Exploring Cortical Reaction to Musical Segments Varying in Complexity and Intensity

Robert F. Potter, Edgar Jamison-Koenig, Anthony Almond, Sharon Mayell

The study collected EEG (electroencephalography; brainwave activity) data while subjects listened to music of varied complexity and intensity, and of various genres (classical, rock, etc).  The music clips came from commercially-released songs, with no lyrics included.  EEG data was further collected as subjects viewed a series of still images (rated for arousal and valence) comprising the Motivation Activation Measure (MAM), which measures individual appetitive and aversive motivation system activation.  The subjects also answered self-report questionnaires related to familiarity, enjoyment, arousal, attention and emotion following each music clip and image.

Commercials and Consumer Behavior

Robert F. Potter, Glenna Read, Irene Van Driel, Yongwoog Jeon

The purpose of the study is to further understanding of the influence that social roles exhibited in commercials play in influencing purchase intention and brand attitudes.  The study aims to elucidate mechanisms by which consumer attitudes are affected through the use of psychophysiological measures (heart rate, facial muscle activity, skin conductance) collected while viewing advertisements featuring gay couples and straight couples.  Participants will also answer questions about the product and brands featured in the ads.  It is hypothesized that psychophysiological response will predict consumer attitudes in response to the commercials featuring gay couples, but not commercials featuring heterosexual couples.

Decision Making in Multimedia Environments

Peter Todd, Edward Castronova, Sharon Mayell, Glenna Read

The objective for this research is to examine what effect virtual learning environment game independent variables (IVs) (e.g., student model, priming, duration/repetition, real time feedback, reward, time pressure) across game conditions with each of these variables turned on, have on training participants to mitigate three well-documented cognitive biases in decision making. These cognitive biases include: anchoring (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974), representativeness heuristic (Tversky and Kahneman, 1971, and projection bias (Fredrickson & Loewenstein, 1999). Learning in this context is considered to be the effectiveness of training participants to understand and mitigate their use of each bias. 

Evolution and Message Impact

Annie Lang, Anthony Almond, Jingjing Han, Yongwoog Jeon, Yijie Wu, Josh Sites

The purpose of this study is to investigate how encoding systems and biological imperatives influence the impact of media messages.  The study asks 1) do television messages that primarily use representational encoding systems have a larger influence on implicit attitudes than messages that use symbolic encoding systems; 2) Do television messages that primarily use symbolic encoding systems have a larger influence on explicit attitudes than messages that use representational systems, and; 3) Is that effect influenced by the number of messages seen? It’s hypothesized that if implicit attitudes are primarily elicited by automatic activation of the motivational systems, then representational ads should alter implicit attitudes and the more you see the more they should change. Additionally, if symbols reduce the biological response and enable more logical decision making, then symbolic information should have a larger effect on implicit, thoughtful attitudes than it does on implicit attitudes. Stimuli include public service announcements (PSAs) on drug prevention, pollution, traffic safety, and safe sex. 

Behavioral Indicators of Attitude Strength as a Moderator of Implicit-Explicit Attitudes Consistency

Annie Lang, Yijie Wu

The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that attitude strength, measured by the response latency in speeded “I like/I don’t like” evaluation tasks, will increase the consistency between the implicit and explicit measures of attitudes.

Prosocognition – Prosodic Strategies to Improve the Attention and Recall of a Listener Exposed to an Auditory Stimulus

Emma Rodero, Robert F. Potter

This study explores the effects of different types of changes in prosody (vocal emotion inflection) on automatic attention to radio commercials at the point when the emotional vocal change takes place.

The three protocols:

Study1-  Designed to study sudden changes in vocal pitch level by the radio announcer.

Study 2—Designed to study the onset of vocal emphasis of a particular syllable in the radio script

Study 3—Designed to study the impact of different speech rates used during vocal delivery.

 In each of the studies a number of actual radio ads were transcribed and re-produced by a professional voice actor.  The reproduced radio announcements varied depending upon the independent variable of interest (Study 1—pitch level; Study 2—vocal emphasis of syllable; Study 3—announcer speech rate).

Topic and Situational Interests in Audiovisual Message Processing

Annie Lang, Ya Gao

The purpose of this study is to investigate how cognitive resource allocation is influenced by topic and situational interest in processing a variety of audiovisual messages, and its impact on encoding and storage during the process.

Inhibition of Biological Imperatives and Transportation in Primetime TV Shows

Annie Lang, Anthony Almond, Yijie Wu

The goal of the biological imperatives study is to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes and the combination and intensity of motivational activation elicited by the attitude object. Stimuli contain varying ratios of positive and negative content. Positive content is theorized to elicit automatic activation in the appetitive motivational system while negative content is expected to elicit automatic activation in the aversive motivational system. The hypothesis suggests that implicit attitudes should be related to the ratio and intensity of motivational activation in the two systems. Implicit attitudes are measured using a speeded pleasant/unpleasant categorization task. Motivational activation was collected based in subjective ratings of emotional experience. It is expected that participants will be fastest when pictures are clearly pleasant or unpleasant and slower as the ratio of pleasant and unpleasant content approaches one.  Implicit and explicit attitudes will be compared to emotional ratings to test the hypotheses.

 The transportation in TV shows study is a pretest designed to select the stimulus material for a future study on the effect of narrative transportation on audience’s implicit attitudes.


