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Indiana University Bloomington

Courses

 

Spring 2014

X100-  The Science of Sex:  From Ancient Attitudes to Victorian Secrets
Ashley Inglehart
TR  4:0 pm-5:15 pm

This class is a survey course which goes from the Hippocratic corpus to Victorian Science in the 19th.  The focus of the class is on the physiological processes of reproduction in humans. Our study will include (but is not limited to) understandings of reproductive anatomy, varying theories of seeds, the discovery of the clitoris, theories about orgasms, and what contribution the female makes to reproduction. We will also look at issues of medicine, treatment, and disease –most notably Hysteria and the Great Pox (Syphilis). During the course, I will plan a trip to both the Lilly Library and the Kinsey Institute.

X100-Bioethics:  Applied Topics in the Biological Sciences & Medicine
Kimberly Brumble
TR (2nd 8 weeks) 5:45 pm-7:45 pm 

This course will survey ethical, legal, and philosophical problems concerning health care, medical research, biological research, and related topics. Topics may include euthanasia, abortion, withdrawal of treatment, consent, diagnostics, bias, the physician-patient relationship, research on human subjects, research on animal subjects, and genetic technology.  This course will hone students’ skills in analytic reading and writing, as well as the ability to make philosophic arguments.

X102-Science Revolutions: Plato to Nato
David Rogers
MWF 12:20 pm-1:10 pm
Sarah Reynolds
TR  (2nd 8 weeks) 4:00 pm-6:00 pm

Where did modern science come from? Is it a stockpile of technique and knowledge that has accumulated slowly and steadily over the centuries? This course presents a more complex and dynamic picture, in which the history of science also takes unexpected twists, turns and conceptual leaps, in response to changing social, political and religious interests, and to shifting scientific assumptions, methods, and forms of organization. The course introduces the most important formative steps in the scientific tradition, each of which overturned earlier ways of investigating and understanding nature. These include Aristotelian physics, Ptolmaic astronomy and Galenic medicine in the ancient and Medieval world; the scientific revolutions of the 15th- through the 18th centuries that ushered in Copernican astronomy, Newtonian physics, and new ideas about physiology and medicine; the chemical and Darwinian revolutions; and the rise of modern physics and other 20th-century innovations and problems.

X200-Scientific Reasoning
Nicholas Zautra
MWF 1:25 pm-2:15 pm
Shane Zappettini
MWF  2:30 pm-3:20 pm
Weston Evans
TR (2nd 8 weeks) 5:45 pm-7:45 pm

Science is the most successful way humans have found to produce knowledge of the world. But the success of science lies in the fact that it is not just a collection of facts and theories -- science's success comes from critical attitudes and methodologies.

This course covers topics essential for understanding scientific reasoning.  By the end of the course, students will understand the concepts of logical validity and soundness, laws of nature and scientific models, causation, principles of statistical reasoning, experimental design, and pseudoscience.  Other topics may include ethics in science, decision theory, and scientific realism.

X110-Scientists at Work: Frankenstein to Einstein
Professor James Capshew
MWF 11:15 am-12:05 pm

Course description TBA

X207-Occult in Western Civilization (Alchemy, Astrology, & Magic)
Professor William Newman
TR 9:30 am.-10:45 am

The occult is a theme that is deeply ingrained in the history of Western Civilization.  From antiquity to the present, segments of our society have laid claim to a secret wisdom that could only be revealed to those who are worthy of its exercise.  Such “occult” pursuits as alchemy, astrology, and magic played an important role in the formation of modern science during the scientific revolution of seventeenth century, and subsequently had a major impact on poetry, music and the pictorial arts.  And yet, if we considered pursuits that are usually deemed to make up “the occult,” it is remarkable how little these fields have to do with one another.  What does alchemy, and artisanal pursuit related to metallurgy, have in common with divinatory practices such as astrology, oneiromancy, or crystal-gazing?  What does witchcraft have to do with extraterrestrial life?  The Occult in Western Civilization will answer these questions and others.  It will also argue that the occult sciences-especially alchemy, astrology, and natural magic-were originally predicted on quite reasonable bases consistent with the best science and philosophy of their time, however, they may have been altered in late twentieth-century culture.  By thinking carefully about the relationships among science, philosophy, and those disciplines traditionally classified as “occult” students will learn about the nature of scientific knowledge more generally.  The basic goals of the course, then, will be to instill a historical understanding of the occult while at the same time stimulating philosophical reflection on the nature of scientific knowledge in general.

