IIRG

References of Interest for Visual Thinking and Visual Skills for Information Design / Instructional Design


Sections of the Visual Skills Reference List

How to & Hands on
Principles & Research
Examples & Reference


Using the Reference List

Linked titles are available from amazon.com without special ordering. The links to amazon.com are for convenience only ... there is no association between this site and amazon.com and amazon.com pays no referral fees for book orders originating at this site.

This symbol means that the book is available in some Indiana University library ... not necessarily on this campus! If you are dying to see a book from another campus, fill out an interlibrary loan request.
This symbol means I have a copy of the book. At one time or another during the class I will bring most of these books in for you to take a look. You may also borrow some of these books from me during the time the class is in session.


HOW TO & HANDS-ON


in the libraryhaveit

Ft. Wayne general
NZ1510 .B5 1942

Best-Maugard, A. (1990). A method for creative design. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications.

This reprint of a book first published in 1926 is a series of lessons for "those who love drawing and design but have given up their hopes and ambitions because of the difficult years of study required by the usual methods." The lessons are useful for improving your visual repertoire - how many kinds of things you can represent through illustrative representation.


in the libraryhaveit

Richmond general
BF455 .D363 1985

deBono, E. (1985). deBono's thinking course. New York: Facts on File Publications.

This book is about the thinking process, and not everyone will enjoy deBono's approach. deBono does present many useful strategies for thinking about, and consequently organizing, material, which would be useful in preparing information for visual presentation.


haveit
Emberley, E. (1972). Ed Emberley's drawing book: make a world. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

If you can draw a line, a circle, a curve and a triangle, Ed will show you step-by-step how to draw almost anything you can think of. This book, and Ed's other drawing books, are perfect for learning to communicate a lot with a very few, simple marks.


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts non-circulating
NC1764 .E47 1990

Eisner, W. (1985). Comics and sequential art. Tamarac, Florida: Poorhouse Press.

My copy of this book is from the 12th printing, done in 1994. Obviously a classic by a guy who knows his stuff. If you are getting into video production, look at this book for an expert's advice on mood, pacing, and story. Much of what Eisner says is applicable to whatever visual narrative form you're working in.


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts
T359 .H36 1980

Hanks, K. and Bellison, L. (1980). Rapid viz: a new method for the rapid visualization of ideas. Los Altos, California: William Kaufman.

Fast and easy rendering techniques for product visualization and for idea presentation. Treats perspective, light and shadow, and other somewhat mysterious subjects in a way that's easy to grasp. Does not dwell on thinking skills as much as other books do.


haveit
Hanks, K. and Bellison, L. (1992). Draw!: A visual approach to thinking, learning, communicating.. Los Altos, California: William Kaufman.

More of the same from Hanks & Bellison. This book concentrates on some subjects instructional designers will find interesting, including visual notetaking, illustrating a process, and illustrating concepts.


in the libraryhaveit

Business/SPEA
QA90 .K63 1994

Kosslyn, S. (1994). Elements of graph design. New York: W.H. Freeman.

When you've got a pile of data staring you in the face, acquire a copy of this book. Kosslyn structures this book primarily as a series of recommendations heavily illustrated with both the "do" and the "don't" examples you need to create the right graph in the right way. I do not find the sample graphs visually attractive, and there is more of what Tufte calls "chart junk" here than I might hope to see, but the advice in this book is practical and accurate. Very useful "how-to" for a complicated design job.


haveit
McKim, R. H. (1980). Experiences in visual thinking (2nd ed). Belmont, California: Wadsworth.

One of the classics for anyone interested in visual tools to enhance innovative and creative problem-solving. The book is structured as a series of exercises, and is most valuable when the reader actually does all the recommended work. Includes many mental exercises in addition to actual paper-and-pencil ones.


haveit
Porter, T. and Goodman, S. (1992). Treasury of graphic techniques for architects, graphic designers and artists. . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

One of several similar titles by this pair. They cover rougly the same material, but this one is the most comprehensive. I own several of their books because the illustrations make it a pleasure to browse through them.


haveit
Porter, T. and Goodman, S. (1991). Design drawing techniques: for architects, graphic designers, & artists. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Presents specific techniques for rendering; for example, how to use pencil dust to indicate clouds and techniques for indicating water in architectural layouts. Great pictures.


haveit
Porter, T. and Goodman, S. (1988). Designer primer: for architects, graphic designers, & artists. New York: Charles ScribnerÕs Sons.

