Citation in History: Endnotes/Footnotes and Bibliography
Why is citation necessary?
As historians we are expected to learn from and build on the works of others. We must acknowledge when we borrow someone else’s ideas and/or words to help us reach our own conclusions. Citation is an issue of honesty and integrity – plagiarism is a serious offense that can lead to disciplinary action – but it also is helpful to your readers in their own work. They can use your citations to find books that might interest them or help them in their research.
The Chicago Manual of Style
There are two ways to cite material using the Chicago Manual of Style, the “Author-Date Citations and Reference List” style and the more in-depth “Notes and Bibliographies” style. Both are presented below. According to page 649 of The Chicago Manual of Style, as long as the style used is consistent, complete and clear to the reader, variations and combinations of these styles is permissible.
How do I use the Chicago Manual of Style to cite in short papers?
This style is best used in smaller papers in which full citations would appear redundant.
Author-Date Style is a simple citation style for shorter papers. When you need to cite any information gained from an outside source, you simply place the author’s last name and the year the work was published in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. You use the same style throughout the work, no matter how many times you cite that source.
For example: The core of Eric Williams’ thesis in Capitalism and Slavery is that declining economic profits led to the abolition of the slave trade in early nineteenth century Britain (Williams 1994).
Other things to remember about citations within a text:
If you have cited in the text using the Author-Date Style, you will need to include a reference list at the end of the paper. A reference list is necessary when using the Author-Date Style of citation because it provides the reader with enough information to find the materials you have cited in the text. It is like an abbreviated bibliography that includes only those sources cited in the text (not all sources consulted) and uses a shorter citation format. It is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. In the list it is important to remember that:
Examples of reference list entries:
Stoller, P. and C. Oakes, 1987. Sorcery’s shadow. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Joseph, G.M. and T.J. Henderson, eds. 2002. The Mexico reader: History, culture, politics. Durham: Duke University Press.*
*”eds.” is an abbreviation for “editors.”
Scott, J. W. 1989. History in crisis: The others’ side of the story. The American Historical Review 94, no. 3 (June): 680-692.
If you refer to more than one book by the same author, after the fist item, you replace the author’s name with a long dash (made of six hyphens) and order the entries chronologically. For example:
Vaughan , M.K. 1982. The state, education, and social class in Mexico, 1880-1928. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
------. 1987. Primary schooling in the city of Puebla, 1821-60. The Hispanic American Historical Review 67, no. 1 (February): 39-62
------. 1997. Cultural politics in revolution: Teachers, peasants, and schools in Mexico, 1930-1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
This form of citation is used for longer papers, dissertations, and books. It includes much more detail, especially in the notes. In addition, these notes provide the writer with the opportunity to further enhance the evidence given from a source. The reason for this style’s use in these types of works is simple: in a longer project it makes it easier for the reader to simply look at the note and receive all the information on a source.
There are two types of notes: footnotes (which appear at the bottom of the page on which the note number occurs) and endnotes (which are all placed on one or more pages at the end of a work). Both forms of notes use the same style of citation. Be sure to find out whether your instructor has a preference.
When you first cite a work in your paper, you must provide a full accounting of the source you are using. To use our first example above:
The core of Eric Williams’ thesis in Capitalism and Slavery is that declining economic profits led to the abolition of the slave trade in early nineteenth century Britain. 1
At the bottom of the page, for footnotes, or at the end of the paper, for endnotes, the following citation would be required:
1. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944, 14.
In the first note, you would be required to give all of the information on this source. Below is a list of how to cite the first reference from various types of materials.
1. Eric Van Young. “Recent Anglophone Scholarship on Mexico and Central America in the Age of Revolution (1750-1850)," The Hispanic American Historical Review 65, no. 4 (Nov., 1985): 730.
5. Robert L. Breckenridge, review of The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85, by Thomas E. Skidmore, Church History 58, no. 4 (Dec., 1989): 549.
2. Brent Staples, “On the Sidelines of the Most Important Civil Rights Battle Since ‘Brown’,” The New York Times, 18 April 2005, sec. A, p. 18.*
*p. is used here to emphasize the difference between the page number and the section number.
10. W. Caleb McDaniel, “Blogging in the Early Republic: Why Bloggers Belong in the History of Reading,” Common-Place 5, no. 4, (July 1995), http://www.common-place.org/vol-05/no-04/mcdaniel/index.shtml (accessed August 4, 2005).