X320-History and Philosophy of Medicine
Professor Domenico Bertoloni Meli
TR 1:00 pm-2:15 pm

This class covers select episodes in the history and philosophy of medicine from antiquity to contemporary issues. We shall focus on anatomy, physiology, and the understanding of disease at different times, reading both historical accounts and some primary sources. Some of the topics and key figures include Hippocrates and Galen in antiquity, Andreas Vesalius in the Renaissance, the discovery of the circulation of the blood and the rise of microscopy in the 17th century, the rise of clinical medicine, pathology, Laennec and the stethoscope around 1800, and the changing understanding of diseases such as tuberculosis and cancer.

X326-History & Philosophy of Physics
Professor Jordi Cat
TR 1:00 pm-2:15 pm

This course surveys a selection of cultural and philosophical issues in the history of physics, from the time of Galileo to the 20th century, without requiring technical knowledge of physics.  Unfortunately, time will not allow for an examination of the relation between modern physics and tao mysticism, or of the question of why the best or most famous physicists have turned out to be quite ugly-looking. Instead, the course will begin with the questions, why did Copernicus and others believe that the Sun is at the center of the universe? And, should we? (the first revolution in the picture of the cosmos got Galileo in trouble with the Church; but how good was his evidence?) and, why should we trust numbers to describe the world?  (how bookkeeping and philosophy promoted the language of numbers as the reliable description of facts).  Other issues are, how propagation of motion by contact action (think bowling or pool) was considered more intelligible than action at a distance (but does it make sense?),  whether space is a real thing containing the bodies in the universe, whether matter can really be hard, how precise measurements of the properties of beer (recommended, along with tea, by the British government as an alternative to drinking polluted water) led to the principle of energy conservation, how energy conservation required elastic atoms, how modeling the ether survived to model the weather, how Einstein's most famous theory of relativity did not claim that everything is relative but it responded to the need to synchonize local clocks for the sake of train time tables, and changed how energy, matter, space and time were understood, how quantum physics gave us uncertainty as well as nuclear risk, and symmetries helped unified fundamenta ideas of space-time and matter. Physics and its history cannot be understood isolated from other sciences, natural and human, or from institutions, practices, ideas, objects and skills in art, philosophy, religion, politics, industry and society at large.

X407-History of Science since 1750 (meets with X507)
Professor Sander Gliboff
T 9:30 am-12:00 pm

This course provides an advanced introduction to and survey of science since 1750. Emphasizing recent secondary literature on canonical episodes, the course will consider the physical, biological, and earth sciences, science in international comparison and in social, political, intellectual, and institutional context, as well as the history of technology and medicine. There are no prerequisites, but some knowledge  of modern science or modern European or American history will be helpful.

X452-Modern Philosophy of science (meets with X552)
Professor Jordi Cat
TR 5:00 pm-6:15 pm

This course will trace the historical development of the philosophy of science from approximately early 17th century to the mid-twentieth century, beginning with a quick survey of the philosophies of Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, then turning to the philosophy of Newtonian science developed by Immanuel Kant, its developments and reactions, and ending with French conventionalism, logical positivism, Popper and Quine. In the twentieth century philosophy of science begins to take shape as a specialized discipline within philosophy more generally. Its problems are motivated and framed by the interplay of earlier philosophical questions and more recent revolutionary developments in nineteenth century science: the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries, the wave theory of light and electrodynamics, thermodynamics and the conservation of energy, and molecular-atomic theory. Canons of scientific methodology were introduced in the 19th century in Britain by Herschel, Whewell and Mill. Work in philosophy of science was undertaken next by professional scientists attempting to come to terms with these new developments-in particular, by Herman Von Helmholtz, Ernst Mach, Pierre Duhem and Henri Poincaré. Around the turn of the century, philosophy of science is stimulated once again by revolutionary developments: Einstein relativity theory, on the one hand, and new work in logic and the foundations of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and David Hilbert, on the other.  Philosophical developments took place as well, such as neo-Kantianism and phenomenology. Philosophy of science was now pursued by professional philosophers, although most trained in the sciences, in particular Karl Popper and the members of the so-called Vienna Circle of logical positivists such as Moritz Schlick, Otto Neurath and Rudolph Carnap.  Neurath and Ernst Cassirer try to engage the social sciences as well. The work of all these philosophers sets the stage for most of post-war twentieth century philosophy of science. Alongside the relevant philosophical and scientific problems and ideas, this course will expose the students to examples of different approaches to the history of philosophy.