This book presumes you can draw and then teaches you about materials and techniques. The layout of the book is very interesting in its own right, and this is one you might check out if you want to know more about materials and methods.


haveit
Potter, T. (1987). An Usborne guide to lettering and typography. London: Highgate Press.

The Usborne Guide series is just fun. Each book is illustrated within an inch of its life, and packed with the basic information from whatever topic is listed on the cover. You won't learn professional grade skills from them, but you will get an orientation that doesn't make you feel like an idiot and I have found their information to be generally accurate even when highly simplified.


in the libraryhaveit

Journalism
Fine Arts non-circulating
Z246W .58 1980

White, J. V. (1991). Graphic idea notebook (revised edition). Rockport, Massachussetts: Rockport Publishers.

Somewhat dated in imagery, but strong in the underlying concepts. Look here when you don't have the energy or experience to brainstorm one more idea ... Jan White is a no-nonsense designer and you'll find something to stimulate your thinking each time you browse through this book.


in the libraryhaveit

Music open reserve
Z286 .D4 W538 1990

Williams, R. (1990). The Mac is not a typewriter. Berkeley; California: Peachpit Press.

Robin Williams explains cogently why the typographical conventions many of us learned in school do not apply to the docments we create with our word processers, and she demonstrates what we should be doing instead. This is a must-read for the instructional designer who does not want to leave school and show up to work with egg on the face early in a budding career.
(For you PC fans, Williams also provides The PC is not a Typewriter.


haveit
Williams, R. (1996). Beyond the Mac is not a typewriter. (Berkeley; California: Peachpit Press.

Follow-on to The Mac is Not a Typewriter. This volume digs more deeply into the computer skills you need to apply when you are creating text - if you don't want to look stupid, that is!


PRINCIPLES & RESEARCH


in the libraryhaveit

Journalism
NC997 .B43 1980

Berryman, G. (1990). Notes on graphic design and visual communication. Los Altos, California: Crisp Publications.

Bless Berryman! His notes are condensed, succint, and yet accessible to the novice. They touch on the "must-know" aspects of graphic design, so this book can serve as your guide to further explorations.
(The amazon.com link is actually to an updated version, Notes on Graphic Design and Visuals, published in 1990.)


haveit
Kosslyn, S. (1996). Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Not the quickest read (and possibly not the final resolution of the debate either) but this is the word from a researcher who has been examining how the brain "sees" for a long time. I like this source because this same author is very much interested in information-bearing visual displays -- see his book on charts and diagrams.


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts non-circulating
NC1764 .E47 1990

Eisner, W. (1985). Comics and sequential art. Tamarac, Florida: Poorhouse Press.

My copy of this book is from the 12th printing, done in 1994. Obviously a classic by a guy who knows his stuff. If you are getting into video production, look at this book for an expert's advice on mood, pacing, and story. Much of what Eisner says is applicable to whatever visual narrative form you're working in.


in the libraryhaveit

Education reserve
HPER
LB1028 .38 I58 1993

Fleming, M. and Levy, W. H., eds. (1993). Instructional message design: Principles from the cognitive sciences , 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

The book for message design ... you'll have to read this before you get out of IST anyway, so you might as well do it now. It's great too - clear, succint, and full of explanations for all those principles you've been learning.


in the library

IUPUI
P99 .F7813 1989

Frutiger, A. (1989). Signs and symbols: their design and meaning (trans. Andrew Bluhm). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Theoretical and philosophical, this book presents hundreds of symbols from throughout the ages as illustrations for the author's view of how and why we make symbols the way we do.


in the library

Fine Arts
Research
P90 .H7

Hogben, L. (1949). From cave painting to comic strip: A kaleidoscope of human communication. New York, NY: Chanticleer.