6. Harriet Monroe, A Poet’s Life: Seventy Years in a Changing World (New York: Macmillan, 1938); quoted in Erik Larson, Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America ( New York: Crown Publishers, 2003) 22.
*This format is used when you wish to cite a work quoted in another author’s text. It should be used sparingly; in ideal cases writers will read the original text, rather than relying on the fragment selected by another author.
4. Philip Berryman, The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984), 10.
6. Richard W. Barber, King Arthur: Hero and Legend, 2nd ed. (Wopodbridge: Boydell, 1990), 23.
3. Larissa Adler Lomnitz and Marisol Pérez-Lizaur, A Mexican Elite Family, 1820-1980: Kinship, Class, and Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), 201.
2. Barbara Allen Babcock et al., Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes and Remedies (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 24.
7. Kaplan GRE Exam ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000), 1.
9. Adolfo Venturi, A Short History of Italian Art, trans. Edward Hutton (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926), 12.
8. John Cleland, Memoirs of a Coxcomb (London: R. Griffiths, 1751; reprint, New York: Garland Publishers, 1974), 4.
5. Hour of Freedom: American History in Poetry, ed. Milton Meltzer (Honesdale: Wordsong / Boyds Mill Press, 2003), 7.*
*”ed.” is an abbreviation for “edited by.”
Chapter in an edited collection
3. Jane Beilke, “Nineteenth Century Traditions of Benevolence and Education: Toward a Conceptual Framework of Black Philanthropy,” in Uplifting a People: African American Philanthropy and Education, ed. Marybeth Gasman and Katherine Sedgwick ( New York: Peter Lang, 2005), 14.
When you cite from a work a second time, the format used changes, in order to prevent needless repetition. Here is a guide for how to make subsequent references to a work previously cited.
At the end of your work it is required that you provide a full accounting of your source material. This allows for the reader to see all the sources in one neatly organized location. It may also include sources that you have consulted, but did not footnote. Sources are placed in alphabetical order, as discussed above with the reference list. Here is how to include a variety of works in a bibliography. Note that entries are similar to those used for footnotes or endnotes, with most commas replaced with periods and abbreviations replaced for the long form of the words. Authors’ names are given last name first to provide a convenient alphabetical list for the reader.
Van Young, Eric. “Recent Anglophone Scholarship on Mexico and Central America in the Age of Revolution (1750-1850). The Hispanic American Historical Review 65, no. 4 (Nov., 1985): 725-743.
Breckenridge, Robert L. Review of The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85, by Thomas E. Skidmore. Church History 58, no. 4 (Dec., 1989): 549
Staples, Brent. “On the Sidelines of the Most Important Civil Rights Battle Since ‘Brown’.” The New York Times, 18 April 2005, sec. A, p. 18.
McDaniel, W. Caleb. “Blogging in the Early Republic: Why Bloggers Belong in the History of Reading.” Common-Place 5, no. 4, (July 1995), http://www.common-place.org/vol-05/no-04/mcdaniel/index.shtml (accessed August 4, 2005).
Monroe, Harriet. A Poet’s Life: Seventy Years in a Changing World, 42. New York: Macmillan, 1938. Quoted in Erik Larson, Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America ( New York: Crown Publishers, 2003) 22.
Berryman, Philip. The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984.
Barber, Richard W. King Arthur: Hero and Legend. 2 nd ed. Wopodbridge: Boydell, 1990.
Lomnitz, Larissa Adler and Marisol Pérez-Lizaur. A Mexican Elite Family, 1820-1980: Kinship, Class, and Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Babcock, Barbara Allen, et al. Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes and Remedies. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.
Kaplan GRE Exam. New York : Simon and Schuster, 2000.
Venturi, Adolfo. A Short History of Italian Art. Translated by Edward Hutton. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926.
Cleland, John. Memoirs of a Coxcomb. London: R. Griffiths, 1751. Reprint, New York: Garland Publishers, 1974.
Hour of Freedom: American History in Poetry . Edited by Milton Meltzer. Honesdale, PA: Wordsong / Boyds Mill Press, 2003.
Joseph, Gilbert and David Nugent, editors. Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994.
Chapter in an edited collection:
Beilke, Jane. “Nineteenth Century Traditions of Benevolence and Education: Toward a Conceptual Framework of Black Philanthropy.” In Uplifting a People: African American Philanthropy and Education. Edited by Marybeth Gasman and Katherine Sedgwick. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.
Vaughan, Mary Kay. The State, Education, and Social Class in Mexico, 1880-1928. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1982.