X507-History of Science since 1750 (meets with X407)
Professor Sander Gliboff
T 9:30 pm-12:00 pm

This course provides an advanced introduction to and survey of science since 1750. Emphasizing recent secondary literature on canonical episodes, the course will consider the physical, biological, and earth sciences, science in international comparison and in social, political, intellectual, and institutional context, as well as the history of technology and medicine. There are no prerequisites, but some knowledge  of modern science or modern European or American history will be helpful.

X552-Modern Philosophy of Sciences (meets with X452)
Professor Jordi Cat
TR 5:00 pm-6:15 pm

This course will trace the historical development of the philosophy of science from approximately early 17th century to the mid-twentieth century, beginning with a quick survey of the philosophies of Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, then turning to the philosophy of Newtonian science developed by Immanuel Kant, its developments and reactions, and ending with French conventionalism, logical positivism, Popper and Quine. In the twentieth century philosophy of science begins to take shape as a specialized discipline within philosophy more generally. Its problems are motivated and framed by the interplay of earlier philosophical questions and more recent revolutionary developments in nineteenth century science: the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries, the wave theory of light and electrodynamics, thermodynamics and the conservation of energy, and molecular-atomic theory. Canons of scientific methodology were introduced in the 19th century in Britain by Herschel, Whewell and Mill. Work in philosophy of science was undertaken next by professional scientists attempting to come to terms with these new developments-in particular, by Herman Von Helmholtz, Ernst Mach, Pierre Duhem and Henri Poincaré. Around the turn of the century, philosophy of science is stimulated once again by revolutionary developments: Einstein relativity theory, on the one hand, and new work in logic and the foundations of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and David Hilbert, on the other.  Philosophical developments took place as well, such as neo-Kantianism and phenomenology. Philosophy of science was now pursued by professional philosophers, although most trained in the sciences, in particular Karl Popper and the members of the so-called Vienna Circle of logical positivists such as Moritz Schlick, Otto Neurath and Rudolph Carnap.  Neurath and Ernst Cassirer try to engage the social sciences as well. The work of all these philosophers sets the stage for most of post-war twentieth century philosophy of science. Alongside the relevant philosophical and scientific problems and ideas, this course will expose the students to examples of different approaches to the history of philosophy.

X705-Ecology of Place w/H Reynolds Biol Z620
Professor James Capshew
MW 2:30 pm-3:45 pm

Course description TBA

X705-Representations of the Body
Professor Domenico Bertoloni Meli
M 1:00 pm-3:00 pm

This course examines different aspects and forms of the representation of the body from the Renaissance to the 18th century, with special emphasis on the connections between anatomy and art. We will examine aspects such as the birth of illustrated anatomy treatises, representations of male and female bodies, of human and animal bodies, of healthy and diseased states. No previous anatomical knowledge is required to take this class.

X705-Medieval & Early Modern Magic, Astrology & Alchemy
Professor William Newman
M 10:00 am-12:30 pm

Course description TBA

X755 Chance in Physics
Professor Amit Hagar
We 2:00 p.m.-4:30 p.m.
GB 107

Many theories and models from physics are probabilistic. This observation raises several philosophical questions: What are probabilities in physics? Do they reflect objective chances which exist independently of the human mind? Or do they only express subjective credences and thus capture our own uncertainty about the world? Finally, which metaphysical lessons, if at all, can one draw from the largely probabilistic character of physics?