in the libraryhaveit

SLIS reserve
QA76 .9 .U83 H67 1994

Horton, W. (1994). The icon book: Visual symbols for computer systems and documentation.New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Straightforward and useful if you find yourself designing an icon or symbol set. Provides a simplified and clear explanation for how icons work and a fairly thorough treatment of what designers should worry about when designing icons.


in the libraryhaveit

Ft. Wayne
NA2705 .L37

Laseau, P. (1986). Graphic problem solving for architects and designers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

My favorite. This book requires you to envision application of the architectural examples to your own work, but this is the one book that focuses most completely on visualization in support of thinking and working instead of on presentation.


in the libraryhaveit

Journalism
PN6710 .M335 1993

McCloud, S. (1994). Understanding comics. Kitchen Sink Press.

Also my favorite. I may or may not have my copy because I keep giving it away -- this is the book that will explain to you why it is so amazing that we can look at several pictures in a row and get a story from them. Since the format of the book is sequential art (comic book), you'll also see the concepts in concrete form all the way through. Get a couple copies of this because you'll be recommending it to your own friends.


in the libraryhaveit

SLIS reserve
QA76 .9 .U83 M85 1995

Mullet, K. and Sano, D. (1995). Designing visual interfaces: Communication oriented techniques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

One of the best books available for interface designers and interface-designer-wannabes who need to be able to explain what they're doing and why. This book links explains a lot of the traditional graphic design advice that appears elsewhere without explanation - if you have ever wondered what the big deal is about white space, this is the book you need to read.


have to look for
Neurath, O. (19__). International picture language. New York, NY: State Mutual Book & Periodical Service.

Neurath's explanation of the principles behind his highly influential work in information graphics and pictogram design. I'm saving up to purchase an out of print copy.


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts non-circulating
SLIS reserve
AZ108 .085 1993

Ota, Y. (1993). Pictogram design: Popular edition. Tokyo: Kashiwa Bijutsu Shuppan Publishing Company.

A very cool book ... you can look at this book for hours whether you actually read it or not. The text is in Japanese and English -- every so often a translation is missing, but that's a small annoyance. This is a broad, well-illustrated treatment of both the historical and the current practice side of pictogram design. It can be hard to find so many non-U.S., non-European examples in one place, so you can also look at this book to break out of Western-centric habits. This is the one book I won't loan out even if you do promise to leave me your library copy card and driver's license.


haveit
Pettersson, R. (1993). Visual information (2nd edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

A compendium of IST-centric research, guidelines, and explanations regarding visual information. Every chapter is followed by a healthy bibliography, again with a concnetration of educational technology-based citations. Look here to find out what the instructional design field has traditionally considered "all there is to know" about visual information.


haveit
Mijksenaar, P. (1997). Visual function : An introduction to information design. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

A visual treat with clearly written, if poorly organized, text. A delightful rant against poor practice in design for informational purposes. Instructional designers will feel comfortable with the focus on utitly and usability here, but should still pay attention to the visual examples Mijksenaar gives to illustrate good and bad design.


in the libraryhaveit

IUPUI Herron reserve
South Bend general
Z250 .S738 1993

Spiekermann, E. & Ginger, E. M. (1993). Stop stealing sheep & find out how type works. Mountain View, CA: Adobe Press.

If you've looked at typography books before and had to quit with a headache -- or you couldn't find the explanations in between the pages full of alphabets -- then you are going to be glad you found this book. It doesn't sugar coat the complexities of type design, but it does make you think that you might be able to grasp the fundamentals.


in the libraryhaveit

SLIS reserve
Education
Geography - map library
QA276 .3 .T83 1983

Tufte, E. R. (1983). The visual display of quantitative information. Chesire, Connecticut: Graphics Press.

This book and the next two also by Tufte are beautiful books, worth looking through for the quality of the visual presentations. They are also a unique example of serious treatment being given to the subject of visual presentation elements for information graphics ... in this case from the point of view that truly effective, efficiently functioning displays are inevitably beautiful in form, even though people may have to be taught to interpret such displays! And remember -- all the cool interface designers read Tufte :)


in the libraryhaveit

Business/SPEA
Optometry
Journalism
Education
Fine Arts non-circulating
QA90 .T846 1990

Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning information. Chesire, Connecticut: Graphics Press.

in the libraryhaveit

Business/SPEA
Fine Arts
P93 .5 .T848 1997

Tufte, E. R. (1997). Visual explanations. Chesire, Connecticut: Graphics Press.

in the libraryhaveit

Journalism
Z286 .047 W94 1990

White, J. V. (1990). Color for the electronic age. New York: Watson-Guphill Publishers.

