In 1900 Mongolia was a largely nomadic country, with an aristocratic government of the descendants of Genghis Khan and an established Buddhist church, and dominated by viceroys from China’s last, Manchu, dynasty. In 1950, it was the Soviet Union most loyal satellite ruled by Mongolia little Stalin, the dictator Choibalsang. Mongolia entered the new millennium as an independent nation and a multi-party democracy, sandwiched between China and Russia, and struggling to enter the ranks of Asia economic success stories. This course will explore the wrenching changes that Mongolia has gone through in the course of this century: poverty-stricken Chinese dependency, theocracy, revolutionary junta, Communist purges, ailing command economy, transition to democracy and private property. Areas covered will include foreign policy, political events, circulation of elites, Buddhism and modern ideologies, demography and urbanization, and transformations in nomadic pastoralism.