In this research seminar we will base our investigation of these questions on an open access volume of collected papers on the subject, augmented if needed with additional articles. Particular emphasis is laid upon statistical physics and quantum mechanics, whose basic mathematical structure will be explained in class. Many chapters in this volume reflect a desire to understand probabilities from physics as objective chances. These chances are characterized, e.g., as time-averages, as probabilities from a best system in the terms of David Lewis, or using the Boltzmannian typicality approach. Other chapters are sympathetic to a Bayesian view of probabilities in physics. The chapters about quantum mechanics elucidate the peculiar characteristics of quantum correlations and discuss strategies to justify the Born Rule.

X755-Pragmatism
Professor Elisabeth Lloyd
W 10:00 am-12:30 pm

We shall explore the American Pragmatists’ views, concentrating on their writings about scientific knowledge.  Reading assignments will focus on the original writings of Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and George Mead, and criticisms and discussions of their work offered by their contemporaries, including Bertrand Russell and G.E. Moore.
While the material of the seminar is primarily historical, our investigations will center around the following interpretive and evaluative aims:

  • To reconstruct and understand the positive theories of science and inquiry  advocated by Peirce, James, Dewey, and Me 
  • To understand and evaluate the pragmatists’ views of the aims and methods of philosophy itself
  • To evaluate key criticisms of these theories offered by their contemporaries
  • To consider whether Pragmatists’ views of science can provide anything of value to today’s philosophers

C105-Quantum Mysteries for Everyone
Professor Amit Hagar
MW 10:10 am-11:00 am

Quantum theory is the best theory we have of microscopic things, but it is also extremely hard to understand. We will begin this course by describing a few simple quantum experiments to see just why the theory is so strange, and then look more closely at the formalism of the theory and at the philosophical puzzles raised by its interpretations. After suggesting several solutions, we shall adopt a more instrumental view, on which these puzzles may be considered an important resource that, if harnessed, may have some surprising implications on the way we manipulate information and perform computations. Along the way, we will learn how to think critically and carefully about science and scientific theories. There will be weekly writing assignments of at most 1 page, three small tests, a group project, and a final multiple choice exam.

Fall 20113

C104  Genetics & Eugenics 
Section 29425
Time/Day  9:05 a.m.- 9:55 a.m.  MW
Location:  GY 126
Professor Sander Gliboff

This course is a history of heredity, of scientists’ visions for creating permanent  improvements to the human body and mind, and of the interplay between scientific visions and social and political realities. It will show how developments in the laboratory not only helped to inspire social and medical programs but in turn also drew inspiration from them. Topics will include Gregor Mendel and his goal of modernizing agriculture through better plant- and animal breeding; the eugenics and racial-hygiene movements and their ideas about breeding better  humans; classical genetics and proposals for its practical use in medicine; and finally the rise of molecular genetics and biotechnology and their real and promised applications.

The course will introduce students to social and historical inquiry generally, to modern European and American History, and, especially, to the history of science as a discipline. It will also give students experience in locating and critically  reading different kinds of historical sources, especially scientific papers and monographs from different time periods, newspaper and magazine articles, and secondary accounts by historians.

Discussion Sessions
29805      9:05 a.m. – 9:55 a.m.              F                              Ballantine Hall 246
29806      10:10 a.m-11:00 a.m.              F                              Ballantine Hall 246

C104 Science Revolutions
Section:  12994
Time/Day   1:25 p.m.-2:15 p.m.  MW
Location:  WY 015
Professor Domenico Bertoloni Meli

The course covers the transformations of knowledge in 16th- and 17th-century Europe. We shall focus on themes such as the impact on knowledge of the discovery on America, changing forms of interaction among different social groups such as scholars and technicians, the rise of new modes of knowing, such as experimentation, and of scientific societies. We shall also discuss major figures such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton. No prerequisite in any science is required to register for this class.

