Module 4: Procedure Using 

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Basic Methods of Instruction

1.Kinds of Learning
2.Invariant Tasks
3.Concept Classification
4.Procedure Using
5.Principle Using
6.Understanding
7.Generic Skills
8.Attitudes

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Development procedure for designing a procedure-using lesson 1. Identify all the steps, break them down to entry level, and write a generality that includes the label (if any), the goal, and the steps at entry level. To do this, you should observe or ask your SME about the nature of the post-instructional requirements for using the procedure and assess the entry level of the learners with regard to the steps. 

2. Identify and list all dimensions of divergence (equivalence classes) for the procedure. Make sure the generality deals with all of them. 

3. Assess the difficulty level of the procedure for the target learners (on, say, a scale of 1-5). 

4. Create an instance pool that contains x items per dimension of divergence, where x is about twice the difficulty level. 

5. Create a test, using at least one item randomly selected from each dimension of divergence. If the procedure is a difficult one, increase the number of items per dimension.* 

6 Create practice items, using at least two items randomly selected from each dimension of divergence. If the procedure is a difficult one, increase the number of items per dimension.* 

7. Create examples, using at least one item randomly selected from each dimension of divergence. If the procedure is a difficult one, increase the number of items per dimension.* Include appropriate power components, depending on the difficulty level of the procedure. 

8. Create the feedback for the practice items so as to be virtually identical to the enhanced examples. 

9. Think about motivational needs and media selection, and modify the instruction as appropriate to each. (This should be done throughout the process, not just after all else is done. 

* Note: In general, the number of examples and test items should be about the same, and there should be at least twice as many practice items as examples.



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This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
Copyright 1999, Charles M. ReigeluthCredit