------. “Primary Schooling in the City of Puebla, 1821-60.” The Hispanic American Historical Review 67, no. 1 (February): 39-62
------. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Your research papers may require you to consult primary sources, that is, sources produced by the people who acted in or witnessed the events you plan to write about. For published primary sources, follow citation guidelines for the format in which the account is published. An autobiography, for instance, should be cited as a book. Newspapers articles should also be cited according to the guidelines discussed above. For unpublished primary sources – interviews you conduct or archival materials – follow the citation guidelines below.
2. Julian Lloret (Central American Mission), in discussion with the author, 5 March 1985.
5. Charles “Bud” Dant, interview by Christopher Dant, March 1999, tape recording, Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN.
Dant, Charles. 1999. Interview by Christopher Dant. Tape recording. March. Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington.
In cases where interviewees wish to remain anonymous, citations should give relevant information about the interviewee and the date. The absence of names should be explained. If all interviews are anonymous, this may be noted at the beginning of the bibliography. If only some of the interviewees wished to remain anonymous, specific requests should be noted as follows.
Interview with pastor (Asambleas de Dios Central), Guatemala City, March 7, 1985.
Pastor. Asambleas de Dios Central. 1985. Interview. Guatemala City, March 7. Name withheld by request.
Published or broadcast interviews
As noted above, published interviews, including those broadcast on television or radio, follow the citation formats for the media in which they are made public. See guidelines for those formats above.
Personal communications, such as letters, telephone calls or emails, are not usually put in bibliographies. They are instead cited in the notes (of a longer paper) or in parenthetical citations in the text (in a shorter paper). When citing such sources, the type of communication should be specified.
2. William Frey to author, April 23, 1985.
(W. Frey, pers. comm.)
Letters and other communications in published collections
5. Isabella Bird to Henrietta Bird, Mortlake, Australia, 8 November 1872, in Letters to Henrietta: Isabella Bird, ed. Kay Chubbuck ( Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003), 45.
Bird, Isabella. Isabella Bird to Henrietta Bird, 8 November 1872. In Letters to Henrietta: Isabella Bird. Edited by Kay Chubbock. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003.
Private contracts, wills, and such
These types of documents are also typically are cited only in the notes, because they frequently make up part of archival collections that are then cited more broadly in the bibliography. In the case of the following example, for instance, the bibliography would contain an entry for the James H. Rudy Papers (unless the will were the only document in the collection that you consulted).
James H. Rudy, will date 1953, proved 1956, no. C49, box 1, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, IN.
James H. Rudy Papers. Indiana University Archives. Bloomington.
6. Elias VanderHorst, “List of Seventeen Negro Men…,” 30 Oct. 1862, Folder 26, VanderHorst Family Collection, South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston.
2. F.W. Pickens to General Beauregard, 5 Nov. 1862, Governors’ Papers, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.
4. Benjamin Allston to Robert F.W. Allston, 17 June 1860 (typescript), in Robert F.W. Allston Family Letters, Vol. 3, R.F.W. Allston Papers, South Caroliniana Collection, University of South Carolina Library.
VanderHorst Family Papers. South Carolina Historical Society. Charleston.
Pickens, Francis. Governors’ Papers. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.
Robert F.W. Allston Papers. South Caroliniana Collection. University of South Carolina Library.
Different types of government documents call for different bibliographic information. References to printed public documents should include the elements needed to find the work in a library catalog, including some or all of the following:
Examples follow. For other specific questions, consult The Chicago Manual of Style in the reference section of the Wells Library or ask your professor or a librarian for help.
2. U.S. House of Representatives, Budget of The U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2003, House Document No. 107-159, Vol. 1.
7. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Mutual Security Act of 1956, 84th Cong., 2nd sess., 1956, S. Rep. 2273, 9-10.
Congressional Record. 71st. Cong., 2s sess., 1930, vol. 73 pt. 10.
For more help:
All citation methods discussed above are taken from the Fifteenth Edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. The book is available at the reference desk in the Wells Library (formerly the Main Library) on the ground floor of the East Tower, or in the Undergraduate reference section and the Core Collection. The call number is Z253 C532 2003.
For more online examples, please see:
Research and Documentation Online
Citation Styles – Online!
Writing Center at University of Wisconsin-Madison http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChicago.html
The style guide for students that is based most closely on the Chicago Manual of Style is Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. A number of online guides using Turabian style can be found through Google.
You can also ask a reference librarian or your instructor for further assistance.