Discussion Sessions
12995      1:25 p.m.-2:15 p.m.                F                              SY 002
12996      2:30 p.m.-3:20 p.m.                F                              SY 002

X100 The Science of Sex: From Ancient Attitudes to Victorian Secrets
Section  3531
Time/Day  4:15-5:15 p.m. TR
Location: BH 015
Instructor:  Ashley Inglehart

How did various thinkers from the past explain the physiological processes in sex? This course addresses that question in a survey from the Hippocratic corpus in Ancient Greece to Victorian science in the 19th century. Topics we address include the study of anatomy, explanations of the orgasm, discovery of the clitoris, varying theories of seeds, and debates about what contribution the female makes to reproduction.  We will also look at problems with disease and its treatment, most notably Hysteria and Syphilis. During the course, the class will take a trip to both the Lilly Library and the Kinsey Institute.

X100 Bioethics: Applied Topics in the Biological Sciences & Medicine
Section 7877
Time/Day  1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m. TR
Location:  MS E016
Instructor:  Kimberly Brumble

This course will survey ethical, legal, and philosophical problems concerning health care, medical research, biological research, and related topics. Topics may include euthanasia, abortion, withdrawal of treatment, consent, diagnostics, bias, the physician-patient relationship, research on human subjects, research on animal subjects, and genetic technology. This course will hone students’ skills in analytic reading and writing, as well as the ability to make philosophic arguments.

X102 Science Revolutions: Plato to Nato
Section 3532
Time/Day  12:20 p.m.-1:10 p.m.  MWF
Location:   BH 134
Instructor:  David Rogers

Where did modern science come from? Is it a stockpile of technique and knowledge that has accumulated slowly and steadily over the centuries? This course presents a more complex and dynamic picture, in which the history of science also takes unexpected twists, turns and conceptual leaps, in response to changing social, political and religious interests, and to shifting scientific assumptions, methods, and forms of organization. The course introduces the most important formative steps in the scientific tradition, each of which overturned earlier ways of investigating and understanding nature. These include Aristotelian physics, Ptolmaic astronomy and Galenic medicine in the ancient and Medieval world; the scientific revolutions of the 15th- through the 18th centuries that ushered in Copernican astronomy, Newtonian physics, and new ideas about physiology and medicine; the chemical and Darwinian revolutions; and the rise of modern physics and other 20th-century innovations and problems.

X102 Science Revolutions: Plato to Nato
Section 29510 (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day   4:00 p.m.-6:00 p.m. TR
Location:  BH 240
Instruction:  Sarah Reynolds

Where did modern science come from? Is it a stockpile of technique and knowledge that has accumulated slowly and steadily over the centuries? This course presents a more complex and dynamic picture, in which the history of science also takes unexpected twists, turns and conceptual leaps, in response to changing social, political and religious interests, and to shifting scientific assumptions, methods, and forms of organization. The course introduces the most important formative steps in the scientific tradition, each of which overturned earlier ways of investigating and understanding nature. These include Aristotelian physics, Ptolmaic astronomy and Galenic medicine in the ancient and Medieval world; the scientific revolutions of the 15th- through the 18th centuries that ushered in Copernican astronomy, Newtonian physics, and new ideas about physiology and medicine; the chemical and Darwinian revolutions; and the rise of modern physics and other 20th-century innovations and problems.

X200 Scientific Reasoning
Section 33919
Time/Day  2:30-3:30 p.m.  MWF
Location: BH 134
Instructor: Weston Evans

Science is the most successful way humans have found to produce knowledge of the world. But the success of science lies in the fact that it is not just a collection of facts and theories -- science's success comes from critical attitudes and methodologies.

This course covers topics essential for understanding scientific reasoning.  By the end of the course, students will understand the concepts of logical validity and soundness, laws of nature and scientific models, causation, principles of statistical reasoning, experimental design, and pseudoscience.  Other topics may include ethics in science, decision theory, and scientific realism.

X200 Scientific Reasoning
Section 12643  (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  5:45 p.m.-7:45 p.m.  TR
Location: BH 138
Instructor:   Shane Zappattini

Science is the most successful way humans have found to produce knowledge of the world. But the success of science lies in the fact that it is not just a collection of facts and theories -- science's success comes from critical attitudes and methodologies.

This course covers topics essential for understanding scientific reasoning.  By the end of the course, students will understand the concepts of logical validity and soundness, laws of nature and scientific models, causation, principles of statistical reasoning, experimental design, and pseudoscience.  Other topics may include ethics in science, decision theory, and scientific realism.

