are anonymous, this may be noted at the beginning of the bibliography. If only some of the interviewees wished to remain anonymous, specific requests should be noted as follows.

Notes:

Interview with pastor (Asambleas de Dios Central), Guatemala City, March 7, 1985.

Reference list:

Pastor. Asambleas de Dios Central. 1985. Interview. Guatemala City, March 7. Name withheld by request.

Published or broadcast interviews

As noted above, published interviews, including those broadcast on television or radio, follow the citation formats for the media in which they are made public. See guidelines for those formats above.

Personal communications

Personal communications, such as letters, telephone calls or emails, are not usually put in bibliographies. They are instead cited in the notes (of a longer paper) or in parenthetical citations in the text (in a shorter paper). When citing such sources, the type of communication should be specified.

Notes:

2. William Frey to author, April 23, 1985.
5. John Smith, e-mail message to author, July 7, 2003.

Parenthetical citations:

(W. Frey, pers. comm.)
(J. Smith, e-mail to author)

Letters and other communications in published collections

Notes:

5. Isabella Bird to Henrietta Bird, Mortlake, Australia, 8 November 1872, in Letters to Henrietta: Isabella Bird, ed. Kay Chubbuck ( Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003), 45.

  1. Caroline Petigru Carson to James Carson, Venice, 6 June 1875, in The Roman Years of a South Carolina Artist: Caroline Carson’s Letters Home, 1872-1892, ed. William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003), 59.
  1. Caroline Carson to James Carson, 59.
  2. Jefferson to Adams, 153.

Bibliography:

Bird, Isabella. Isabella Bird to Henrietta Bird, 8 November 1872. In Letters to Henrietta: Isabella Bird. Edited by Kay Chubbock. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003.

Private contracts, wills, and such

These types of documents are also typically are cited only in the notes, because they frequently make up part of archival collections that are then cited more broadly in the bibliography. In the case of the following example, for instance, the bibliography would contain an entry for the James H. Rudy Papers (unless the will were the only document in the collection that you consulted).

Notes:

James H. Rudy, will date 1953, proved 1956, no. C49, box 1, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, IN.

Bibliography:

James H. Rudy Papers. Indiana University Archives. Bloomington.

Manuscript collections

 Notes:

6. Elias VanderHorst, “List of Seventeen Negro Men…,” 30 Oct. 1862, Folder 26, VanderHorst Family Collection, South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston.

2. F.W. Pickens to General Beauregard, 5 Nov. 1862, Governors’ Papers, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

4. Benjamin Allston to Robert F.W. Allston, 17 June 1860 (typescript), in Robert F.W. Allston Family Letters, Vol. 3, R.F.W. Allston Papers, South Caroliniana Collection, University of South Carolina Library.

Bibliography:

VanderHorst Family Papers. South Carolina Historical Society. Charleston.

Pickens, Francis. Governors’ Papers. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

Robert F.W. Allston Papers. South Caroliniana Collection. University of South Carolina Library.

Government Documents:

Different types of government documents call for different bibliographic information. References to printed public documents should include the elements needed to find the work in a library catalog, including some or all of the following:

  • Country, state, city, county, or other government division issuing the document
  • Legislative body, executive department, court bureau, board, commission, or committee
    Subsidiary divisions, regional offices, and so forth
  • Title, if any, of the document or collection
  • Individual author, editor, or compiler, if given
  • Report number or other identifying information
  • Publisher, if different from the issuing body
  • Date
  • Page, if relevant

Examples follow. For other specific questions, consult The Chicago Manual of Style in the reference section of the Wells Library or ask your professor or a librarian for help.

 Notes

2. U.S. House of Representatives, Budget of The U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2003, House Document No. 107-159, Vol. 1.

7. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Mutual Security Act of 1956, 84th Cong., 2nd sess., 1956, S. Rep. 2273, 9-10.

Bibliography

Congressional Record. 71st. Cong., 2s sess., 1930, vol. 73 pt. 10.

For more help:

All citation methods discussed above are taken from the Fifteenth Edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. The book is available at the reference desk in the Wells Library (formerly the Main Library) on the ground floor of the East Tower, or in the Undergraduate reference section and the Core Collection. The call number is Z253 C532 2003.

 For more online examples, please see:

Research and Documentation Online

http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/

Citation Styles – Online!

http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite7.html

Writing Center at University of Wisconsin-Madison http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChicago.html

The style guide for students that is based most closely on the Chicago Manual of Style is Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. A number of online guides using Turabian style can be found through Google.

You can also ask a reference librarian or your instructor for further assistance.