Attention to, and Cognitive Processing of, Visual and Auditory Interface Elements in a Single-Player Video Game

Matt Falk

Previous studies in other mediums (television, radio, the web) have shown that changes in the mediated environment (such as cuts in television, voice changes in radio, etc), called structural features, automatically draw users' attention, causing an orienting response. This study seeks to determine whether the interface elements of video games (sometimes referred to as user interfaces, mods, or heads up displays) act as structural features of the media and cause an automatic attention response in players. Other work, such as Audio Habituation 1 + 2, done in the ICR has confirmed this phenomenon, and expanded the work to investigate the effect of time on that response. Those studies have shown that over time, the power of structural features in audio streams to draw automatic attention fades, or habituates. This study will also investigate the effect of time (over 20 minutes of game play) on the orienting response, as well as emotional reactions to positive and negative events experienced during routine game play.

Impact of Vocal Similarity on Automatic Attention to Voice Changes

Rob Potter, Ted Jamison-Koenig, Teresa Lynch, Sharon Mayell, & Matt Falk

This voice recognition study continues a line of ICR research exploring the cognitive processing of auditory stimuli in the form of radio messages. Auditory structural features which cause orienting responses include voice changes, production effects, silence, sound effects, music onsets, etc. To identify how differently audio-only messages are processed, the study examines whether individuals fail to detect voice changes when the vocal qualities of each speaker (fundamental frequency, timbre, prosody, etc.) are similar.  Research in change blindness (failure to perceive) and change detection (accurate recognition of change) has focused on visual stimuli, but not yet explored audio-only stimuli. The research question of change deafness looks at how orienting responses are elicited by unannounced voice changes, and to what degree subjects notice a change in speaker, as measured by free recall, cued recall, and recognition measures.  For more information, contact Rob Potter.

Symbolic Relevance

Annie Lang, Rachel Bailey, & Sean Connolly

Words and images are both symbolic of real world objects, however, the images seem to be more direct representations of those objects. This study examines how words and images that are symbolic of the same real world objects differ in form and valence accessibility as well as motivational response measured via psychophysiological response (heart rate, skin conductivity, facial electromyography). Further, individual differences in trait motivational reactivity may play a role in how accessible and intensely experienced different types of real world objects are. For example, the negative aspect of weapons and violence may generally be more accessible and evoke more intense motivational responses for a person with high aversive reactivity. Lastly, the role of other types of individual differences will be accessed (i.e. executive functioning, need for cognition, and personality factors).

Processing Third-person Perception in Persuasive Messages

Lelia Samson

The third-person perception (TPP) refers to the belief that media affects others more than oneself. Since its formulation, the TPP has been consistently supported. In spite of this strong support, few authors have considered its potential underlying mechanisms. This study aims to broaden the scope of ongoing research in TPP, to provide convergent validity for its theoretical arguments and a more comprehensive understanding of how this media effect occurs. I do so by using Chaiken’s (1980) Heuristic-Systematic Model, which proposes that there are two modes of cognitive processing. The first involves rapid, intuitive application of simple decision rules and heuristics. The second involves more elaborate systematic thinking requiring more cognitive resources and time.

Sex on TV

Paul Wright

Recent large-scale longitudinal studies have found prospective associations between youths' consumption of sexual television and intercourse initiation, pregnancy involvement and STI status. The last major content analysis of sex on television was conducted in 2005, however. Contemporary analyses of sex on television are planned for the content analysis lab. 

Identifying Psychophysiological Markers of Ideation during Electronic Brainstorming in Virtual Teams

R. Minas, A. Dennis, R.F. Potter, S. Mayell, R. Kamhawi

Framing Images

M. Grabe, E. Kwon, Y. Zhou, M. Kobach, S. Connolly

Video Game Enjoyment and Personality

A. Weaver, N. Matthews, N. Lewis

Music Complexity Intensity Study

E. Jamison-Koenig, R.F. Potter

Processing Primary Biological Motivators in Food Advertisements

R. Bailey, A. Lang

Effects of Visual Complexity on Habituation of the Orienting Response to Repeated Video Cuts

R.F. Potter, A. Almond, R. Siefers, N. Fritz, S.Ziege


Symbolic Accessibility

Annie Lang, Rachel Bailey, & Sean Connolly

Words and images are both symbolic of real world objects, however, images seem to be more direct representations of those objects. This study wishes to examine how words and images that are symbolic of the same real world objects differ in recognition and valence accessibility. This study also examines the role of individual differences in this accessibility. Individual differences in trait motivational reactivity, executive functioning, need for cognition and other personality factors are being examined.

Real Ideal: The influence of video game character idealization and realism on body attitude

Nic Matthews, Teresa Lynch, & Nicole Martins

Video games often present players with an array of content that varies in terms of character idealization and realism. Social Comparison Theory argues that comparison is far more likely to occur when evaluators perceive an evaluation object as realistic and achievable. Previous research shows that video games cause body image disturbance. However, in regards to body image, the interaction between realism and idealization has never been investigated within video games. Real Ideal aims to explore these factors from a perspective guided by evolutionary psychology. 

Audio Habituation 2

Rob Potter, Matt Falk, Soyoung Bae, Teresa Lynch, Nic Matthews, Ashley Kraus, & Sharon Mayell

We know from past work that changes in the auditory environment cause people to briefly but automatically pay attention to the message.  We also know that the auditory structural feature of the voice change does this and doesn’t habituate.  The Audio Habituation studies are designed to look at automatic attention to repeated instances of audio production effects, jingles, and silence.  For more information, contact Rob Potter.

Cortical Response to Relevance

Alan Dennis, Rob Potter, Randy Minas, Valerie Bartelt, Soyoung Bae, & Matt Falk

Virtual teams are increasingly common in today’s organizations, yet they often make poor decisions. This experiment investigates these demands on participants during a virtual team decision-making process using electroencepholography (EEG), electrodermal response (EDR), and cardiac activity (EKG) as neural and psychophysiological correlates. Subjects are presented with a virtual team chat room environment, examining how virtual team members respond to targeted information, including factual information about the decision alternatives, normative information about other team member’s preferences for alternatives, and irrelevant information.