X223 Earth’s Body: Trees in Scientific Cultural Context
Section 35180 (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  6:00 p.m.- 8:00 p.m.  TR
Location:  SY 0008
Professor James Capshew

Course description TBA

X223 Of Frogs and Men. Sciences of the Body from the 18th through the 20th 
Centuries
Section: 34022 (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  2:30 p.m-4:30 p.m.   MW
Location:  SY 0008
Professor Jutta Schickore

This course traces the development of sciences of the body from the late eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries. We will study the key questions that occupied researchers in physiology and experimental biology and explore how new practices, new technologies, and industrialization helped shape the modern scientific approach to life and the body. We will examine important debates, including fervent controversies about animal experimentation and vivisection, about the existence of a life force, about how to make human bodies fit for industrial work, and about the “wisdom of the body” in situations of stress and need. We will also see that biologists’ and physiologists’ instruments, methods, and ideals had considerable impact on other fields – from philosophy to literature and the arts.

X226 Image and Film in Science
Section 35181 (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  5:45 p.m.-7:45 p.m.  TR
Location:  BH 215SY 200Jordi Cat

This course examines cultural, historical and philosophical issues involving the use of moving images in science. It requires reading, viewing, writing and discussion. The history of the use of pictures in science fleshes out and extends the number of philosophical questions that have been asked about images generally: Are pictures necessary? For what? How do pictures represent? How do they get their meaning? What can pictures represent or communicate? Can they equally represent facts and values? How do they work as evidence, or as tools for thinking? Has their meaning changed over time? Science has added to the kinds of things, concepts, ideas, values and arguments associated with pictures. Equally, science has long interacted with the world of art in the use of imagery and in the creation and understanding of elements of imagery such as geometry and color. What about moving pictures, or cinematography? Do they pose new questions? This course examines some of these questions in the interaction of the history of science and the history of cinematography. But how has film entered scientific practice as a tool to meet scientific goals? How is cinematographic imagery relevant and valuable to scientific research and education? How is it different from the case of still pictures? Does it introduce or enforce a different kind of attention or representation? Is scientific cinematography value-free and socially neutral? How is it used in different sciences? And realism is not all there is; computer animations and simulations blur the distinction between cinematography and science as sources of fiction. Finally, what is the representation of science in film entertainment?

X227 Computers, Ltd.: What computers cannot do
Section 29534  (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  5:45 p.m.-7:45 p.m.  TR
Location:  BH 344
Professor Amit Hagar

In 1984, the TIME magazine ran a cover story on computer software. In the otherwise excellent article, an editor of a certain software magazine was quoted as saying: Put the right kind of software into a computer, and it will do whatever you want it to. There may be limits on what you can do with machines themselves, but there are no limits on what you can do with software.

A simple way of summarizing this course is that it is devoted to describing and explaining the facts that refute – no, shutter! – this claim.

In the 5 modules that comprise this course we will acquaint ourselves with the logical limits of computation, as they were conceived within the framework of the foundations of mathematics. We will get to know the standard model for computation, the Turing machine, and learn about problems that it can and cannot solve. Turning to physics, we will find parallel definitions for computability in dynamical systems and in spacetime theories, and use notions from complexity theory to reframe long-standing problems in the philosophy of mind about free will, creativity, and the mind-body problem.

Each module will be comprised of frontal lectures, 2-3 writing assignments, and a group project that will be presented in class. Typically, these projects will consist of a digital presentation and an exposition of one of the concepts that will be discussed in the respective module, with an emphasis on its use and mention (or, as usually is the case, abuse and misinterpretation) inside academia and outside it in the popular culture. The course is self- contained and presupposes a mathematical background at the high-school level.

