**Resources**

Some introductory videos about differentiated instruction:

**From Carol Tomlinson**

- A short video with suggestions of how to get started with DI: (4:56)
- Why differentiate? (3:02)
- DI as proactive instruction: (3:47)
- Two Misconceptions about DI: (3:31)
- Formative Assessment in a DI classroom: (1:07)

**What does differentiation in middle school math classrooms look like? Two examples:**

- Brent Loken (7:44) (a glimpse into one classroom, with no editorial comment)
- Marcel LeBlanc, Anglophone East Middle School (a narrated example of how one teacher differentiates for his students)

**Our Presentations page** offers links to our power point presentations with basic information about differentiated instruction as well as samples of student work from the project.

**Additional References about Differentiation:**

Heacox, D. (2002). *Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and*

*teach all learners, grades 3-12.* Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.

Humphreys, C., & Parker, R. (2015). *Making Number Talks Matter: Developing Mathematical Practices and Deepening Understanding, Grades 4-10*. Stenhouse Publishers.

Laud, L. (2011). *Using formative assessment to differentiate mathematics instruction, *

*grades 4-10: Seven practices to maximize learning.* Thousand Oaks, CA, and Reston, VA:

Corwin and NCTM.

Parrish, S (2010). *Number talks: Helping children build mental math and computation strategies, grades K-5*. Math Solutions, 2010.

Small, M., & Lin, A. (2010). *More good questions: Great ways to differentiate secondary *

*mathematics instruction.* New York and Reston, VA: Teachers College Press and the

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2005). *How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms *

*(2nd ed.).* Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Carol Tomlinson's website: http://www.caroltomlinson.com/

**Other References Cited: **

ACT (2010). A first look at the common core and college and career readiness. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/FirstLook.pdf

Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. *Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2*(2), 141-178.

Chazan, D. & Yerushalmy, M. (2003). On appreciating the cognitive complexity of school algebra: Research on algebra learning and directions of curricular change. In J. Kilpatrick, W. G. Martin, & D. Schifter (Eds.), *A research companion to Principles and Standards for School Mathematics* (pp 123-135), Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Gamoran, A., & Weinstein, M. (1998). Differentiation and opportunity in restructured schools. *American Journal of Education, 106*(3), 385-415.

Hackenberg, A. J. (2007). Units coordination and the construction of improper fractions: A revision of the splitting hypothesis. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 26*, 27-47.

Hackenberg, A. J. (2010). Students' reasoning with reversible multiplicative relationships. *Cognition and Instruction, 28*(4), 1-50.

Hackenberg, A. J. (2013). The fractional knowledge and algebraic reasoning of students with the first multiplicative concept. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 32*(3), 538-563.

Hackenberg, A. J., & Lee, M. Y. (2015). Relationships between students' fractional knowledge and equation writing. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46*(2), 196-243.

Hackenberg, A. J., & Tillema, E. S. (2009). Students' whole number multiplicative concepts: A critical constructive resource for fraction composition schemes. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 28*, 1-18.

National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP). (2008). *Foundations for success: The final report of the national mathematics advisory panel*. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Olive, J., & Caglayan, G. (2008). Learners' difficulties with quantitative units in algebraic word problems and the teachers's interpretation of those difficulties. *International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6*, 269-292.

Steffe, L. P., & Olive, J. (2010). *Children's fractional knowledge*. New York: Springer.

Tomlinson, C. A., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C. M., Moon, T. R., Brimijoin, K., Conover, L. A., & Reynolds, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. *Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27*(2/3), 119-145.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2012). *Digest of Education Statistics, 2011* (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 2. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/ch_2.asp.