Great! This book gives you side-by-side examples of the use of color, particularly as it may be used with type for information design. When you want to go beyond art-school color wheels and the injunction to use yellow type on a blue ground -- turn to Jan White. You could use this book and the following one to get you through if you found yourself entirely responsible for graphic design of documents in a small shop.


EXAMPLES & REFERENCE


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts reserve
Research
Journalism
AZ108 .D778

Dreyfuss, R. (1984). Symbol source book: An authoritative guide to international graphic symbols. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

I lusted after this book for ten years before I broke down and bought it. Don't wait that long. This is the collection of symbols that you will turn to over and over again to see how it's done, how simple you can actually make an image, and what has been done before for many of the symbols you might be trying to design. The text is sparse but very informative regarding graphic symbols and the collection itself is a great resource.


in the libraryhaveit

IUPUI Herron non-circulating
NC765 .I45 1987b

__________. (1987). Illustrator's figure reference manual. Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books.

One of many similar reference books depicting the human figure in a variety of poses and from a variety of angles. Numerous versions of such books exist, and it doesn't hurt to have more than one. An alternative is to collect old magazines and clip images from them to make your own reference file.


in the library

IUPUI
P99 .F7813 1989

Frutiger, A. (1989). Signs and symbols: their design and meaning (trans. Andrew Bluhm). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Theoretical and philosophical, this book presents hundreds of symbols from throughout the ages as illustrations for the author's view of how and why we make symbols the way we do.


in the libraryhaveit

Ft. Wayne general
GA108 .7 .H65 1991

Holmes, N. (1991). Pictorial maps: History; design; ideas; sources. New York: Watson-Guphill.

As always with this author, the book is a treat - a diverse collection of examples assembled without much graphical snobbery and laid out both for entertainment and information. As a major plus, Holmes draws from European as well as U.S. sources.


in the libraryhaveit

Research
Journalism
Z250 .L425

Lawson, A. (1971). Printing types: An introduction. Boston: Beacon Press.

A handy and handsome little book covering the fundamentals of type -- history, nomenclature, and type classification. Accurate, but not overwhelming for the designer who simply needs to be familiar with these concepts.


in the libraryhaveit

Research non-circulating
Fine Arts non-circulating
BL603 .L5413 1991

Liungman, C. (1991). Dictionary of symbols. New York: W.W.Norton.

A new one for me, so I can't summarize it here. Appears to be very thorough and categorizes symbols according to their visual form, which is quite useful for the visual designer.


in the library

Research
DF220 .N48

Neurath, M. (1965). They lived like this in ancient Crete. New York, NY: F Watts.

You can get a little bit here and there in other books on Otto Neurath and the Isotype Institute, but if you're interested in pictograms and the use of visual symbol systems for conveying information in teaching and learning you should make an effort to check out one of the Institute's actual products. This little volume demonstrates their principles in action.


in the libraryhaveit

Journalism
Fine Arts non-circulating
Z246W .58 1980

White, J. V. (1991). Graphic idea notebook (revised edition). Rockport, Massachussetts: Rockport Publishers.

Somewhat dated in imagery, but strong in the underlying concepts. Look here when you don't have the energy or experience to brainstorm one more idea ... Jan White is a no-nonsense designer and you'll find something to stimulate your thinking each time you browse through this book.


in the libraryhaveit

Fine Arts
Journalism
NK1510 .W55 1989

Wildbur, P. (1989). Information graphics: a survey of typographic, diagrammatic and cartographic communication. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Full of examples and completely focused on information graphics (instead of graphic design), this book provides background information about the development of different representational forms and a case study detailing the design process used to create an example of each form.


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last update 31 January 1999 ... questions and suggestions to eboling@indiana.edu
Instructional Systems Technology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
URL = http://www.indiana.edu/~iirg/REFERENCES/references.html