X320 Philosophy of Medicine
Section 29542
Time/Day  9:30 a.m.-10:45 a.m. TR
Location:  BH 215
Professor Elisabeth Lloyd

We will study both the history of public health and medicine, starting with the ancient Greeks, and moving up to contemporary problems in these fields.  When and how did modern medical understandings of the body emerge?  How did people learn how the body was put together, such as the circulatory system, the beating of the heart, or the functioning of the kidneys?  When was the germ theory of disease developed? What is the biggest cause of the recent, 20th Century reduction in infant mortality in the US and England?  Our contemporary topics will include the issues of genetic diseases and predispositions.  What does it mean to say that a person “has a gene for” heart disease or breast cancer?  Can they be discriminated against at work or in health care on this basis?  What are the ethics of smoking, alcohol use, and eating right?  We will read about the AIDS/HIV case as a modern crisis in public health.  What are new, emerging challenges to medicine and public health?  What are the ethics of the distribution of expensive treatments or rare drugs?

X323 Anatomy, Disease, & Visual Representation
Section 35182 (Second 8 Weeks)
Time/Day  4:00  p.m.- 6:00 p.m. MW
Location:  ED 2280
Professor Domenco Bertoloni Meli

This class studies the visual representation of the human body in health and disease from the Renaissance to the early 19th century. We will focus on the great anatomical treatises, such as those by Andreas Vesalius and Govert Bidloo, as well as on lesser known pathological works. The course will include visits to the Lilly Library to look at many of the works we will discuss in class. Students with an interest in medicine, the human body, and the history of art are especially welcome, though no prior artistic, anatomical, or medical knowledge is required.

X406 History of Science before 1750 (meets w/X506
Section 8941
Time/Day  11:30 a.m.-2:00 p.m.  R
Location:  GB 107
Professor William Newman

This is an introductory course designed for all students with an interest in the history of the science and their cultural contexts.  We will cover select topics from Greek, Medieval, and early modern science, emphasizing both primary sources and contemporary historiographical debates.  We will include aspects of natural philosophy, astronomy, the medical disciplines, and the development of experiment.  Students from a broad variety of backgrounds will be welcome and their varied expertise in the science, humanities, or languages will be valued highly.

X451  The Survey of Philosophy of Science (meets w/X551)
Section 6803
Time/Day:  10:15 a.m.-12:45 p.m.  M
Location:  GB 107
Professor Elisabeth Lloyd

In this course, we will explore a number of the central issues inthe recent and contemporary philosophy of science.  How should we understand the progress of science?  How are scientific theories tested or confirmed? Does social bias affect the content of science?  Do scientific theories aim at giving the deep reality of the world? Or are they more oriented towards successful prediction and technology?  Our readings will include T.S. Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions, as well as selections from Carnap, Hempel, van Fraassen, Nagel, Longino, Hacking and Boyd, among others.

X506  History of Science before 1750 (meets w/X406)
Section 8942
Time/Day:  11:30 a.m.-2:00 p.m.  R
Location:  GB 107
Professor William Newman

This is an introductory course designed for all students with an interest in the history of the science and their cultural contexts.  We will cover select topics from Greek, Medieval, and early modern science, emphasizing both primary sources and contemporary historiographical debates.  We will include aspects of natural philosophy, astronomy, the medical disciplines, and the development of experiment.  Students from a broad variety of backgrounds will be welcome and their varied expertise in the science, humanities, or languages will be valued highly.

X551 The Survey of Science (meets w/X451)
Section 6804
Time/Day  10:15 a.m.-12:45 p.m.  M
Location:  GB 107
Professor Elisabeth Lloyd

In this course, we will explore a number of the central issues inthe recent and contemporary philosophy of science.  How should we understand the progress of science?  How are scientific theories tested or confirmed? Does social bias affect the content of science?  Do scientific theories aim at giving the deep reality of the world? Or are they more oriented towards successful prediction and technology?  Our readings will include T.S. Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions, as well as selections from Carnap, Hempel, van Fraassen, Nagel, Longino, Hacking and Boyd, among others.

X645 History of American Science
Section 32936
Time/Day  12:30 p.m.-3:00 p.m.  W
Location:  GB 107
Professor James Capshew

Course description TBA

X706 Organism, Organicism, Mechanism, Vitalism-Concepts of Life & Body from the Early 20th Centuries
Section 12114
Time/Day  3:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.  T
Location:  GB 107
Professor Jutta Schickore

One of the key issues in the history and philosophy of biology is the question about the relationship of matter and life and the related question of how life can be investigated scientifically. Is it possible fully to explain life in terms of chemical and physical theories of matter? Is there a life force, and if so, how is it related to physical forces? Is biological organization purposive? How is mind related to matter in living beings? And is it possible to answer any of these questions through scientific experiments? In this course, we will examine how debates about life and living bodies unfolded between the late 18th and the early 20th centuries. The positions that emerged in the course of the 19th century have continued to exert influence on today’s debates in evo-devo, the foundations of animal behavior, and artificial life.

We will study key writings of embryologists, morphologists, physiologists, evolutionists and philosophers (including proponents of romantic Naturphilosophie)in their historical contexts. We will pay special attention to the concepts of vitalism and mechanism in theories of life and biological organization. We will ask how these concepts were understood by those who deployed them and how mechanist and vitalist principles shaped investigative practices. Course readings include works by Kant, Schelling, and Goethe, the physiologists Helmholtz and Du Bois-Reymond, and the embryologists von Baer and Haeckel. 

X755 Philosophy of Time & History
Section 10062
Time/Day  3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m. W
Location:  GB 107
Professor Jordi Cat

This course has two parts. The first part concerns the philosophy of time and explores a number of questions regarding the concept of time, beginning in metaphysics and science: Is time real? Does it exist without actual change? Does time have a beginning? Can statements about the future be true? What makes time asymmetric? Does the arrow of time rest on the arrow of causal relations or the other way around? Is all change irreversible? Are physical theories about irreversible processes? Is time’s arrow made out of temporal instants? Does time travel make physical sense? And so on. The course also explores questions regarding the experience of time: questions about its cognitive, emotional, artistic and ethical dimensions and implications. The second half of the course concerns the philosophy of history. It explores epistemological, methodological and ethical and political questions: What is the form of historical understanding? Is it causal? Is it logical? Is it objective? Does it rest on metaphysical and cognitive assumptions? Does it have ethical or political implications? Can scientific explanations be historical? It also surveys a number of authors and movements in the history of philosophy of history.

X755 Evolution of Consciouness (meets w/COGS-Q700
Section 29977
Time/Day  1:00 p.m- 3:30 p.m. M
Location:  GB 107
Professor Colin Allen/Michael Trestman

Consciousness remains one of the great puzzles of science. Its many definitions are contested, and its accessibility to empirical methods is disputed. It seems a matter of common sense that humans are not the only conscious organisms, and yet the taxonomic distribution of consciousness remains highly uncertain. Did consciousness arise in the amniotes, as some scientists have argued, or has it perhaps evolved separately in invertebrates such as octopus and honeybees too? Perhaps its origins are even earlier, in the very first multicellular organisms, or with the evolution of complex vision. All of these ideas have advocates in the scientific literature, but to what extent are the disputants talking past each other by relying upon different conceptions of consciousness? Do philosophical analyses of consciousness help inform the scientific debate, or have philosophers (and some scientists) defined consciousness in such a way that it automatically falls outside the range of empirical research? In this course we will examine recent literature about the evolution and taxonomic distribution of consciousness, with a view to understanding the range of empirical methods and theoretical approaches that have been proposed for studying the evolution of consciousness.

X790 The Physics & the Philosophy of Discrete Space
Section 29568
Time/Day  10:00 a.m-12:30 p.m.  W
Location:  GB 107
Professor Amit Hagar

This is a Graduate Research Seminar whose purpose is to expose the students to the current debates in the physics and the philosophy communities on the possibility of an underlying discrete structure to spacetime, as a consequence of recent theoretical developments in quantum gravity. We shall adopt an HPS approach: first, we shall look at philosophical arguments for and against discrete space in the past, and trace their re-apperance in contemporary discussions. Next, we shall examine how the notion of a fundamental length entered modern physics in the 1930s, and how it re-appears today in current approach to the problem of unifying the general theory of relativity with quantum theory. Finally, we shall look at the methodological issues that surround the attempts to turn the hypothesis of discrete spacetime into an empirical conjecture.

Evaluation will be based on class participation, on class expositions of the reading material, and on a final research paper. The course is self-contained and presupposes a mathematical background at the high-school level.